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Modern Art

Purpose of Course  showclose

In this course, you will study the various artistic movements that comprise 19th- and 20th-century modern art. You will examine several dozen artists, all of whom helped define their respective artistic styles and eras through their innovative approaches to representation, artistic space, and the role of the artist in society. Each unit will cover a significant period in the history of modern art and explore the ways in which both the principal figures from each period and the corresponding movements challenged the limits of art through the incorporation of modern life, as each artist addresses the political, philosophical, and personal implications of “modernity” and how it relates to the production of artwork.

This course will begin with a brief review of the artists and movements that immediately preceded French Impressionism and will then take an in-depth look at the key artists and characteristics of Impressionism, widely considered the first “modern” art movement. You will then spend time reading about and examining various other major movements including Post-Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, and Pop Art, among others. As part of our study of these movements and the artists associated with them, you will be expected to learn a number of artistic terms and ideas, along with the people and institutions that were influential in the development of modern art.

As an example, you will be able to look at Pablo Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon and explain why this can be considered the first Cubist artwork, and what makes it one of the greatest achievements in modern art. You will view Jackson Pollock’s Abstract Expressionist drip paintings and be able to elaborate on what makes these works a revolutionary achievement that opened up artistic possibilities for many future artists.  These examples and many others involving artists, their work, media, and styles will be explored in great detail throughout this course.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to ARTH208, Modern Art.  Below, please find general information on this course and its requirements. 

Course Designer: The Art Story Foundation and contributors, including the modern art specialists Justin Wolf, Eve Griffin, and Michael Zurakhinsky. 
 
Primary Resources: This course draws from The Art Story Foundation’s resources.

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course successfully, you must complete all required readings and quizzes, as well as pass the final exam with a score of 70% or higher.
 
Note that you will only receive an official grade on your final exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through all of the assignments listed above.
 
Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
 
Time Commitment: This course will take approximately 138.5 hours to complete.

Tips/Suggestions: As with any art history course, it is important that you take time to carefully examine any and all images presented in this course.  

Modern Art  
This course has been developed through a special partnership with The Art Story Foundation. Please note that, unless otherwise noted, the readings assigned in this course are copyright © The Art Story Foundation and cannot be reproduced elsewhere. The Art Story Foundation specializes in modern art topics, movements, and artists.

 
A version of this course is also available in iTunes U.
Preview the course in your browser or view our entire suite of iTunes U courses.  

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of the course, you will be able to:
  • Define the term “modern art,” and explain the factors and ideas that make (or made) artworks “modern.”
  • Identify the key art movements of the 19th and 20th centuries that comprise the modern art era.
  • List the principal artists from each movement, and accurately identify seminal works of art by those artists.
  • Compare and contrast a number of important artworks and identify just what makes these particular works modern and, most importantly, what makes these works true achievements that allowed for future developments in the arts.
  • Build a presentable and accurate timeline of the progression of modern art movements.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have a computer

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash)

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt., .xls, etc.)

√    Have competency in the English language

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

Unit Outline show close


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  • Unit 1: A New Perspective in Art: Impressionism  

    In this unit, you will begin by learning about the visual arts that were popular in mid-19th-century France and the role that the Academy of Art played in the eventual emergence of the first modern art movement, Impressionism. Along with Impressionism, you will study the movement that immediately preceded it, Realism, analyze important artworks by key artists in both movements, and learn what was accomplished via new or rediscovered methods and ideas, such as the newfound embrace of plein air painting; the use of quick, gestural brushstrokes; and the abandonment of traditional one-point perspective.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 The French Salon and Its Deterrents  
  • 1.1.1 The Academy of Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Terms and Concepts: “The Academy of Art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Terms and Concepts: “The Academy of Art” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading, you may wish to take notes on the artistic genres and subject matter that were favored by the Academy and its exhibitions. Meanwhile, look for examples of what artists began to rebel against in the 19th century.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 1.1.2 Gustave Courbet and Realism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Gustave Courbet”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Gustave Courbet” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full, while paying particularly close attention to each of the Major Works and the accompanying texts. In this reading, you will note that Courbet’s paintings fall into the category of Realism. With this in mind, consider how Courbet’s subject matter differs from that of Renaissance artists like Michelangelo or Titian, how his approach to this subject matter reflected his commitment to left-wing politics, and how his work helped pave the way for Impressionism.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 1.1.3 Edgar Degas: From Realism to Impressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Edgar Degas”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Edgar Degas” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading, consider Degas’s chosen subject matter (people, places, settings) and try to identify visual elements that suggest the artist’s gradual evolution in both subject and style. You may wish to take notes while viewing the artist’s Major Works. What makes Degas both a Realist and Impressionist artist?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 1.2 French Impressionism  
  • 1.2.1 Impressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Impressionism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Impressionism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Pay close attention to, and take notes on, the Impressionist artists and the characteristics that defined their art. Additionally, look for references to subsequent modern movements that were influenced by Impressionism.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 1.2.2 Édouard Manet: The “First Modern Artist”  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Édouard Manet”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Édouard Manet” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Pay close attention to the repeated use of the word “modern” in this page, and consider what it is referencing. When you finish reading, consider why art historians have commonly referred to Manet as the “first modern artist.”
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 1.2.3 Claude Monet  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Claude Monet”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Claude Monet” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. You will note from this reading that Monet was both an accomplished colorist and a master of plein air(open air) painting; he is also considered the preeminent Impressionist artist. However, many critics at the time accused Monet’s work of being “incomplete.” Why would such a claim be made?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 1 Quiz"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 1 Quiz" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 1 Quiz, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Answer Key to Unit 1 Quiz." (PDF) You should spend approximately 15 minutes completing this quiz. 

