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Microscopic Anatomy

Purpose of Course  showclose

In this course, you will study microscopic anatomy. The study of the structure of a cell, tissue, organ, or related feature is known as anatomy. Gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) involves examining anatomical structures that can be seen with the naked eye, whereas microscopic anatomy is the examination of minute anatomical structures that cannot be observed without the help of visual enhancement, such as a microscope. The terms microscopic anatomy and histology (the study of microscopic structure of animal and plant tissue) are used interchangeably. Many times it will be necessary to survey gross anatomy so that when you focus in on the microscopic anatomy you will have a geographical idea of the location within the body. This course makes use of microscope slides of anatomical structures to aid in the discussions of anatomy.

Unit 1 begins with an overview of basic cell structure. The study of cells is known as cytology. Cells contain numerous structures that can only be seen with the aid of specialized microscopy. These structures include the central command center known as the nucleus, where DNA is housed, duplicated, and translated into RNA. Other structures, known as organelles, include the powerhouse of the cell called the mitochondria, the ribosomes, which are central in protein synthesis, and the Golgi apparatus, which is often thought of as the protein packaging plant. The endoplasmic reticulum may be studded with ribosomes (rough) or lack ribosomes (smooth). Rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein synthesis and modification, whereas smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in lipid and steroid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

You will learn how single cells come together to make up tissues in Unit 2. You will examine epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue. Epithelial tissue provides the interior lining and covers the exterior surface of most of our body’s organs including the skin. There are several types of connective tissue. Some connective tissue types are made up of collagen, elastic, and/or reticular fibers in a strong, yet somewhat flexible matrix. Other connective tissue types are fairly hard, such as bone, or may be liquid, such as blood.

After looking at the tissue types, you will study each of the organ systems in the body, understanding how these tissues fit together structurally to form organs and organ systems that carry out specific functions. You will find information in Unit 3 that overlaps with what you have already learned in Unit 2. This should not surprise you, because all of the organs and organ systems in the body are made up of the four basic tissue types.

Microscopic anatomy is an important part of overall anatomical study. Almost all of the body’s processes that occur on the gross level (observable by the naked eye) are based upon anatomical features at the microscopic level. By studying the structure of an organ or tissue and knowing what is considered normal, it makes it easier to identify abnormal features and also to understand the mechanisms that underlie pathology.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to BIO406!

Below, please find some general information on the course and its requirements.

Course Designer: Amy L. Thompson, PhD, MLS (ASCP)

Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Pay special attention to Units 1 and 2 as these lay the groundwork for understanding the more exploratory material presented in the latter units. You will also need to complete the following:

            - Unit 1.2 Lab Exercise
            - Unit 2.1 Assessment           
            - Unit 2.2 Lab Exercise
            - Unit 3.5: Assessment
            - Unit 4.5: Assessment
            - The Final Exam

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your final exam. However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the quizzes and problem sets listed above.

In order to pass this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 82 hours to complete. Each unit contains a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time that you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit and then set goals for yourself. Use the time advisories to help you plot out your schedule of when you do each unit/subunit and on which days of the week.

Tips/Suggestions: It is important that you take notes for all readings, lectures, and learning tasks. When available, you may choose to print out articles and take notes directly on them. You may want to use the course units and their subunits to create an outline for your notes.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • differentiate among the types of microscopy and describe the importance of microscopes in microscopic anatomy;
  • correctly use the compound light microscope with a working knowledge of the function of each part;
  • identify the organelles within a eukaryotic cell and list the basic function of each;
  • compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis, identifying the steps of each in microscopic images;
  • outline what makes each epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue unique, where each is found within the body, and how each interacts with other tissue types;
  • point out circulatory system features, including intercalated disks and valves, as well as the differences among different vessel types;
  • identify the cells found in blood and the role of each;
  • define how the tissues and anatomical features that make up the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems come together structurally to support the function of these organ systems;
  • identify the features of the epidermis and dermis of the skin, including the cells, layers, glands, and other features of each layer;
  • explain how the structural arrangement of the lymphatic system and lymph node supports its physiological role of filtering;
  • compare and contrast the structural arrangement of spongy and compact bone;
  • map out the path of plasma filtrate as it moves through the neuron and into the ureter, bladder, and urethra, identifying what types of cells are located in each part;
  • describe the basic structure of endocrine organs, including the reproductive organs; and
  • identify what features make special senses tissue unique.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    have access to a computer;

