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Public Speaking

Purpose of Course  showclose

The purpose of this course is to systematically examine the elements and factors which result in an effective speech.  The textbook and associated lectures present an element-by-element examination of the essentials of public speaking while also identifying traits of the individual speaker and how they impact preparation and presentation.  In addition to these resources, a comprehensive series of brief videos demonstrate specific, performance-oriented aspects of public speaking.  Tying each of these course elements together are the themes of information and ethics, emphasized in each resource because they are becoming increasingly important to all communicators.  For example, the textbook constantly returns to the discussion of society’s ever-increasing access to information and the demands on the individual to use it effectively and ethically.  The authors note that “the New York Times has more information in one week than individuals in the 1800s would encounter in a lifetime,” which illustrates the challenges speakers face beyond the ready-made burden of coping with the inevitable anxieties of speaking to the public.  In spite of that environment, ethical communication means not only accepting responsibility for the information one presents, but also speaking up when others abuse their information platforms.

You should be aware that the textbook, Stand up, Speak out – The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking, drives the content of each unit and thus will help you anticipate, absorb, and integrate the information more efficiently than the lectures.  The most distinguishing trait of the textbook is the way it breaks topics down into categories and subcategories. You should notice immediately how this is presented in this first unit of the course, paying particular attention to the most frequently used word which signals such categorization, “type,” because knowing the “types” a subject can be classified into is equivalent to learning the options a speaker has when strategizing about what content or technique will be effective.  Lastly, you should be aware that you will have the opportunity to use the abbreviated contents from a second textbook in conjunction with many of the video lectures.  Although those lectures closely follow the 10th edition of Stephen Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking, the online resources that you can access are from its 8th edition; nevertheless, you will still find that the chapter outlines, summary, and crossword puzzles in the older text are relevant and helpful tools for listening and responding to the lectures.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to COMM101: Public Speaking.  Below, please find general information on this course and its requirements.

Course Designer: P. Wynn Norman

Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following resource:

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials.  Pay special attention to Unit 1 as this lays the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the later units.  You will also need to complete: 

  • Unit 1 Assignment
  • Unit 2 Assignment
  • Unit 3 Assignment
  • Unit 4 Assignment
  • Unit 5 Assignment
  • Unit 6 Assignment
  • Unit 7 Assignment
  • Unit 8 Assignment
  • Unit 9 Assignment
  • Unit 10 Assignment
  • Unit 11 Assignment
  • Unit 12 Assignment
  • Unit 13 Assignment
  • Unit 14 Assignment
  • Unit 15 Assignment
  • The Final Exam

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the materials in each unit.

In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam.  Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 92 hours to complete.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  These should help you plan your time accordingly.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.  For example, perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunits 1.1 and 1.2 (approximately 2.5 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.3 (approximately 3.5 hours) on Tuesday night; etc.

Tips/Suggestions: To gain maximum benefit from the resources in this course, it is recommended that you review the reading assignments and then listen to the lectures, most of which are closely aligned with the readings.  As you read, take careful notes on a separate sheet of paper.  Mark down any important information and advice on effective communication that stand out to you.  These notes will be useful to use for review as you study for your Final Exam.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
  • Resolve ethical issues involving speech preparation and presentation.
  • Recommend techniques for resolving issues, which may interfere with active listening.
  • Identify the most effective speech topics, qualities, content, and delivery techniques based on the specific characteristics of an audience.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of speeches for different types of audiences.
  • Use online and library-based research to find and critique the credibility of sources of information.
  • Cite sources of information appropriately, accurately, and clearly in both spoken and written contexts.
  • Choose the most effective pattern of organization for presenting different types of information to a listening audience.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of supporting details or evidence based on the main ideas or arguments they are used to support.
  • Choose the most appropriate pattern for organizing a persuasive speech, based on the relationship between arguments and evidence or the relationship between the topic and the audience.
  • Identify whether the functions of an introduction or conclusion have been fulfilled and will be effective when presented to a specific type of audience.
  • Create keyword and sentence outlines for informative and persuasive speeches.
  • Revise a passage written for readers so that it can be delivered effectively and engagingly to listeners.
  • Identify and use techniques to improve the fluidity and clarity of verbal delivery.
  • Recognize non-verbal techniques that communicate the speaker’s confidence and credibility in a sample speech.
  • Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of effective, ethical public speaking by accurately and thoroughly assessing the qualities of entire informative, persuasive, and special occasion speeches. 

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g. Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Have competency in the English language.

√    Have the ability to play a YouTube video from a precise timing point in a recording.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

Preliminary Information

  • Stand Up, Speak Out - The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking

    You will be prompted to read sections of this book throughout the course.  You may choose to download the text in full now and skip to the appropriate section as prompted by the resource boxes below, or you can simply download the specific sections of the text assigned as you progress through each resource box below.