  • Unit 2: Turn of the Century Art: Post-Impressionism, Symbolism and Art Nouveau  

    In this unit, you will learn about the European art movements that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the immediate aftermath of Impressionism. Perhaps most notable among these are Post-Impressionism, whose artists reacted against Impressionism’s focus on the external, observed world and sought to replace Impressionism as the leading avant-garde movement. You will look at seminal artworks by the Post-Impressionists and other important modern masters, including the Symbolists and Art Nouveau artists. You will also learn about the Bauhaus, an influential school for modern artists-in-training, and will discover how this institution and its instructors promoted radical ideas about artistic production while bridging the worlds of art, design, and industry.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 The Post-Impressionists  
  • 2.1.1 Post-Impressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Impressionism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Impressionism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Unlike Impressionism, Post-Impressionism was not a cohesive and unified movement of artists. While reading this page, identify and take notes on the many visual characteristics that made the works of artists like Gauguin, van Gogh, Seurat, and Cézanne different from those of the key Impressionists. Most importantly, notice how each of these artists paved the road to future modern art advancement.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML). Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.1.2 Georges Seurat  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georges Seurat”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georges Seurat” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Seurat is best known for being an innovator of two closely related painting techniques: Divisionism and Pointillism. Familiarize yourself with these terms, take notes on the characteristics of the two respective painting styles, and look to Seurat’s Major Works for examples of each.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.1.3 Vincent van Gogh  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Vincent van Gogh”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Vincent van Gogh” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Van Gogh has one of the most distinctive and recognizable painting styles of any modern artist. While reading, look for written examples that explain what makes van Gogh’s approach to the canvas so unique. Following this, look at the artist’s Major Works for examples of van Gogh’s painterly style.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.1.4 Paul Gauguin  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Gauguin”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Gauguin” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Gauguin has been called a “primitive” artist as well as one of the first Symbolists. While reading, pay close attention to language that explains his artistic approach, and identify characteristics in his paintings (painting style and subject matter) that fit these definitions.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.1.5 Paul Cézanne  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Cézanne”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Cézanne” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. You may note from looking at Cézanne’s body of work that the artist did not mature as a painter until late in life. While reading this page, pay close attention to how Cézanne’s visual style changes and becomes more abstract over time. As an option, you may want to read The Art Story’s “Abstract vs. Figurative Art”(PDF) page to familiarize yourself with the definitions of each. Finally, consider why Cézanne has been called the “grandfather of Cubism” and what was his achievement.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML) for “Paul Cézanne” and here (HTML) for “Abstract vs. Figurative Art.”  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.2 The Symbolists: Sex, Beauty, and the Human Condition  
  • 2.2.1 François-Auguste-René Rodin  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “François-Auguste-René Rodin”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “François-Auguste-René Rodin” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. You will note that among the Symbolist artists, Rodin’s art is the most classical in style and appearance, not “modern”.  Look closely at Rodin’s Major Works, and the page’s “Key Ideas” section, and consider what characterizes a classical work of art. Finally, identify ways in which Rodin’s work appears classical, but is in fact modern and revolutionary.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.2.2 Edvard Munch  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Edvard Munch”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Edvard Munch” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. What is Munch expressing with works like The Scream, through both his painting style and his subject matter? Furthermore, Munch’s Symbolist paintings (i.e., The Sick Child, The Scream) have been identified as key predecessors to the German Expressionist movement. While reading this page, you may want to visit the "Expressionism" movement (PDF) page for a preview, and consider why this claim has been made about Munch’s work.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML) for the “Edvard Munch” page and here (HTML) for the “Expressionism” page.  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.2.3 Marc Chagall  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marc Chagall”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marc Chagall” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. You will note in this reading that Chagall is one of the most celebrated of all Symbolist painters. His distinctive talent for and use of color, space, and form is widely regarded as an outstanding achievement in modern art. Look closely at Chagall’s style and subject matter, consider taking notes on his personal history, and try to identify exactly what is symbolized in Chagall’s art.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.3 Art Nouveau: Modern Decoration  
  • 2.3.1 Art Nouveau: Modern Decoration  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Art Nouveau”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Art Nouveau” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full.  Consider the reason for this new style of art to emerge at this point in history, and keep in mind the art that was created at the time prior to this movement.
       
      Additionally, you will note that the style known as Art Nouveau was not a unified movement, but a collection of disparate movements across Europe that went by several different names. You may wish to take notes while reading, and identify the different approaches artists took to produce works that fall within this combined movement.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 2.3.2 Gustav Klimt  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Gustav Klimt”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Gustav Klimt” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading you will note that throughout his career, Klimt’s style progressed from classical to decorative and, eventually, to partial abstraction. Pay close attention to Klimt’s biography and look for key events that contributed to these gradual shifts in artistic style. You may wish to take notes on these key events.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 2 Quiz"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 2 Quiz" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 2 Quiz, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Answer Key to Unit 2 Quiz." (PDF)  You should spend approximately 15 minutes completing this quiz. 

  • Unit 3: Freedom in Pre-War Europe: Fauvism, Futurism, Expressionism and Cubism  

    In this unit, you will learn about the most important European art movements prior to the outbreak of World War I and how each one challenged society’s understanding of the category of “art.” You will also read and learn about how the idea of the modern man greatly informed movements of this era, including Fauvism, Futurism, Expressionism, and the most recognizable modern style of the early 20th century, Cubism. Most importantly, you will explore how political ideology and philosophical currents influenced artists and their work, and you will learn how this trend added a new dimension to the development of modern art.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 The Fauves: Pure Color  
  • 3.1.1 Fauvism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Fauvism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Fauvism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Compared to earlier movements, Fauvism represented both a progressive leap forward in painterly style and a conservative regression to traditional motifs. Read this page carefully for examples of this, and consider what made Fauvism different from previous modern movements and, at the same time, in-tune with avant-garde trends. Additionally, look for references to earlier artists and movements that informed the Fauvist style, and cite specific examples. If you like, go back to previous artist and movement pages in order to compare and contrast preceding artworks with those of the Fauves.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.1.2 Henri Matisse  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Henri Matisse”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Henri Matisse” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading, you will notice several references to Matisse’s use of color. Read carefully, and take note of how the artist’s use of color is described (“pure,” “bright,” etc.). Consider what is significant about Matisse’s work, and what characterizes it as “modern.”
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.2 Cubism: Seeing the World through Many Eyes  
  • 3.2.1 Cubism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Cubism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Cubism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading about the Cubist movement, consider why the term “Cubism” was applied to the work of Picasso, Georges Braque, and others. One could argue that there are several different styles of Cubism, but that at its core, all Cubists experimented with a compositional grid wherein various forms are layered. Read carefully about the different Cubists, identify the definitions of “analytic” vs. “synthetic” Cubism as well as the visual characteristics of Cubism as a whole, and think about what makes the movement so important to modern art.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.2.2 Pablo Picasso  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Pablo Picasso”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Pablo Picasso”  (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. In the modern canon, Pablo Picasso is widely considered to be thedefinitive modern artist, and the standard to which all other modern artists are held. Part of the reason for this is Picasso’s prolific artistic output, as well as the fact that he worked in so many different styles throughout his long life. The artistic movement to which he’s most often linked is Cubism, which he co-founded with Georges Braque.
       