√    have continuous broadband Internet access;

√    have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash);

√    have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√    have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√    be competent in the English language;

√    have read the Saylor Student Handbook.; and

√    have completed BIO101: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology and BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology of the Core Biology Program.

Unit Outline show close


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  • Unit 1: Microsopy and Microscopic Anatomy  

    In this unit, you will study the microscope and how it relates to cells and microscopic anatomy. If the microscope was not invented, the world of microscopic anatomy, as we know it, would not exist. One of the most important skills required to study microscopic anatomy is use of the microscope. First, we you will be introduced to the microscopic world and the history of how it began. Then, we will use the virtual microscope to explore and apply basic microscope techniques and principles.  

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 The World of Microscopy  
  • 1.2 Using the Compound Light Microscope  
    • Interactive Lab: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities”

      Link: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities (Quicktime)
       
      Also available in: Adobe Flash
       
      Instructions: Watch the instructional video, which introduces you to the microscope and its parts. To access the video, click on the hyperlink for “Quicktime” or “Flash Video.” Next, click on the hyperlink for the virtual scope. Since this is likely your first time using this tool, complete the tutorial, which gives clear instructions on how to use the various features. This is an excellent model of the real thing! 
                 
      Start with the slide titled “letter e,” which is a clip of an actual efrom a newspaper. Place the slide on the stage with the image placed directly below the lowest power objective (4X). Once you have the slide on the stage in the correct place, you will want to switch views so that you are looking through the oculars. At this point, you will need to adjust the focus using the coarse adjustment knob. Once you have a clear view of your image, switch the objectives to higher magnification, using only the fine focus to adjust the clarity of the image. The eimage allows you to observe how the orientation changes when using the microscope. An ein the correct orientation off the microscope will be upside down and backwards under the microscope. This is due to the two lens system – the oculars at 10X magnification and the objectives at variable magnifications. Also, notice that image stays in the center (parcenter) and for the most part focused (parfocal) as you go to higher objective magnifications. You are simply focusing in on one section of the eor image. 
                 
      The onion root slide will allow you to observe the various phases of mitosis. We will skip it for now. When you study mitosis later in this course, we will revisit this site to view the onion root tip. 
         
      The cheek smear is known as a wet mount and is made by scraping the interior of the cheek gently with a toothpick and then smearing it onto a slide with stain and covering with a coverslip. A wet mount is simply a scraping or swab of the sample that is placed on a slide sometimes in a small amount of water, covered with a thin piece of glass (coverslip), and stained. This is different from prepared slides that are pieces of sample (tissue) cut very thinly (sections), placed on the slide, and stained.     
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 2: Cellular Structure  

    This unit will discuss the basic unit of life, the cell. You will study the eukaryotic cell’s outer layer, the plasma (cell) membrane. The cell’s interior organs, known as organelles, will be identified and examined, including the cell’s control center known as the nucleus. To understand how cells work together in the microscopic environment, it is imperative that you know basic cell structure.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Including Organelles  
    • Web Media: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “An Owner's Guide to the Cell”

      Link: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “An Owner's Guide to the Cell (HTML and Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Read the text and study the beautiful images and animation that are included. Also, note the size of the organelles. Do not forget nanometer is 10-9 and micrometer (micron) is 10-6. Which one is smaller? The nanometer is smaller, because the negative before the exponent tells you to move the decimal point to the left and the number tells you how many places. Once you feel that you have mastered the material, make sure that you can answer the “Got It” questions at the bottom of the page.   
       