    Link: Stand Up, Speak Out - The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking (PDF)

    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Why Public Speaking Matters Today  

    If you are reading this material in or within a few years of 2011, you probably remember the public protests which rocked the world.  In northern Africa, in the United States, in Russia and in many other countries, people protesting their governments’ decision-making dominated the news sections of many media outlets.  These protests—literally “mass” communication: from people to people—represent just one of many reasons why public speaking matters today.  Although it can now take on many forms and formats, from standing in front of a crowd to tweeting, emailing, posting on a social media site, or commenting in the discussion area after a news article, communicating in public matters today for the same reason has always mattered, because it can be one of the most effective ways for the voices of the people to be heard.  Recognize, however, that due to the primary textbook this course utilizes, the material in this unit approaches public speaking with an inevitably American cultural bias.  Moreover, it is unethical to force one’s cultural biases onto others and expect them to conform.  The content which ends this unit covers the topic of ethics in public speaking, completing this introductory examination of the subject in a manner that should encourage you to become more aware of and sensitive about such issues, which also illustrate why public speaking matters today.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Why Is Public Speaking Important?  
  • 1.1.1 Three Types of Public Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  As with most of the subunits in this course, you will find that the topic has been divided into distinct subtopics.  The course introduction noted that this is a useful trait of the textbook which you should take advantage of.  Therefore, to cover this topic of subunit 1.1.1, you should pay particular attention to the distinguishing features of each of the three types of public speaking covered in this subunit: informative, persuasive, and entertaining.  Each type is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 1.1: Why Is Public Speaking Important?” reading.

  • 1.1.2 Personal Benefits of Public Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 1.1: Why Is Public Speaking Important?” reading.  To absorb this topic efficiently, you should focus on developing a list of the personal benefits of public speaking based on the readings in this section.

  • 1.2 The Process of Public Speaking  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1, Section 1.2: The Process of Public Speaking”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1, Section 1.2: The Process of Public Speaking”  (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read Section 1.2, which will enable you to identify the three most important elements which influence the process of public speaking.  The section also provides a brief introduction to several important models of public speaking, including the Shannon and Weaver model of communication.  Models attempt to diagram how the elements of a process interact and to explain outcomes.  Like checklists, models are useful reminders of the elements you should consider, anticipate, adjust, and, if possible, adapt to if you are planning a speech.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading (think of question 2 hypothetically, keeping in mind what speech you may want to deliver).  Please note that this reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 1.2.1 and 1.2.2, as well as any inclusive sections.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Summary”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Summary” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the summary of Chapter 1 of Lucas’ textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor’s lecture.  This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter’s details which Dr. Phillips’ lecture also presents. As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1”

      Link: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1” (iTunes Video)
       
      Instructions: Watch this entire 16-minute video about “Speaking in Public,” listening carefully for how the content it covers corresponds to the material presented in the chapter summary.  Being diligent about this process will enable you to perform successfully on the subunit assignments that follow.  This lecture is associated with subunit 1.2 in its entirety.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 1.2.1 Models of Public Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  For this topic, you should note the distinguishing features of each of the two models of public speaking: interactional and transactional.  Each type is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 1.2: The Process of Public Speaking” reading.

  • 1.2.2 The Dialogic Theory of Public Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  For this subunit, you should note that the dialogic theory of public speaking helps to explain three relationships: the contrasting relationship of dialogue and monologue; the relationship between meaning, people, and words; and the relationship between contexts and social situations.  The latter relationship itself can be further broken down into four dimensions: physical, temporal, social psychological, and cultural.  Each relationship and dimension is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 1.2: The Process of Public Speaking” reading.

  • 1.3 Public Speaking and Ethics  
    • Reading: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Summary”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Summary” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the summary of Chapter 2 of Lucas’ textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor’s lecture.  This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter’s details which Dr. Phillips’ lecture also presents. As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively.  Also, note that this course treats Dr. Phillips’ lecture as an introduction to the broad topic of Ethics in Public Speaking.  Subsequent subunits include reading from the textbook that cover the subject in greater depth.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2”

      Link: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2”  (iTunes Video)
       
      Instructions: Watch this entire 29-minute video about “Ethics and Public Speaking,” listening carefully for how the content it covers corresponds to the material presented in the chapter summary.  Being diligent about this process will enable you to perform successfully on the subunit assignments that follow.  This lecture is associated with subunit 1.3 in its entirety.  As a result, you should approach this lecture as an introduction to the broad topic of Ethics in Public Speaking.  Subsequent subunits include reading from the textbook that cover the subject in greater depth.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 1.3.1 The Ethics Pyramid  
  • 1.3.2 Ethics in Public Speaking  
  • Unit 1 Assignments and Assessments  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 9 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described. If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware, also, that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard. This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later, and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 1 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 24 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type. You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text that will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 10 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 2 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 19 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type. You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text that will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Ethics in Public Speaking”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Ethics in Public Speaking” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Use your browser’s search function to look up statements from a student’s speech.  Based on other sources you do or do not find that use the same statements, indicate whether their use was unethical, and explain your decision by using the table provided for you to record your responses.  Once you have completed the table, which should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete, compare your work to The Saylor Foundation’s “Ethics Assignment Answers” (PDF).