      Read this page’s content carefully and identify some of the different visual styles (and movements) that Picasso adopted and mastered in his career, all the while paying particularly close attention to his Cubist works, theories, and practices. In addition to his role in the invention of the style, consider why Picasso is so important to any discussion of Cubism. Additionally, look at his Major Works and try to place each work into its corresponding movement or style. Note that in some cases, works may fit into more than one category.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.2.3 Georges Braque  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georges Braque”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georges Braque” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Braque is one of the more underrated modern artists; his name is rarely mentioned without being coupled with that of his fellow Cubist, Picasso. However, Braque’s Cubism is more analytic, compared with Picasso’s synthetic approach. Read this page carefully and look at his Major Works. After doing so, think about why such a claim has been made and identify some of the characteristics of Braque’s work. If needed, re-familiarize yourself with the definitions for “analytic” and “synthetic” Cubism.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 3.2.4 Fernand Léger  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Fernand Léger”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Fernand Léger” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Léger’s unique brand of Cubism has alternatively been labeled “Tubism.” How are Cubism and Tubism similar and dissimilar? Read this page closely for a reference to this term, consider how such a title came about, and, finally, look at Léger’s Major Works to try to identify visual characteristics that may fit the definition of Tubism. How did Léger extend the practice of Cubism and what was his achievement?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.3 The Futurists: “The Beauty of Speed”  
  • 3.3.1 Futurism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Futurism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Futurism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Futurism was arguably the first modern art movement to adopt a formal manifesto. While reading, pay close attention to any references to Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, the author of the Futurist Manifesto, and, if you so choose, take notes on Marinetti’s philosophy. Consider as an OPTIONAL READING the “Founding and Manifesto of Futurism,”and pay close attention to its central tenets. From this, think about what the Futurist artists were attempting to achieve and communicate through their art. Also, while looking at the Major Works on this page, consider how Cubism informed the Futurists and their work, and cite specific examples of this where possible.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: unknown.nu: F.T. Marinetti‘s “Founding and Manifesto of Futurism”

      Link: unknown.nu: F.T. Marinetti‘s “Founding and Manifesto of Futurism” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.2 Umberto Boccioni  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Umberto Boccioni”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Umberto Boccioni” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Aside from Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni was the most celebrated of all the Futurists, for both his work and academic background. His early death during World War I made him emblematic of the Futurists’ celebration of the machine and the violent, destructive forces of modernity. While reading, look closely for references to Boccioni that set him and his work apart from that of his fellow Futurists, and for explanations as to why his art is exemplary of the movement. Finally, think about why Boccioni’s work warrants special attention.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.4 Expressionism: Anxiety of the Modern Man  
  • 3.4.1 Expressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Expressionism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Expressionism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading, look closely for references to how, and particularly, why, the Expressionist movement got its name. Of the artists have you already studied in this course, who was most important to the Expressionist style?  Additionally, consider that Expressionism was a movement centered in Germany. With this in mind, think about the social circumstances in which the movement emerged and developed, the individual artists associated with it, and, most importantly, why Expressionism could not have thrived in Germany after the 1920s.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.4.2 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Ernst Ludwig Kirchner” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Kirchner was one of the most influential Expressionist artists and one of the founders of the artist group Die Brüke (The Bridge). Look closely for any references to this group and take notes on some of the specifics of Kirchner’s goals through the formation of the group. Additionally, pay close attention to Kirchner’s Major Works and note in particular how he approached the human figure and form. What visual characteristics can you identify that make Kirchner’s approach unique?

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 3.4.3 Wassily Kandinsky  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Wassily Kandinsky”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Wassily Kandinsky” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Kandinsky’s contribution to modern art is as significant—if not more so—than that of any other artist. In particular, Kandinsky’s use of abstract forms was of great importance to Expressionism and 20th-century art as a whole. Read this page carefully for references to “abstract” and “non-objective” art, examples of Kandinsky’s use of it, and reasons for why his art is Expressionist. If you like, take notes on why abstraction was so important to his work, and think about the impact Kandinsky’s art had both on movements of which he was a part (Expressionism, Bauhaus) and subsequent modern movements, such as Abstract Expressionism.
       
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    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 3 Quiz"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 3 Quiz" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 3 Quiz, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Answer Key to Unit 3 Quiz." (PDF)  You should spend approximately 15 minutes completing this quiz.

  • Unit 4: The Manifesto Era: Suprematism, Constructivism, Dada and Surrealism  

    In this unit, you will study Suprematism, Constructivism, Dada, and Surrealism: art movements of the early 20th century that attempted to shift perspectives on art and its place in society. For example, with the emergence of Surrealism in the 1920s, key artists such as André Breton and Max Ernst portrayed dream-like scenes from the unconscious, depicting a realistic world inhabited entirely by unreal entities. The depiction of the life of the mind was a major contribution to the history of art.

    In this unit, you will become familiar with the notion of art as manifesto: you will explore the ways in which artists from this era set forth their goals through declarative written statements and used art as a vehicle for social and/or political change, and will examine the processes by which “non-art” objects and ideas infiltrated the realm of fine art. You will also learn about the Bauhaus, an influential school for modern artists in training, and will discover how this institution and its instructors promoted radical ideas about artistic production while bridging the worlds of art, design, and industry.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 The Russian Suprematists: A Search for Superiority  
  • 4.1.1 Suprematism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Suprematism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Suprematism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading this page, you will notice a passage that begins with “Suprematist painting abandoned realism.” Think about what this means, and what the Suprematist artists (chiefly Kazimir Malevich) were trying to achieve with their art by abandoning realism. Finally, think about what visual characteristics Suprematist art possesses that would suggest such an abandonment of realism. Finally, consider the root of the name “Suprematism,” and identify reasons for why the Suprematist artists considered their art supreme.
       
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  • 4.1.2 Kazimir Malevich  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Kazimir Malevich”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Kazimir Malevich” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Malevich used a number of different and distinctive motifs throughout his work, most notably, geometric shapes such as circles, triangles, and squares, the last of which comprise his most famous paintings. Through his use of an abstract visual language dominated by such elements, Malevich truly believed he was making a revolutionary contribution not only to the development of art but also society as well. Considering Malevich’s native country, the time period in which he lived, and his fellow artists, think about why Malevich believed his art was so groundbreaking.
       
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  • 4.1.3 El Lissitzky  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “El Lissitzky”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “El Lissitzky” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. El Lissitzky’s work was very important to the Suprematist and Constructivist movements. However, there are key differences in both artistic style and content between Lissitzky’s art and that of his one-time mentor, Kazimir Malevich. After reading about Lissitzky, you may wish to briefly revisit the Malevich page and identify some of those key differences. Finally, identify some of the artist’s personal traits and beliefs that likely contributed to his art.
       
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  • 4.2 Constructivism: Building Something New  
  • 4.2.1 Constructivism: Building Something New  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Constructivism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Constructivism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. As with Suprematism, consider the root of the name “Constructivism.” The Constructivist artists, many of whom were also associated with Suprematism, established this movement as a means to create something utterly new and revolutionary. Read this page closely for references to the Constructivist ideology and to what the Constructivists were attempting to achieve. Additionally, identify the term “Productivism,” its definition, and consider the importance of this movement within the larger Constructivist movement.