      Note on the Media: This website is presented by the National Institute of General Medical Science, a department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This site presents the organelles contained within the eukaryotic (animal) cell and compares eukaryotic cells to prokaryotic (bacterial) cells. 
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: WISC-Online Gerald Heins’ “A Typical Animal Cell”

      Link:  WISC-Online Gerald Heins’ “A Typical Animal Cell (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: This interactive model will allow you to drag your cursor over different organelles in a typical animal cell. The organelle will be identified and its function described. Once you feel confident that you have mastered the anatomy of the cell's organelles, click the next button to take an interactive quiz. Keep working through this activity until you have mastered the cellular organelles. 
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2 Cellular Reproduction by Meiosis and Mitosis  
    • Reading: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division”

      Link: National Institute of General Medical Science’s “Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division (HTML)
       
      Instructions: In order for tissues to remain viable and healthy, old worn out cells must be replaced with new healthy cells. This reading discusses mitosis (cell division resulting in two cells each with two copies of each chromosome) and meiosis (the process that reshuffles genetic information and produces the egg and sperm that contain one copy of each chromosome). Check your knowledge with the “Got It” questions at the bottom of the page.      
       
      Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: McGraw Hill’s “Comparison of Meiosis & Mitosis”

      Link: McGraw Hill’s “Comparison of Meiosis & Mitosis (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Watch this short video that emphasizes the differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Interactive Lab: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities”

      Link: University of Delaware Department of Biological Sciences’ “Microscopy Pre-Lab Activities (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Click on the virtual scope. We have used this tool before in subunit 1.2, but if you need a refresher, work through the tutorial. Put the onion root slide on the scope. This slide will allow you to observe the various phases of mitosis. Use what you have learned about mitosis to view the various stages in these cells. You should be able to identify prophase (chromosomes first become visible), metaphase (chromosomes meet in the middle), anaphase (chromosomes separate), telophase (nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes, chromosomes spread out, spindle breaks down), and cytokinesis (pinching in of cytoplasm and complete cell division). If you are able to find all stages, great job as you have mastered microscopy and mitosis!  
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 3: Tissue  

    In this unit, we will examine the four types of tissue that make up all of the organs and organ systems of the body. These include epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue. We will discuss how these tissues are similar and different. As you work through this unit, think about where in the body these tissues are located and how they might work together to carry out a common function.  

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Epithelial Tissue  

    NOTE: Epithelial tissue is named based on shape: squamous (flat), cuboidal (cube shaped), or columnar (column shaped) and the number of layers: simple (one layer), stratified (layered), or pseudostratified (one layer that looks like several layers).

  • 3.1.1 Features of Epithelial Tissue  
  • 3.1.2 Slides of Epithelial Tissue  
  • 3.2 Connective Tissue  
  • 3.2.1 Features of Connective Tissue  
    • Reading: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Connective Tissue Study Guide”

      Link: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Connective Tissue Study Guide (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Work your way through the page, clicking on the hyperlinks as you read. Stop when you get to Functions of Connective Tissue. Function falls under physiology and is outside the scope of this class. 
       
      Note on the text: This study guide gives you a very thorough overview of connective tissue, including its cells and fibers, where it is found, and the various types. It seems like a lot of material, but learning all of this now will better prepare you when you encounter connective tissue making up organs and organ systems. Note that Dr. King is an Associate Professor in the Department of Zoology and the Department of Anatomy at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: University of Winnipeg: Dr. Kent Simmons’ “Connective Tissue”

      Link: University of Winnipeg: Dr. Kent Simmons’ “Connective Tissue (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read through the entire webpage linked above.
       
      Note on the Text: This reading introduces you to connective tissue and includes nice microscopic images of these tissues. These online lab materials are from Dr. Simmons’ course titled Cells and Cellular Processes taught at the University of Winnipeg.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2 Slides of Connective Tissue  
    • Web Media: The Ohio State University at Lima’s “Connective Tissue”

      Link: The Ohio State University at Lima’s “Connective Tissue” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on each hyperlink to view some of the connective tissue types found in the body. 
       