  • Unit 2: Speaking Confidently  

    Unfortunately, understanding the anxiety which you may experience about public speaking does not necessarily help to alleviate it.  However, as this unit of the course emphasizes, recognizing how your anxiety manifests itself in your behavior and then being able to try out a few recommendations for managing it can at least make you feel more empowered to carry on regardless.  This unit will explore what is communication apprehension, where it comes from, and suggestions and tips on how it can be minimized.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 What is Communication Apprehension?  
  • 2.1.1 Definition  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  The most important point you should take away from this material is that communication apprehension has physical as well as psychological characteristics as its basis that must be managed by a public speaker.

  • 2.1.2 Psychological Symptoms  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  It is focused on explaining how to recognize the psychological symptoms of communication apprehension and in pointing out how good speakers learn how to channel such reactions into positive behaviors.  Each myth is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 3.1: What Is Communication Apprehension” reading.

  • 2.1.3 Apprehension Myths  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  It presents eight myths about apprehension, the misunderstanding of which can cause speakers to be less effective when attempting to cope with the syndrome. Each myth is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 3.1: What Is Communication Apprehension” reading.

  • 2.2 Sources of Communication Apprehension  
  • 2.2.1 Types of Communication Apprehension  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  As with most of the subunits in this course, you will find that the topic has been divided into distinct subtopics.  By paying particular attention to the distinguishing features of the four types of communication anxiety, trait, context, audience and situational anxiety, you will be able to pinpoint better the origins of your own apprehension.  Each type is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 3.2: All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of Communication Apprehension” reading.

  • 2.2.2 Factors That Cause Apprehension  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  This reading emphasizes that while formality, familiarity, novelty, similarity, and subordination are five characteristics of the communication situation that tend to influence a speaker’s level of communication apprehension, not all have negative impacts.  Each factor is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 3.2: All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of Communication Apprehension” reading.

  • 2.3 Reducing Communication Apprehension  
  • 2.3.1 Speech Related Considerations  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  To get the most out of this material, consider how the three considerations which can impact speaking anxiety—positive thinking, preparation, and delivery nervousness—apply to your own, personal public speaking characteristics.  Upon completing the reading, consider prioritizing those considerations so you can plan to spend more time on the one(s) most relevant to your situation.  Each consideration is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 3.3: Reducing Communication Apprehension” reading.

  • 2.3.2 Stress Management Techniques  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3 and presents two ways to manage the stress that leads to communication anxiety: positive visualization and systematic desensitization.  As you cover this material, think back to Michael Motley’s classroom lecture (subunit 2.3), and note how many of his recommendations correspond to one of these methods.

  • 2.4 Coping With The Unexpected  
  • Unit 2 Assignment  
  • Unit 3: The Importance of Listening  

    Every speech course includes a unit on listening, even though most people do not associate the subjects with each other.  Yet, it is very important that you associate listening habits with public speaking skills and public speaking presentations.  A well-known saying is that you should “walk a mile in another man’s shoes” in order to understand that person.  That also applies to speech audiences; you need to imagine what it would be like to be your own audience.  This means assessing your personal listening habits as well as those of your anticipated audience.  Unit 4 introduces audience analysis as one of the ways to proceed with that assessment, but in this unit, the focus is on the general traits possessed by all listeners and how you should plan your speech with those traits in mind. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Listening vs. Hearing  
  • 3.1.1 Difference Between Listening and Hearing  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.1.  For this subunit, you should focus on understanding the difference between listening and hearing.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.1: Listening vs. Hearing” reading.

  • 3.1.2 Benefits of Listening  

    Note:  This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.1.  For this subunit, pay attention to the four major benefits of good listening: that you become a better student, that you become a better friend, that people will perceive you as intelligent and perceptive, and that good listening can help your public speaking. Each of these benefits is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.1: Listening vs. Hearing” reading.

  • 3.2 Listening Styles  
  • 3.3 Why Listening is Difficult  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4, Section 4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4, Section 4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of Section 4.3, which focuses on factors that can interfere with effective listening, which the textbook defines as “noise.”  One way to remember what noise refers to is also a memorable definition: noise is anything which interferes with the transmission, reception, comprehension, or retention of a message.  As with all of the material in this fourth chapter of the textbook, the point of this section is to provide information for a speaker to use in preparing for a speech.  Understanding listening behaviors enables a speaker to modify the content or the environment of a speech to minimize the negative effects of poor listening habits or circumstances.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading; it may help to work with a group of friends or family members to address question 1.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 3.3.1 Noise  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3 and focuses on how you can reduce physical, psychological, physiological, and semantic noise, each of which are introduced by a subheading in the Section 4.3 reading. Pay particular attention to the table in Figure 4.2, which provides clarifying examples of each noise type.