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  • 4.2.2 Vladimir Tatlin  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Vladimir Tatlin”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Vladimir Tatlin” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Tatlin’s work, much like Constructivism itself, combined elements of Cubism, Futurism, andSuprematism, and includes artworks that were hybrids of sculpture and architecture.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 4.2.3 Alexander Rodchenko  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Alexander Rodchenko”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Alexander Rodchenko” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Rodchenko is a key example of an artist whose work and politics were virtually interchangeable. While reading this page, pay close attention to content that refers to the Russian Revolution, the political beliefs associated with it, and Rodchenko’s relationship to the event. What were Rodchenko’s artistic achievements, and were they as effective as he hoped they would be?

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  • 4.3 Dada: Mocking the Status Quo  
  • 4.3.1 Dada  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Dada”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Dada” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Dada was truly avant-garde for its concern with the deconstruction of both standard forms and conventional ideas in art. While reading this page, identify some of the forms and ideas the Dada artists were out to deconstruct, or outright nullify. As an option, you may wish to read excerpts from Tristan Tzara’s "Dada's Manifesto" to get a better idea of the tenets of this iconoclastic and highly influential movement.
       
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    • Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Tristan Tzara’s “Dada Manifesto”

      Link: University of Pennsylvania: Tristan Tzara’s “Dada Manifesto”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.3.2 Marcel Duchamp  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marcel Duchamp”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marcel Duchamp” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Duchamp’s greatest contribution to modern art was quite possibly the “Readymade.” Read carefully for the definition of this art form and identify examples of it in Duchamp’s Major Works. Consider why the Readymade is such a unique and important contribution to modern art. Finally, identify some of the different modern art movements that were directly influenced by Duchamp’s ideas.
       
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  • 4.3.3 Francis Picabia  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Francis Picabia”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Francis Picabia” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Unlike most modern artists, Picabia frequently shifted between abstraction and figuration, showing preference for neither. Read this page carefully and look for references to this pattern throughout his work. In particular, identify some of the abstract and figurative qualities in Picabia’s work, and consider the artist’s relationship to the central concepts of the Dada movement.

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  • 4.3.4 Man Ray  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Man Ray”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Man Ray” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Man Ray’s most significant contribution to the avant-garde was (arguably) his work in photography. Pay particularly close attention to the page’s Mature Period and Late Years sections in the biography and identify the artist’s specific discoveries in this medium. Think about how these new developments in photography are connected to Dada; feel free to revisit the readings from subunit 4.3.1 when considering these connections.
       
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  • 4.4 The Bauhaus: A Back-to-Basics Approach Creates Unexpected Results  
  • 4.4.1 Bauhaus  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Bauhaus”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Bauhaus” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. In existence from 1919 until 1933, the Bauhaus was critical for pre-war European artists and remains one of the most significant modern art movements of the early twentieth century. What’s more, many of the era’s most celebrated architects trained and taught at the school, resulting in an architectural style known simply as “Bauhaus” that is still practiced to this day. Beyond architecture, what was so unique in the founding ethos of the school?
       
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  • 4.4.2 Josef Albers  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Josef Albers”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Josef Albers” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading, you will note that Albers was among the first artists to experiment with “geometric abstraction.” Read this page carefully and look at his Major Works, and consider what Albers was trying to achieve with this particular style, and how the artist’s experimental and distinctively modern art is emblematic of the Bauhaus’s teachings.
       
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  • 4.4.3 Paul Klee  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Klee”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Paul Klee” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. You will note in reading this page that many parallels have been made between Klee’s art and musical composition. Read carefully for such references and identify ways in which Klee’s art was both distinctly modern and idiosyncratic, defying categorization into any one particular movement or school. What did he take away from his connection to the Bauhaus?

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  • 4.4.4 Laszlo Moholy-Nagy  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Laszlo Moholy-Nagy”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Laszlo Moholy-Nagy” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Moholy-Nagy is among the most influential modern artists of the twentieth century for his prolific output in multiple media. Read this page carefully and take note of Moholy-Nagy’s diverse uses of materials and identify the scope of his influence in media such as sculpture, painting, and photography. Also observe his critical role as an educator at institutions such as the Bauhaus and the Institute of Design in Chicago.
       
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  • 4.5 The Surrealists: Unlocking the Unconscious  
  • 4.5.1 Surrealism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Surrealism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Surrealism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. One of the central tenets of Surrealism was the expression of “pure thought.” While reading this page, and looking closely at the Major Works, consider what this means. Additionally, you may wish to take notes on the definition of the movement, how it directly influenced subsequent movements like Abstract Expressionism, and the range of artists who applied its ideas to different media like painting, film, and sculpture.
       
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  • 4.5.2 André Breton  
    • Reading: Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “André Breton”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “André Breton” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Breton has been called the “Pope of Surrealism” for his unique contribution to, and leading role in, the movement. Consider reading his 1924 “Surrealist Manifesto,”if you have additional time. While reading this page, look carefully for references to Breton’s specific ideas about Surrealism and how these ideas developed throughout the 1920s and 1930s.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: University of Alabama: André Breton’s “Surrealist Manifesto”

      Link: University of Alabama: André Breton’s “Surrealist Manifesto”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.5.3 Max Ernst  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Max Ernst”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Max Ernst” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. As one of Surrealism’s founding members, Ernst’s artistic innovations became well known and his influence on other Surrealists widespread. Read this page closely for references to Ernst’s influence in this regard and, if you so choose, take notes on how his art and ideas contributed to the emergence of Abstract Expressionism.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 4.5.4 René Magritte  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “René Magritte”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “René Magritte” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading this page, pay particularly close attention to the “Key Ideas” section. For each of these points, identify one or more of Magritte’s Major Works that fit a description from the Key Ideas. Additionally, look closely at Magritte’s Late Period and consider how the artist’s work and approach to art changed during this time period.  Keep in mind the ideas of Duchamp and Breton as you read about Magritte’s contribution to modern art.
       
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  • 4.5.5 Salvador Dalí  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Salvador Dalí”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Salvador Dalí” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. No other Surrealist is more recognizable and controversial than Salvador Dalí, whose art was said to “mine the subconscious,” yielding highly distinctive imagery. Read this page carefully and identify key points that reference Dalí’s attempted goals in painting this way. Finally, think about examples of artists that were influenced by Dalí’s art and ideas.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 
       

  • 4.5.6 Joan Miró  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Joan Miró”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Joan Miró” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Miró’s Surrealist works employed the use of biomorphic forms. While reading this page, look closely for references to this term, and after reading about Miró’s artistic approach and looking at his Major Works, articulate the meaning of biomorphism, and explain specifically how the artist applied such forms within his work.
       
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    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 4 Essay"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 4 Essay" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download the instructions to write this essay.  Please address all of the questions for your essay, and then check your response against the Saylor Foundation's "Rubric for Unit 4 Essay" (PDF) and the “Sample Essay.” (PDF) You should spend approximately 1 hour completing this short essay and checking your response against the rubric and sample essay. 