      Note on the Media: Connective tissue available to view include adipose (fat), areolar (the most widely distributed type of connective tissue), dense regular (found connecting bones to bone and muscle to bone), and blood. 
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3 Muscle Tissue  
  • 3.3.1 Features of Muscle Tissue  
  • 3.3.2 Slides of Muscle Tissue  
    • Lecture: Wisc-Online: Barbara Liang’s “Muscle and Connective Tissue”

      Link: Wisc-Online: Barbara Liang’s “Muscle and Connective Tissue (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Read each slide in this presentation and view the photos carefully. You may use the “back” and “next” buttons to move from one slide to the next. Also, at the end you can test your knowledge of muscle and connective tissue using the interactive quiz. 
       
      Note on the Text: This presentation discusses the different muscle types as well as connective tissue types. Thus, this media also covers section 2.2 of this course. The material housed on this online library is created by faculty from the Wisconsin Technical College System.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.4 Nervous Tissue  

    NOTE: The neuron is the nervous system cell responsible for signaling. The cell body, where the nucleus is found in the neuron, is known as the soma. Short projections, known as dendrites, bring the signal into the cell and a longer projection, known as the axon, carries the signal away from the cell body.  

  • 3.4.1 Features of Nervous Tissue  
    • Lecture: Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s “Nervous Tissue”

      Link: Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine: Dr. Thomas Caceci’s “Nervous Tissue (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read through the entire lecture linked above.
       
      Note on the Lecture: Dr. Caceci’s nervous tissue laboratory exercise not only does an excellent job of explaining the structural anatomy of nervous tissue, but it also discusses the stains necessary to visualize nervous tissue microscopically. Although slides of the brain and spinal cord are included in this exercise, you can stop when you get to Nervous System Organs.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.4.2 Slides of Nervous Tissue  
  • 3.5 Review of Tissues  
  • Unit 4: Organs and Organ Systems  

    In this unit, we will examine the microscopic anatomy of the organ systems that make up the body. Each system will be introduced with histological features identified. It is sometimes necessary to understand the function of the cell, tissue, or organ in order to make the connection between anatomy and physiology (structure and function). Remember, that all of the organs and organ systems are comprised of the four tissues – epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous – that we just studied in the previous unit.   

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Circulatory System  
  • 4.1.1 Heart and Blood Vessels  

    NOTE: The heart is made up the endocardium (epithelial and connective tissue), myocardium (muscle tissue), and epicardium (the outer layer).  

  • 4.1.2 Blood and Bone Marrow  
    • Lecture: YouTube: University of Missouri School of Medicine: Dr. William J. Krause’s “Histology of Blood & Bone Marrow”

      Link: YouTube: University of Missouri School of Medicine: Dr. William J. Krause’s “Histology of Blood & Bone Marrow (YouTube)
        
      Instructions: Watch Dr. Krause’s video lecture on blood and bone marrow. 

      Watching this video should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
       
      Note on the Lecture: This lecture does a great job of identifying the cells normally found in the blood. In blood there are leukocytes (white blood cells), erythrocytes (red blood cells), and platelets. There are five types of leukocytes. These include neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant and are elevated when a bacterial infection is present. Lymphocytes differentiate into B and T cells, which are important in the adaptive immune response including antibody production. They are the second most abundant cells. Dr. Krause also discusses the cells that are present during certain disease states.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2 Gastrointestinal System  

    NOTE: The accessory glands associated with this system include the pancreas (which has both endocrine and exocrine function), gastric glands, salivary glands, and others. 