  • 3.3.2 Attention Span  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3 and focuses on the relationship between the length of time a person is expected to pay attention and that person’s ability to pay attention.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult” reading.

  • 3.3.3 Receiver Bias  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3 and involves how audience member’s preconceived notions about the speaker and/or the topic of a speech can influence how they listen. This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult” reading.

  • 3.3.4 Listening or Receiver Apprehension  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  To understand how to reduce this type of apprehension in yourself or an audience, the first step is to pay attention to how the emotion is defined in the textbook: “the fear that you might be unable to understand the message or process the information correctly or be able to adapt your thinking to include the new information coherently."  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.3: Why Listening Is Difficult” reading.

  • 3.4 Listening as a Process: Stages of Listening  
  • 3.4.1 Receiving  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.4.  To absorb this topic effectively, you should focus on the examples that are provided near the end of section, because they illustrate the kind of issues which can arise during this stage of listening.  This topic is introduced by a heading in the “Section 4.4: Stages of Listening” reading.

  • 3.4.2 Understanding  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.4.  To absorb this topic effectively, you should focus on the examples that are provided near the end of section, because they illustrate the kind of issues which can arise during this stage of listening. This topic is introduced by a heading in the “Section 4.4: Stages of Listening” reading.

  • 3.4.3 Remembering  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.4.  To absorb this topic effectively, you should focus on the examples that are provided near the end of section, because they illustrate the kind of issues which can arise during this stage of listening.  This topic is introduced by a heading in the “Section 4.4: Stages of Listening” reading.

  • 3.4.4 Evaluating  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.4.  To absorb this topic effectively, you should focus on the examples that are provided near the end of section, because they illustrate the kind of issues which can arise during this stage of listening.  This topic is introduced by a heading in the “Section 4.4: Stages of Listening” reading.

  • 3.4.5 Responding  

    Note: This topic, also referred to as “feedback,” is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.4. Pay particular attention to the difference between responses that are formative in nature verses those that are summative. This material is introduced by a heading in the “Section 4.4: Stages of Listening” reading.

  • 3.5 Listening Critically  
  • 3.5.1 Ways to Improve Critical Listening  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.5.  It focuses on how you can improve your critical listening skills by recognizing the difference between facts and opinions, uncovering assumptions, being open to new ideas, relying on reason and common sense, and taking notes.  Pay particular attention to the table in Figure 4.1, which makes important distinctions between facts and assumptions that many listeners tend to overlook.  Each technique in this subunit is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 4.5: Listening Critically” reading. 
     

  • 3.5.2 Listening Ethically  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.5.  It is important that you keep in mind the cultural differences through which you, or others, may interpret what the textbook refers to as “honest intentions” and “decency.” However, using the same interpretation is not as important as recognizing how an audience that listens helpfully rather than harmfully can influence a speaker's performance and effectiveness.

  • Unit 3 Assignments and Assessments  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 3 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 3 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions:  After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 9 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 3 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 3 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 19 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions. You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Listening Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Listening Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above to download the instructions for the listening assignment.  Please take extra care to read and follow the instructions without deviation.  This assignment should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.  When you are finished, check your answers against the “Listening Assignment Answer Key” (PDF)
       

  • Unit 4: Audience Analysis  

    The Shannon and Weaver model of communication introduced in Unit 1 (see the Section 1.2 reading in Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking) identifies all of the elements which influence the process of communication, and because it is a model intended to apply to a wide range of communication situations, it uses generic terms for those elements: “source,” not “speaker;” “receiver,” not “audience;” “noise,” not “distraction,” for example.  Considering your “audience” in the generic sense of being “receivers” of your messages is a good way to approach the contents of this unit.  The word “audience” tends to imply the passivity of sitting before a television or a stage or a book, as spectators not participants.  However, in reality audiences are far more active than that, and using Shannon and Weaver’s generic terms, you can frame this concept of the audience as a receiver more clearly.  A source sends a message to a receiver in the same way a pitcher tosses a ball to a batter.  The pitcher analyzes, among other things, the batter’s stance and perhaps what is known about the batter’s swinging style, temperament, or weaknesses.  Then, the pitcher throws the ball and the batter reacts either by swinging, because the throw was good, or by stepping back because the ball was foul.  Communication audiences react much like batters; their responses are based on how the ball—the message—is sent to them.  The analogy breaks down at this point, however, because in the game of baseball, the pitcher does not want the batter to connect with the ball, while in public speaking, that connection is your goal.  As you review the materials in this unit, keep in mind that audiences are not passive.  They stand at bat, ready to swing and hit, swing and miss, or stand back and let your message just pass them by.   