  • Unit 5: The Fall of Paris and the Rise of the American Avant-Garde: Abstract Expressionism  

    In this unit, you will learn about the global shift that took place in modern art, both leading up to and following World War II, in which New York replaced Paris as the cultural capital of the world. This unit will focus on Abstract Expressionism, one of the most celebrated and important American art movements. You will learn about the American artists (native-born and naturalized) who constituted this new American avant-garde, and how they were influenced by key historical events and political philosophies from the World War II era. Finally, you will read examples of art criticism from the mid-20th century and become familiar with the important role criticism and theory played in the continuing development of modern art.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Emergence of the New York School  
  • 5.1.1 The Fall of Paris  
  • 5.1.1.1 The Federal Art Project  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Organizations: “Federal Art Project of The Works Progress Administration (WPA)”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Organizations: “Federal Art Project of The Works Progress Administration (WPA)” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. The Works Progress Administration proved to be a fundamental training ground for a number of artists tied to Early American Modernism and, later on, Abstract Expressionism. While reading this page, pay close attention to the artists associated with the Federal Art Project and other divisions of the WPA. Think about what purpose these artists served during this time period (socially, politically, and culturally), and how their time with the WPA informed their later work.
       
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  • 5.1.1.2 Thomas Hart Benton  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Thomas Hart Benton”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Thomas Hart Benton” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Thomas Hart Benton is well known as one of the pioneers of a style referred to as American Regionalism, or simplyRegionalism.  Read this page carefully and while doing so note any references to this style.  What is the definition of American Regionalism? Furthermore, consider the social and political climate of the time and consider why Regionalism was significant within this context.  Consider how Benton could go on to be the teacher of the Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock.
       
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  • 5.1.1.3 Hans Hofmann  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Hans Hofmann”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Hans Hofmann” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Hofmann was a major twentieth-century artist for various reasons, including his vital role as an educator and his experience training and producing art alongside a number of European modern masters. While reading this page, pay close attention to Hofmann’s “Push and Pull” theory, along with some of his other art theories, and consider the reasons that Hofmann’s influence was felt so widely by the Abstract Expressionists.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.1.1.4 Piet Mondrian  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Piet Mondrian”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Piet Mondrian” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. In this page, there are multiple references to “abstract” art or “abstraction.” Pay close attention to these references, look carefully at Mondrian’s Major Works, and consider why the artist’s works are a good example of pure abstraction.  Also, there are many paths artists took to arrive at abstraction.  Consider how Mondrian started creating abstract works.
       
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  • 5.1.1.5 The Emergence of New York’s MoMA  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Museums: “The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Museums: “The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Although it is commonplace today, in 1929, when MoMA was founded, the concept of a museum devoted to modern, or new, art was a highly unusual one. Consider why this was such an extraordinary idea. Furthermore, look for references in this page to the museum’s founding principles, the reasons for MoMA’s success, and, finally, cases when the museum failed to respond to key trends in modern art. As an option, you may wish to read The Art Story Foundation’s Art Influencer page on “Alfred H. Barr, Jr.”
       
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    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Influencer: “Alfred H. Barr, Jr.”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Influencer: “Alfred H. Barr, Jr.” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.1.2 Abstraction Expressionism: The American Avant-Garde  
  • 5.1.2.1 Abstract Expressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Abstract Expressionism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Abstract Expressionism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Up until the emergence of Abstract Expressionism, the principal modern art movements had all been based in Europe. While reading this page, note any references to the other movements, artists, and philosophies that directly influenced Abstract Expressionist artists, and point to specific examples.
       
      Additionally, consider the reasons for why Abstract Expressionism was a uniquely American movement, and the ways in which it transformed the landscape of modern art. As an option, you may wish to visit and review events from The Art Story Foundation’s Timelines: “Abstract Expressionism Movement Timeline”.  Finally, what links together all these different artists and personalities into this movement.
       
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    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Timelines: “Abstract Expressionism Movement Timeline”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Timelines: “Abstract Expressionism Movement Timeline”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.2.2 Jackson Pollock  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jackson Pollock”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jackson Pollock” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Jackson Pollock is best known for his drip, or spatter, paintings - an unusual technique that redefined the modern conception of abstraction. While reading this page, look closely for references to Pollock’s drip technique. Consider why it garnered so much critical attention during this time. Additionally, look closely for references to Pollock’s ties to the critic Clement Greenberg, one of the most important artist-critic relationships in all of art history. Take notes on Greenberg’s critical opinion of Pollock’s work.
       
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  • 5.1.2.3 Mark Rothko  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Mark Rothko”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Mark Rothko” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Rothko’s work is among the most recognizable in all of modern art, and certainly amongst the Abstract Expressionists. Read carefully and take notes on Rothko’s painting style, his “multi-forms,” and, in particular, his personal philosophy and beliefs. Ask yourself what Rothko was trying to achieve through his art. For additional clarity on his philosophy, look to the Writings and Ideas section of this page. Additionally, consider that in life Rothko disliked being called an “abstractionist.” What can you infer from your reading of this page that would help explain why this would be so?
       
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  • 5.1.2.4 Barnett Newman  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Barnett Newman”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Barnett Newman” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. In this page, look closely for references to Newman’s signature “zip” paintings, as well as specific passages devoted to Newman’s thoughts and theories concerning “the first man,” specifically his essay titled, “The First Man Was an Artist.” What was Newman attempting to communicate with the “zip” painting?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.1.3 Existentialism and “Action” Painting  
  • 5.1.3.1 Existentialism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Modern Art Terms: “Existentialism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Modern Art Terms: “Existentialism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Take note of the individuals associated with Existentialism, and in particular the artists who were inspired by this school of thought. Review the Major Works, considering how each work may be seen as an example of Existentialism in art. As an option, you may consider reading the philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s essay “Cézanne’s Doubt” in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the Existentialist philosophy and its relationship to modern art.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: University of Massachusetts Lowell: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s “Cézanne’s Doubt”

      Link: University of Massachusetts Lowell: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s “Cézanne’s Doubt”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.3.2 Willem de Kooning  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Willem de Kooning”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Willem de Kooning” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Among the Abstract Expressionist artists, de Kooning was perhaps the most controversial, particularly when it came to his Womenpaintings. While reading this page, take notes on any references made to these paintings and cite reasons why they were judged so harshly.
                             