    • Web Media: University of Leicester: The Virtual Autopsy’s “Gastrointestinal System”

      Link: University of Leicester: The Virtual Autopsy’s “Gastrointestinal System (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This is a great introduction to the gastrointestinal tract. Click through the colored areas on the model’s anatomy for explanations of each body part, as well as histology slides. Pay close attention to the tissues that make up the gastrointestinal tract and the special anatomical features of these tissues. Notice how the muscle type changes throughout the gastrointestinal tract and as with many of our other organ systems, simple squamous epithelial cells line their interior. Look at the special features of the epithelial tissue in the intestines.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Southern Illinois School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Study Guide Histology of the Gastrointestinal System”

      Link: Southern Illinois School of Medicine: Dr. David King’s “Study Guide Histology of the Gastrointestinal System” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Review the layers and regions, special features, and cell types of the gastrointestinal tract sections. There is a lot of material covered in this section. Start with the oral cavity then the esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines to the anus. As you are reviewing the microscopic anatomy, think about where the accessory glands fit into this system. Once you complete this section, click on the hyperlinks for liver and glands. Focus on the bigger picture for the glands – how does each supply a fluid or substance that aids in the digestive process. For example, salivary glands secrete saliva for mechanical digestion (and since it contains amylase to break down starch – chemical digestion). In much of the intestines, Goblet cells secrete lubricating mucous. The liver also has a major role in digestion – producing bile to break down lipids and also serving in numerous other processes.      
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 4.3 Respiratory System  
    • Web Media: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s “How the Lungs Work”

      Link: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s “How the Lungs Work” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: This resource provides an overview of the respiratory system. Click through the hyperlinks for each section listed in the box on the left. When you get to the screen “What Happens When You Breathe,” watch the animation, which includes the basic microscopic anatomy of the lungs. Focus on the microscopic structure and how the pulmonary vein supplies the oxygen to the air sacs alveoli) that is then transferred to red blood cells. This is a classic example of how structure is important for function (physiology).
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

    • Reading: Gateway Community College: J. Crimando’s “Respiratory System”

      Link: Gateway Community College: J. Crimando’s “Respiratory System” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This webpage begins with a slide of a normal lung. Review this slide and then click on each subsequent slide at the bottom of the webpage to continue viewing slides of the respiratory system, which include more slides of a normal lung, emphysema lung, and anthracosis lung. Notice how the microscopic anatomy changes as the inflammatory process is initiated.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.4 Integumentary System  

    NOTE: The outermost layer of skin is the epidermis and is actually several layers of both dead and living cells. It has a nerve supply but no vascular (blood vessel) supply. The layer beneath the epidermis is known as the dermis. This layer contains oil and sweat gland, as well as the hair follicle and has both nerve and vascular supply. 

  • 4.5 Lymphatic System  
  • 4.6 Skeletal System  

    NOTE: Bones within the body are made up of compact and spongy bone. The osteon arrangement of compact bone is also known as the Haversian System.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Skeletal System Bone Structure”

      Link: YouTube: Great Pacific Media’s “Skeletal System Bone Structure (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this brief video which introduces the skeletal system and overviews the microscopic anatomy of bone.

      Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Bone Model Osteon”

      Link: YouTube: Modesto Junior College: Dr. Robert Droual’s “Bone Model Osteon (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this brief video lecture that introduces the osteon, which makes up compact bone. Notice the distinct features of compact bone – the central canal with blood vessel supply surrounded by concentric rings (lamellae) containing osteocytes (mature bone cells) in little cocoons known as lacunae. The central blood vessel brings in the nutrients that must be distributed from the center out through projections known as canaliculi to each osteocyte in the concentric lamellae. Wastes are similarly brought back through this system to reach the blood vessel for removal.   

      Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Southern Illinois University: Dr. David King’s “Skeletal Tissue (Bone and Cartilage)”

      Link: Southern Illinois University: Dr. David King’s “Skeletal Tissue (Bone and Cartilage) (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read this entire text, which provides a good deal of information about bone, cartilage, and the joints that stabilize bones. Pay close attention to the histology (tissue) slides that are presented. Notice how the histology slide so closely resembles the model that you observed previously.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.7 Renal System  

    NOTE: The renal (urinary) system includes the kidneys that filter blood to make urine, the ureters that drain the kidneys (or nephrons) into the bladder, the urinary bladder, and the urethra, which allows urine to pass out of the body. The nephron’s glomerulus filters blood plasma (the liquid part of the blood minus the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). The filtrate moves into the proximal convoluted tubule, then the Loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule, before finally making its way into the collecting duct. Distinct anatomical differences exist in the various sections of the nephron depending upon function.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Handwritten Tutorial’s “The Nephron Function”

       Link: YouTube: Handwritten Tutorial’s “Nephron Function” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this video for a brief overview of how the nephrons in the kidney filter blood and reabsorb water and other molecules.

      Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.
        
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 12: Urinary System”

      Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 12: Urinary System (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read this entire webpage, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. 
       
      Note on the Text: This reading includes a brief description of the urinary system’s function and includes detailed pictures of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Notice how the kidney is made up of the outermost layer, the cortex and the innermost layer, the medulla with distinct vascular supply.   
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “The Kidney and the Nephron”

      Link: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “The Kidney and the Nephron” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Watch this video for a more in depth look at the anatomy and biological functions of the kidney and nephron.

      Watching this video should take approximately 20 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use as displayed on the webpages above.

  • 4.8 Endocrine System  

    NOTE: The endocrine system is made up of a large number of organs and glands that secrete hormones. This is a ductless system as the hormones are secreted directly into the surrounding tissue and then make their way to the bloodstream. Hormones travel in the blood until they find their target tissue receptors. Unlike the nervous system, which rapidly signals and has a short lived response, the endocrine system takes longer to initiate a response, but this response is longer lived. 

  • 4.9 Special Senses  

    NOTE: The special senses include sight, smell, taste, hearing, and equilibrium.

  • 4.10 Female Reproductive System  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Fabian’s “Female Reproductive System”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Fabian’s “Female Reproductive System (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this video which introduces you to the anatomy of the female reproductive system. Make sure that you understand the gross anatomy so that when we look at tissue slides, you can make the connection between microscopic and macroscopic (gross) features.

      Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 13: Female Reproductive System”

      Link: Anatomy Atlases: Dr. Ronald A. Bergman’s, Dr. Adel K. Afifi’s, and Dr. Paul M. Heidger’s “Section 13: Female Reproductive System (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read the entire webpage linked here, and click on the hyperlinks for each plate at the top of the webpage or use the “Next” hyperlink at the bottom of the page to view the photos. This reading includes microscopic anatomy of the female reproductive system. Pay special attention to the various follicles and how the development of one follicle will ultimately lead to the ovulation of one egg. Also, note the types of cells that make up the tissue/organs of the female reproductive system.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.11 Male Reproductive System  
  • 4.12 Nervous System  
    • Lecture: West Virginia University: Dr. Rodney Brundage’s “Chapter 5 Central Nervous System I”

      Link: West Virginia University: Dr. Rodney Brundage’s “Chapter 5 Central Nervous System I” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: View these lecture slides. Use the gray box with the single right-facing arrow to move forward and the gray box with the single left-facing arrow to move back.
       
      Note on the Lecture: We already covered the nervous tissue and discussed the main nervous system cell, the neuron. It is also important that you have a good understanding of this system as a whole. This PowerPoint lecture set gives a good explanation of the parts of the nervous system, including the supportive cells of the nervous system known as glial cells.
       
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  • 4.13 Muscular System  
    • Reading: Prentice Hall: Ric Martini’s Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology: “Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue”

      Link: Prentice Hall: Ric Martini’s Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology“Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read the entire text linked above, using the arrows to click through each page.
       
      Note on the Text: Like the nervous system, we have already covered aspects of the muscular system when we looked at muscle tissue. At this point, you should already know that cardiac muscle is exclusively found in the heart and smooth muscle is found lining hollow organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and bladder. The descriptor “muscular system” in scientific literature largely refers to skeletal muscle and it function. This reading focuses exclusively on skeletal muscle and provides a thorough overview of the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle. 
       
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  • Final Exam  

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