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Why Conduct an Audience Analysis?  
  • 4.1.1 Defining Audience Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.1.  To cover this topic, focus on the relationship between the terms “audience-centered” and “audience analysis” to understand how that relationship explains why effective speakers present speeches “for” an audience, rather than “to” an audience, and thus create content that has a more lasting impact.  This information is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 5.1: Why Conduct an Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.1.2 Reasons for Audience Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.1.  Conducting an audience analysis is a complicated task, which is why the textbook divides that task into four areas, each of which you should pay particular attention to because without them, your audience analysis may prove to be insufficient. Although not ordered into steps, you can approach these areas sequentially, starting with acknowledging the audience, then choosing a worthwhile topic given that audience, adapting that topic to the audience’s specific needs, and lastly developing ethos to insure that your audience cares about the topic you have chosen.  Each of these areas is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 5.1: Why Conduct an Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.2 Three Types of Audience Analysis  
  • 4.2.1 Demographic Audience Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  The most commonly used breakdown of demographic audience information includes age, gender, culture, religion, group membership, education, and occupation. Moreover, of all the topic breakdowns covered in this course, this is one that any good speaker should be able to recite without notes, because they are such an important part of speech planning.  As a result, spend time committing them to memory.  To absorb those other ways more effectively, also pay attention to how they are covered in the web media resources in this subunit, Tracy Goodwin’s “Public Speaking Tips” video series.  Each of these topics is introduced in the textbook under a heading in the “Section 5.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.2.2 Psychological Audience Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  Psychological audience analysis will help you to identify preexisting notions held by an audience which fall into two categories: notions about your topic and notions about you.  While both can be difficult to assess accurately, you should recognize that the technique for addressing them is simply a matter of providing your audience with information about yourself and your topic, actions which are usually initiated in the introduction section of your speech.  Keep this in mind when you encounter the material in this course that covers how to develop your speech introduction.  These topics are introduced in the textbook under headings in the “Section 5.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.2.3 Situational Audience Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  Many of the audience characteristics that audience analysis identifies require you to adjust your speech; however, many situational traits, if they are addressed early enough in the speech preparation process, can actually be dealt with by adjusting you audience.  Whether the person is you or your speech organizer, someone controls the situation in which your speech will take place and therefore someone has the ability to influence the size of your audience, the occasion in which it takes place, whether the audience is listening voluntarily or involuntarily, and characteristics of the speech’s physical setting.  These topics are introduced in the textbook under headings in the “Section 5.2: Three Types of Audience Analysis” reading.
     

  • 4.3 Conducting Audience Analysis  
  • 4.3.1 Direct Observation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  For this subunit, you should focus on how you can use direction observation as a tool for gathering information about an audience.  Evaluate the recommendations in the textbook which you can or cannot accommodate and focus on the ones that are doable.  This material is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.3: Conducting Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.3.2 Interviews and Surveys  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  For this subunit, you should focus on whether and when you can use interviews and surveys as a tool for gathering information about your audience.  Evaluate the recommendations in the textbook which you can or cannot accommodate and focus on the ones that are doable.  This material is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.3: Conducting Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.3.3 Focus Groups  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  For this subunit, you should focus on the general nature of focus groups that can be translated in your specific circumstances since the validity and thus the usefulness of this tool is heavily reliant on how appropriately the focus groups are created. Most individual speakers do not have the skill or resources to set up focus groups effectively.  This material is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.3: Conducting Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.3.4 Using Existing Data About Your Audience  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  Unlike the previous subunit, existing data is an audience analysis tool which most speakers can access and utilize.  As a result, focus on where you can obtain the data as you review this material, which is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.3: Conducting Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.4 Using Your Audience Analysis  
  • 4.4.1 Prepare Content With Your Audience In Mind  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  It is hard to absorb information about audience analysis without using it, which is why you should read the material in this subunit with the intent of applying it to the assignments at the end of this unit, which tie together the many details involving audience analysis that have been covered.  Moreover, realize that because understanding audiences and using that understanding to improve the effectiveness of your speech is so important, you will be revisiting this subject in the next unit too.  This material is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.4: Using Your Audience Analysis” reading.

  • 4.4.2 Adjusting Your Speech Based On Your Analysis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  You may think that the textbook could have dealt with this topic and the preceding one at the same time.  However, recognize that this subunit focuses on adjustments that you should make during your presentation, while the preceding material concerns actions you can take before the speech.  This topic is introduced by a heading in the “Section 5.4: Using Your Audience Analysis” reading.