      Additionally, you should consider revisiting The Art Story Foundation’s Modern Art Terms page, “Abstract vs. Figurative Art,” to re-familiarize yourself with the definition(s) of abstract art, specifically as it relates to the Abstract Expressionists. After reading about de Kooning and looking at his Major Works, consider how much of Willem de Kooning’s art fits into both categories, citing specific examples where possible.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Modern Art Terms: “Abstract vs. Figurative Art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Modern Art Terms: “Abstract vs. Figurative Art,” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 5.1.3.3 Franz Kline  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Franz Kline”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Franz Kline” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. The work of Franz Kline represents a leading example of the style known as “action painting.” While reading this page, identify passages that reference Kline’s own feelings about the meaning behind his art—or the lack thereof. As an option, you may wish to read the Wikipedia page on “Action Painting”to familiarize yourself with the term and what it entails.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Action Painting”

      Link: Wikipedia’s “Action Painting” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  It is attributed to Wikipedia and the original version can be found here (HTML).

  • 5.2 Teachers, Writers, and the New Abstractionists of Mid-Century  
  • 5.2.1.1 Clement Greenberg  
  • 5.2.1.2 Harold Rosenberg  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Theory and Art Critics: “Harold Rosenberg”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Theory and Art Critics: “Harold Rosenberg” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Rosenberg is well known as the critic who coined the term “action painting,” and who, along with Clement Greenberg, was the major art critic of his generation. While reading this page, take note of Rosenberg’s development as an art critic and essayist, beginning with “The Fall of Paris” and ending with “Revolution and the Concept of Beauty.” Cite examples that establish Rosenberg’s writing as significant to art of this era and how his writing changed people’s understanding of modern art. As an option, you may wish to read excerpts from Rosenberg’s essay “The American Action Painters”for additional context.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: pooter.net: Harold Rosenberg’s “The American Action Painters"

      Link: pooter.net: Harold Rosenberg’s “The American Action Painters”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.1.3 Greenberg vs. Rosenberg (“American-Type” vs. “Action” Painting)  
    • Reading: Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Critics Comparison: “Clement Greenberg vs. Harold Rosenberg”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Critics Comparison: “Clement Greenberg vs. Harold Rosenberg” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. This comparison chart is crucial to understanding how Greenberg and Rosenberg respectively approached a number of topics, artists, and theories. Read this page carefully and identify specific examples that discuss key differences and similarities between them. What was is at the heart of the debate between these two theoreticians?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.2.1.4 Leo Steinberg and His Other Criteria  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Theory and Art Critics: “Leo Steinberg”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Art Theory and Art Critics: “Leo Steinberg” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. When examining the important art critics of the 20th century, it is perhaps easy to overlook anyone who wasn’t Greenberg or Rosenberg. However, the critical writing of Leo Steinberg had a lasting impact on people’s understanding and appreciation of modern art forms. While reading this page, look for references to Steinberg’s “Other Criteria.” What does Steinberg mean by “Other Criteria,” and how did he apply this idea to artists like Picasso, de Kooning, and Jasper Johns?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.2.2 A New Art Criticism  
  • 5.2.2.1 Helen Frankenthaler  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Helen Frankenthaler”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Helen Frankenthaler” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Helen Frankenthaler was a pioneer of Color Field painting. Identify the definition of Color Field painting, consider how Frankenthaler’s work is a key exemplar of this style, and, finally, think about how Frankenthaler’s art is both similar to and different from the work of the first generation of Abstract Expressionists. As an option, you should consider reading “Color Field Painting”on The Art Story Foundation’s Movements page.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Color Field Painting”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Color Field Painting” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.

      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.2.2.2. Kenneth Noland  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Kenneth Noland"

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Kenneth Noland” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Noland’s art represents a key example of the style known as Post-Painterly Abstraction, a term coined by ClementGreenberg. Noland employed a number of motifs in his art, using instantly recognizable forms and shapes that became his signature. Identify these different motifs and consider what Noland was attempting to achieve with such paintings. Would you regard Noland’s art as abstract? Finally, consider which characteristics of Noland’s art make it modern. As an option, you might wish to read The Art Story Foundation’s Movements page, “Post-Painterly Abstraction.”
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Painterly Abstraction”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Painterly Abstraction” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.2.2.3 Ellsworth Kelly  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Ellsworth Kelly”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Ellsworth Kelly” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. In addition to Color Field painting, Kelly’s art also falls into the category of Hard-Edge painting. Identify the definition of Hard-Edge painting, and consider how Kelly’s work is a key example of this technique. In addition, look for descriptions of Kelly’s use and application of color (“bold,” “solid,” “monochromatic,” etc.), and how these elements apply to both Color Field and Hard-Edge painting. And like the art of his contemporaries (i.e., Frankenthaler and Noland), consider whether Kelly’s art is truly abstract. Finally, consider Kelly’s use of shaped canvases, the sculptural elements of his work, and how his art represented a new phase in the development of abstract modern art.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 5.2.2.4 Richard Diebenkorn  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Richard Diebenkorn”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Richard Diebenkorn” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Diebenkorn and his art were directly influenced by his geographical surroundings, more so than many of his modern art predecessors and certainly more so than the leading first-generation Abstract Expressionists. While reading this page, look for references to the various locales Diebenkorn inhabited throughout his career and cite examples, using his Major Works as reference material, of how particular artworks were informed by these changes in geography.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 5 Short-Answer Questions"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 5 Short-Answer Questions" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 5 Short-Answer Questions, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Sample Answers to Unit 5 Short-Answer Questions." (PDF) You should spend approximately 30 minutes completing 3 out of the 5 questions. 

  • 5.3 Post-Painterly Abstraction: Second Generation AbEx  
  • Unit 6: The New Avant-Garde After Abstract Expressionism: Neo-Dada, Pop Art and Minimalism  

    In this unit, you will study art movements of the 1950s and 1960s and observe the ways in which artists began to incorporate “non-art” media such as pop culture imagery, found objects, and industrial materials into their art. You will also examine the trends in popular art that led to the emergence of Neo-Dada, Pop Art, and Minimalism and you will learn why artists largely abandoned abstraction to focus their efforts on new forms of realism.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Precursors to Pop  
  • 6.1.1 Neo-Dada  
  • 6.1.2 Robert Rauschenberg  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Robert Rauschenberg”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Robert Rauschenberg” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Rauschenberg’s most significant achievementconsists of his invention of a type of assemblage called the “Combine.” Read carefully, noting any references to Rauschenberg’s collage work, assemblage, and particularly his Combines, as well as the key characteristics of these works. How does the Combine differ from traditional painting and sculpture? From your reading, consider why the Combine is such a major contribution to modern art.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.1.3 Jasper Johns  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jasper Johns”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jasper Johns” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Much of Johns’s most celebrated work consists of the portrayal of familiar, everyday objects in a non-representational manner. What are features of Johns’s art that qualify it as part of the Neo-Dada movement?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.2 Popular Culture in Art  
  • 6.2.1 Pop Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Pop Art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Pop Art” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading this page, look carefully for references to how Pop Art—one of the 20th century’s most important and distinctive movements—got its name. After identifying the movement’s definition and the root of its name, consider why the work of Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and others is categorized as such. Identify the different types of Pop Art, citing specific examples of each type and making note of their key differences and underlying similarities.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.2.2 Andy Warhol  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Andy Warhol”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Andy Warhol” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Andy Warhol is perhaps the most celebrated and revered American artist in history. In general, what is it about his work and life that might contribute to the widespread and continuing fascination with Warhol? You will note in your reading that while Warhol was not personally or artistically opposed to abstraction, his particular brand of Pop Art is considered a departure from or direct challenge to Abstract Expressionism, Pop’s dominant preceding movement. Once you are familiar with both Pop Art and Abstract Expressionism, cite specific elements in Warhol’s work that make it both distinctly modern and the opposite of Abstract Expressionism. Alternatively, if you believe this assessment to be false, cite your reasons for doing so.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.2.3 Roy Lichtenstein  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Roy Lichtenstein”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Roy Lichtenstein” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Lichtenstein’s depiction of popular culture imagery, particularly comic book iconography, is well known in the history of modern art. What is not as well known is Lichtenstein’s method; what are some of the key characteristics of Lichtenstein’s painting method(s)? What similarities can be drawn between Lichtenstein’s art and that of the 19th-century Post-Impressionist artist Georges Seurat?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.3 Modular Fabrication  
  • 6.3.1 Minimalism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Minimalism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Minimalism” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading this page, make careful note of the individual artists associated with Minimalism. You will also note from your reading that this movement originally went by several different names, such as “ABC Art” and “Reductive Art,” yet “Minimalism” is the name that has endured. Articulate the reasoning behind this moniker. Finally, look carefully at the Major Works section and cite specific characteristics of certain works that fit the definition of the term.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.3.2 Donald Judd  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Donald Judd”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Donald Judd” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Despite the seemingly exacting and precise appearance of Judd’s Minimalist work, the artist denied any affinity for mathematics and instead characterized his work as the result of an intuitive process that played with space, natural light, unity, and an object’s existence. From this rather general explanation, attempt to identity Judd’s intentions with his work. Additionally, Judd made a discovery later in his career that allowed his “intuitive process” to reach new heights. Describe this discovery and, if you choose, take notes on how his work changed and evolved over the course of his career.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.3.3 Frank Stella  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Frank Stella”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Frank Stella” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Frank Stella is well known for challenging accepted conventions in modern art, namely, the notion that a canvas must be rectangular or square, and that abstract art, for the most part, should consist of gestural brushstrokes. Instead, Stella applied geometric elements in his work and often created irregularly shaped canvases. Cite specific examples of artworks that fit these descriptions, using passages from Stella’s biography and examples of Major Works.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 6.3.4 Carl Andre  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Carl Andre”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Carl Andre” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Pay close attention to passages that reference Andre’s unique contributions to Minimalism. Cite examples of the materials and imagery Andre appropriated, and how he constructed and combined these elements in his art. How was his art different from that of other key Minimalists like Judd, Stella, and Dan Flavin? As an option, you may wish to read Barry Schwabsky’s article in ArtForum, “Carl Andre—Paula Cooper Gallery, New York, New York” for added context.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Lecture: Sophia: Aleisha Olson’s “Minimalism”

      Link: Sophia: Aleisha Olson’s “Minimalism” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: View this lecture. Take note of key terms that outline the development of the minimalist style through significant works of art by leading artists.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license. It is attributed to Aleisha Olson and the original version can be found here

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 6 Quiz"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 6 Quiz" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 6 Quiz, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Answer Key to Unit 6 Quiz." (PDF) You should spend approximately 15 minutes completing this quiz. 

  • Unit 7: The Roots of Contemporary Art: Post-Minimalism, Conceptualism, Performance Art, Feminist Art, and Neo-Expressionism  

    In this unit, you will learn about the disparate art movements that came about in the late 1960s and early 1970s and discover how these movements contributed to what is widely considered the end of modern art and the emergence of contemporary art. Artists at this time became increasingly fixated on the notion of art as life, which greatly informed ideas concerning environmental art, public installation, and social sculpture. These ideas, in turn, manifested themselves in the forms of Land Art, Fluxus, Post-Minimalism, and Conceptualism.

    Finally, you will learn about the beginnings of the so-called postmodern era, which includes the advent of graffiti art and the “return of the figure” in popular art, as seen in the controversial Neo-Expressionism movement.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Post-Minimalism  
  • 7.1.1 Post-Minimalism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Minimalism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Post-Minimalism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. While reading this page, take note of the individual artists associated with Post-Minimalism. Additionally, identify, define, and take notes on the various forms of Post-Minimalism that were practiced by these artists. It’s worth noting that, unlike other modern movements, Post-Minimalism was not a cohesive movement of artists all working in similar media or under a single ethos, but an unconnected assortment of artists practicing multiple types of art, on both a small and large scale. When looking at some of the Major Works and reading about these artists, consider why this movement is called “Post-Minimalism” rather than a continuation of Minimalism.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.1.2 Richard Serra  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Richard Serra”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Richard Serra” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Richard Serra’s art—often considered a unique combination of sculpture, painting, and architecture—is experiential in nature. While reading this page and looking at his Major Works (with particular emphasis on the work Tilted Arc), consider both characteristics of Serra’s work, and how they challenged certain conventions in modern art. You may also wish to familiarize yourself with the definition of Process Art and think about how this style applies to Serra’s work.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.1.3 Eva Hesse  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Eva Hesse”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Eva Hesse” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Originally trained as a painter in the tradition of Abstract Expressionism, Hesse later found inspiration in a range of materials that could be considered “non-art” materials, much in the tradition of Neo-Dada and Minimalism. Read carefully for references to the various materials Hesse employed in her practice. Additionally, identify some of the key aspects of Hesse’s work. For example, Hesse displayed an evolving fascination with creating three-dimensional works of art; consider what she was trying to achieve with this practice and how she ultimately expanded upon the ideas of Minimalism.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.1.4 Robert Smithson and Land Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Robert Smithson”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Robert Smithson” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Smithson is well known for his Earthworks, a body of complex large-scale works that presaged the Land Art movement (sometimes referred to as Earth Art). One feature of these works was their site-specificity. While reading Smithson’s biography think about what makes Smithson’s work both “art” and something utterly different from all art forms that came before it. In doing so, consider what happens to Smithson’s earth works over time. You may wish to look up recent articles on the re-appearance of Smithson’s Spiral Jetty and current plans for its preservation.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.2 Conceptualism  
  • 7.2.1 Conceptual Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Conceptual Art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Conceptual Art” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Conceptual art, or Conceptualism, consists of artwork in which far greater emphasis is placed on the idea behind the work as opposed to formal or aesthetic issues. Conceptual works can focus on the absence of something, or may even be completely hidden from view. Cite examples from the Major Works section that fit these descriptions.  Do you agree that the idea itself can be a piece of art?