  • Unit 4 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 5 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 5 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 10 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 5 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 5 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 24 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text, which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Audience Analysis Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Audience Analysis Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard and study question assignments, open the link to the Audience Analysis Assignment, and follow the instructions.  This assignment, which should take you about 30 minutes to complete, assumes that you to have some familiarity with breakfast cereals marketed mostly in the U.S.; however, links to helpful websites have also been provided to enable you to assess the cereals’ intended audiences.  Be aware that you will be revisiting these audiences in the assignment for Unit 5.  When you have finished, check your answers against the “Audience Analysis Assignment Answer Key” (PDF)

  • Unit 5: Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic  

    More often than not, the purpose and topic of your speech will be determined for you by outside factors such as the context of your speech and its audience.  Nevertheless, it remains your responsibility to narrow the topic of your speech such that it suits the nature of your audience, your own interests, and other factors associated with the setting and occasion.  This unit examines all of the elements in the speech context which should influence your decisions. The operational word in the preceding sentence, however, is “should.” Many inexperienced speakers do not take the time to fully analyze those elements which “should” determine the nature of their speech.  The relationship between purpose and audience is one example of this problem.  The only time an effective communicator does not analyze his or her audience with respect to the purpose of a speech is when he or she does not care how an audience receives or reacts to its message.  To understand how important this is, consider the four goals of communication, three of which you will encounter in this course: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, and to express.  Teachers inform, politicians persuade, comedians entertain, but who expresses?  One answer could be artists.  What impact does a poet seek in presenting a poem?  To answer that, consider first what impact a communicator has with the other types: to inform someone of something, to persuade someone to do something, to entertain someone.  But there is no “someone” at the other end of “to express,” is there?  And what about communicators who are not artists, but who also seek to express themselves anyway?  One example of this occurs when an angry person swears.  The problem that arises with expression, which could be defined as communicating with no consideration of context or audience, is that the speaker has little control over the effects, as the frequently offensive nature of swearing illustrates. In this unit, you will study the various purposes of speech-giving, as well as tips and suggestions for selecting a topic for your speech.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 General Purposes of Speaking: To Inform, To Persuade, To Entertain  
  • 5.1.1 To Inform  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  To cover this topic of one of the general purposes of giving a speech, you should note the distinguishing features of each of the six common types of informative topics: objects, people, events, concepts, processes, and issues.  This topic is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 6.1: General Purposes of Speaking” reading.

  • 5.1.2 To Persuade  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In reading this material, make sure you are connecting manipulative persuasion with unethical practices, even though the reading does not emphasize that relationship. In addition, pay particular attention to the two objectives of persuasion: to change behavior or to change attitudes, values, or beliefs.  It is also important that you understand how values differ from beliefs, how core beliefs differ from dispositional belief, and which of each set is more difficult to change.  This topic is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.1: General Purposes of Speaking” reading.

  • 5.1.3 To Entertain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  To cover the topic of entertaining as one of the general purposes of giving a speech, you should note the distinguishing features of each of the three common types of speeches to entertain: the after-dinner speech, the ceremonial speech, and the inspirational speech.  This topic is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.1: General Purposes of Speaking” reading.

  • 5.2 Selecting a Topic  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6, Section 6.2: Selecting a Topic”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6, Section 6.2: Selecting a Topic” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the entire Section 6.2, which ends with a set of questions about how appropriately you have chosen your topic.  The questions are very important, because topics which are poorly chosen are difficult to develop and to deliver.  This is why, before you put a lot of time into a topic, you should be disciplined in answering the four questions posed in this section.  Neglecting this step can result in a lot of wasted time and effort.  In fact, this step is so important in developing a speech that it will be revisited briefly in Unit 7 in which some duplication of this content will occur.  However, Unit 7 includes additional examples and helpful quizzes which will serve to reinforce the suggestions made in this reading assignment.  After you complete the reading, it may help to reinforce what you’ve learned by attempting the Exercises provided in Section 2.  Please note that this reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.1 through 5.2.3, as well as any inclusive sections.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Summary”

       Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Summary” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the summary of Chapter 4 of Lucas’ textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor’s lecture.  This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter’s details which Dr. Phillips’ lecture also presents. As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4”

      Link: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4” (iTunes Video)
       
      Instructions: Please view this 17-minute lecture, which covers the topic “Selecting a Topic.”  The material covered is associated with subunits 5.2 through 5.4.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 5.2.1 Constraints on Topic Selection  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  To cover this topic, you should note the distinct influences the purpose, audience, context, and time frame of your speech may have on the topic you choose to discuss.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.2: Selecting a Topic” reading.

  • 5.2.2 Selecting a Broad Topic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.2: Selecting a Topic” reading.
     

  • 5.2.3 Narrowing Your Topic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.2: Selecting a Topic” reading.