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.2.2 Sol LeWitt  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Sol LeWitt”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Sol LeWitt”
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Sol LeWitt is considered by many to be the quintessential Conceptual artist, not just in the way he executed an idea, but also in the process by which his art is created and re-created. In this regard, LeWitt is less a traditional visual artist and more an artist-architect. While reading about LeWitt’s life and art, consider the role of the architect in the construction of a building (or other structure), and identify how this role applies to LeWitt and his work. As an option, you may consider reading Sol LeWitt’s “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” for additional context.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Reading: ddooss.org: Sol LeWitt’s “Paragraph on Conceptual Art”

      Link: ddooss.org: Sol LeWitt’s Paragraphs on Conceptual Art”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.2.3 Joseph Beuys  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Joseph Beuys”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Joseph Beuys” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Beuys had a number of fascinating and original ideas about art he routinely and publicly expressed, either in writing or through his own artistic practice. One particular belief he held was that “every human being is an artist.” While reading, take note of any references to Beuys’s distinctive beliefs and life experiences, citing specific examples, and consider how these informed his art. Additionally, consider Beuys’s consistent use of fat and felt in his work and how this relates to his conceptual work.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 7.2.4 John Baldessari  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “John Baldessari”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “John Baldessari” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Baldessari’s art is famous for its self-effacing, sardonic, and often absurd elements and content. One particular concept in Baldessari’s art was his removal of artistic authorship from his work, often commissioning other people to produce and complete his art (a practice also deployed by LeWitt). Consider what it means for a work to have artistic authorship. Additionally, look closely at Baldessari’s Major Works and note the diversity of media that he has employed, including word-based art, a particular brand of Conceptual art for which Baldessari is well known. As an option, you should consider reading philosopher and critic Roland Barthes’s essay, “The Death of the Author.”
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Reading: Constant Association for Art and Media: Roland Barthe’s “The Death of the Author”

      Link: Constant Association for Art and Media: Roland Barthe’s “The Death of the Author”
       
      Instructions: Please read the linked page in full.
       
      NOTE: This is an OPTIONAL READING, and is not factored into the time advisory for this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.3 Performance Art, Feminist art and Fluxus  
  • 7.3.1 Performance Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Performance art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Performance art” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Performance art, much like Conceptualism or Post-Minimalism, is defined by its vastness and diversity of artistic approaches, on the part of individuals and groups alike. Identify the different types of Performance art (i.e., “Happenings”), the artists or artist groups associated with each, and consider how this art form is directly tied to other art movement such as Dada, action painting, and Process Art. While reading this page, you may wish to locate as many references as possible to other art forms from which Performance artists derive their influence.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.3.2 Happenings  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Happenings”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Happenings” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Happenings are a form of performance art that incorporated elements of chance, crowd participation, and improvisation. While reading, note references to why these qualities were important to the movement and any parallels between Happenings and the Fluxus movement. Additionally, take note of the artists associated with Happenings and their individual contributions.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 7.3.3 Allan Kaprow  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Allan Kaprow”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Allan Kaprow” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Allan Kaprow is renowned for his pioneering role in Happenings, both in creating them and coining the term for the new art form. Even though Kaprow was a performance-based artist as opposed to a fine artist (i.e., painting and sculpture), his art was directly influenced by the Abstract Expressionist action painters.  While reading about Kaprow and Happenings, note any references that draw a parallel between these two seemingly unconnected artistic approaches, as well as between Kaprow and Jackson Pollock.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 7.3.4 Marina Abramovi?  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marina Abramovi?”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Marina Abramovi?” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Marina Abramovi? is known for performance pieces that are physically and emotionally demanding, often requiring a great amount of endurance, and, in at least a few instances, caused severe damage to her own body. While reading this page, note any references to Abramovi?’s inspiration for this body of work, her artistic influences, and her motivation for placing herself in dangerous circumstances. Additionally, identify Abramovi?’s reason for wanting to record and re-create many of her performances (either using herself or other performers), as opposed to other performance artists, who prefer the opposite.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.4 Feminist Art  
  • 7.4.1 Feminist Art  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Terms and Concepts: “Feminist Art”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Feminist Art” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.4.2 Judy Chicago  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Judy Chicago”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Judy Chicago” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.4.3 Carolee Schneemann  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Carolee Schneemann”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Carolee Schneemann” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 7.5 Neo-Expressionism  
  • 7.5.1 Neo-Expressionism  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Neo-Expressionism”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Movements: “Neo-Expressionism” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Following the demise of Abstract Expressionism, the medium of painting grew increasingly out of favor in place of avant-garde movements and techniques that employed assemblage, concept-based practices, performance, and other forms that challenged the boundaries of modern art. Neo-Expressionism and the artists associated with it represented a kind of “return to basics,” by focusing strictly on two-dimensional artwork. Note the number of preceding modern movements that informed the Neo-Expressionist artists. Additionally, look at the Major Works and identify key differences between this style and those of Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.5.2 Georg Baselitz  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georg Baselitz”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Georg Baselitz” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. If one considers Neo-Expressionism the revival of early-20th-century Germany Expressionism, Baselitz is at the center of this discussion. Identify key characteristics of Baselitz’s painting (style, technique, palette) that recall its Expressionist predecessor, while noting key similarities and differences between the two. Feel free to revisit some of the artists from Unit 3.4.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 7.5.3 Julian Schnabel  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Julian Schnabel”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Julian Schnabel” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Schnabel has claimed that with his work he creates an emotional state in which the viewer can enter and become engulfed. While reading this page and looking at his Major Works, consider again the central ideas of Neo-Expressionism, and how Schnabel’s perspective relates to the movement’s key objectives. Additionally, while looking at his works, consider the specific emotions the artist is expressing and/or trying to elicit from the viewer. In your opinion, does he succeed?

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

  • 7.5.4 Jean-Michel Basquiat  
    • Reading: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jean-Michael Basquiat”

      Link: The Art Story Foundation’s Artists: “Jean-Michel Basquiat” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the linked page in full. Few artists in history have risen to celebrity so fast, and been in such high demand, only to die so young, as Jean-Michel Basquiat. Much of Basquiat’s work was informed by his experience and proficiency as a graffiti artist (a relatively new concept at that time), and by his close friendship with Andy Warhol. Look closely at Basquiat’s Major Works and take note of how his art changed over the course of his career. Identify specific examples of graffiti and Pop Art in his work, and any other artistic styles that you can identify.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of The Art Story Foundation and can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).  Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 7 Quiz"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 7 Quiz" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download this assessment.  Please complete all of the questions for the Unit 7 Quiz, and then check your answers against the Saylor Foundation's "Answer Key to Unit 7 Quiz." (PDF) You should spend approximately 15 minutes completing this quiz. 
       

  • Final Exam  

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