  • 5.3 What If You Draw a Blank?  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6, Section 6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6, Section 6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read the entire Section 6.3, which includes a rarely covered aspect of public speaking: making adjustments to a speech while delivering it.  Most of this section discusses how audience analysis is used to prepare a speech, but you should not neglect opportunities to improve your speech by noticing the feedback audiences can provide while you are speaking.  This is another area which you are encouraged to consider carefully and apply to the scenarios you may encounter in assignments.  It may help reinforce your understanding to attempt the questions in the Exercise section at the end of the reading; for questions like number 4 that asks to get feedback from your class, consider getting feedback from another known audience (i.e. family members or friends) before presenting a speech.  Note that this reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.3.1 through 5.3.3, as well as any inclusive sections.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 5.3.1 Conduct a Personal Inventory  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?” reading.

  • 5.3.2 Use Finding Aids  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  Four potential sources are covered in the textbook: best-seller lists, polling organizations, media outlets, and the Internet.  Each source is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?” reading.

  • 5.3.3 Poll Your Audience  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  Pay particular attention in this reading to the difference between routine audience polling and a needs analysis.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.3: What If You Draw a Blank?” reading.

  • 5.4 Specific Purposes  
  • 5.4.1 Using Who, What, Where, When, and Why To Get Specific  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  Pay attention to the tables embedded in the text, which illustrate the process through which topics can made more specific.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.4: Specific Purposes” reading.

  • 5.4.2 Writing a Specific Statement of Purpose  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4. For examples of how to phrase specific statements of purpose, examine Table 6.3.  To appreciate the phrasing of each statement, be sure you read the preliminary phrase “My specific purpose is…” before continuing to read across each row to produce the complete statement.  Also, make special note of how the words “about,” “to,” and “by” are associated with informative, persuasive, and entertaining speeches respectively.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.4: Specific Purposes” reading.

  • 5.4.3 Tips For Creating Specific Purposes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 6.4: Specific Purposes” reading.  It focuses on the practical matters associated with choosing topics that are not only appropriate, but also do-able and effective, providing five pointers for insuring that you have chosen a suitable topic: consider the audience, match the rhetorical situation, make the topic clear, do not double up on topics, and consider the time available (for your speech).

  • Unit 5 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Topic Selection Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Topic Selection Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access the assignment, and follow the instructions, which ask you to select topics for the audiences of breakfast cereal packaging you identified in the preceding unit.  This assignment should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.  When you have finished, check your answers against the “Topic Selection Assignment Answer Key” (PDF)

    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 7 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 4 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 19 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question. When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 6: Researching Your Speech  

    In the introduction to the chapter in the textbook which covers the topic of research, the authors emphasize an entity whose role in society is being usurped by other developments.  That entity is the librarian and the most influential of those “other developments” is the Internet.  Pursuing accurate, ethical, and relevant research today is complicated by the sheer number of sources of information that is now available.  In the past, libraries and librarians acted as gatekeepers to screen out many flawed or misleading sources of information; today, however, access to the Internet gives the researcher the freedom to make his or her own choices, regardless of whether that individual is adequately prepared to do so.  As this issue becomes increasingly important, educators are emphasizing information literacy as a “core” skill—like public speaking—which is a requisite for success in the information-driven, information-overloaded world we live and work in today.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 What is Research?  
  • 6.1.1 Definitions and Functions of Research  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  To address the topic of this subunit, you should recognize that research typically discovers, revises or reports on facts, theories, and applications.  To absorb the relevance of this, pay particular attention to how facts, theories, and applications are defined in the readings. In particular, this material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.1: What Is Research?” reading.

  • 6.1.2 Primary Research  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  It covers the two forms of primary research available to the typical public speaker: surveys and interviews.  This material is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.1: What Is Research?” reading.

  • 6.1.3 Secondary Research  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  Pay particular attention to what defines secondary research and why it must be handled differently compared to primary research, and make sure to connect this information with the critique of Wikipedia provided in the web media resource which follows.  The material in this subunit is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.1: What Is Research?” reading.

  • 6.2 Developing a Research Strategy  
  • 6.2.1 Time Allotment  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the Section 7.2 reading.  It divides the time you should allot for developing your speech into two categories: research time and preparation time.

  • 6.2.2 Determining Your Needs  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the Section 7.2 reading.  It divides sources for speech material into two categories: non-academic information sources and academic information sources.  Pay particular attention to the list of questions that are presented to help guide you on deciding how to proceed with your research.

  • 6.2.3 Finding Resources  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the Section 7.2 reading.  It divides sources for speech material into two categories: non-academic information sources (books, periodicals, newspapers, blogs, encyclopedias, and websites) and academic information sources (scholarly books, scholarly articles, computerized databases, and scholarly web resources). As you review this subunit, take a moment to click on the links in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 to explore specific search engines and other resources that can assist you in discovering good sources of information. Also try out some of the links in Table 7.3 to find useful templates for organizing your research and keeping track of your findings.

  • 6.2.4 Evaluating Resources  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the Section 7.2 reading.  Pay particular attention to the list of questions that are presented to help guide you on deciding how to evaluate the sources of information you discover in your research.

  • 6.3 Citing Sources  
  • 6.3.1 Why Citing Sources Is Important  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.3: Citing Sources” reading.

  • 6.3.2 MLA and APA Citation Formats  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.3: Citing Sources” reading.

  • 6.3.3 Using Sources in a Speech  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 7.3: Citing Sources” reading.

  • Unit 6 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6 – Key-Term Flashcards" (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 18 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 6 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 23 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Citing Sources Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Citing Sources Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link to this assignment, and follow the instructions provided.  This assignment involves evaluating the effectiveness and correctness of oral citations and revising them as needed.  Because this assignment requires a considerable amount of writing, you should anticipate that it might take you up to 1 hour to complete.  When you have finished, check your answers against the “Citing Sources Assignment Answer Key” (PDF).

  • Unit 7: Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments  

    This unit covers topics which establish the substance of your speech.  What is “substance?”  The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as “the qualities that make a thing what it is,” and that is an appropriate way to think of the supporting material that should comprise the bulk of your speech.  Many inexperienced speakers focus their efforts on the main points or major arguments of their speeches, but only cursorily attach to those elements synthesis of ideas—the details and connections which establish their real impact.  The result is that student speeches tend to use the same type of support, over and over again, creating a dull sameness that causes the attention of audiences to sag even as they lose respect for the speaker’s motivations and/or credibility. You can avoid this syndrome by absorbing not only the function of supporting details in a speech but also the variety of types and formats you can choose from to keep your speech interesting and influential.  This unit will focus on providing you with information and advice on how to use various types of supporting evidence to strengthen any arguments made in your speech. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Using Research as Support  
  • 7.1.1 Defining "Support"  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  Pay attention to the terms used by the textbook when it refers to supporting detail so that you recognize that it associates both informative and persuasive supporting elements with the same terms, an uncommon approach compared to most textbooks.  This topic is discussed in the unlabeled introductory paragraph of the “Section 8.1: Using Research as Support” reading.

  • 7.1.2 Reasons to Use Support  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  It identifies three reasons why an effective public speaker uses supporting details: to clarify content, to add credibility, and to add vividness.  Each of these subtopics is introduced by a heading in the “Section 8.1: Using Research as Support” reading.

  • 7.2 Types of Support  
  • 7.2.1 Facts and Statistics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.

  • 7.2.2 Definitions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.  Focus on the distinctions between the four types of definitions: lexical, persuasive, stipulative, and theoretical.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Southern New Hampshire University’s COM 212 – Public Speaking: “Explaining Concepts”

       Link: YouTube: Southern New Hampshire University’s COM 212 – Public Speaking: “Explaining Concepts” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this 1-minute video, which provides an example of how to use extended definition to explain a concept in an actual student speech.  To understand why explaining a concept is an act of definition, you need to realize that a concept is an abstract idea; something that cannot be experienced directly and therefore is more difficult to understand.  As a result, an effective public speaker will define an unfamiliar concept before using it to make other points in a speech.  However, because concepts are complex ideas, they require more explanation than the unfamiliar words or technical terms handled by simple definition.  When a speaker explains a concept, he or she is considered to be using an extended definition, a form of defining which educates an audience by using a variety of rhetorical strategies.  Thus, extended definition would be categorized by the textbook as a theoretical type of definition.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.2.3 Examples  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  For this subunit, you should focus on the distinctions between the four types of examples that are based on the qualities they exhibit: positive examples, negative examples, non-examples, and best examples.  Each type is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.

  • 7.2.4 Narratives  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.  For this subunit, you should focus on the distinctions between the three types of narratives, each of which is based on the purpose of the speech: informative narratives, persuasive narratives, and entertaining narratives.

  • 7.2.5 Testimony  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.  Pay particular attention to the differences in credibility between expert testimony and eye witness testimony and how specific circumstances can have an impact on the credibility of both types.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Southern New Hampshire University’s COM 212 – Public Speaking: “Identifying Source of Testimony”

       Link: YouTube: Southern New Hampshire University’s COM 212 – Public Speaking: “Identifying Source of Testimony” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this 1-minute video, which provides an example of testimony used as supporting detail in an actual student speech.  Be aware that the first of two examples of the use of testimony in this video begins 10 seconds into the clip and is followed immediately by the second example. Also, note that these examples are paraphrased versions of testimony, not quotations.  (For more information about paraphrase and quotation, please refer to subunit 7.3.3.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.2.6 Analogies  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  For this subunit, you should focus on the objectives speakers have in choosing to use one of two types of analogies: figurative and literal.  Each type is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.2: Exploring Types of Support” reading.

  • 7.3 Using Support and Creating Arguments  
  • 7.3.1 Understanding Arguments  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments” reading.

  • 7.3.2 Sifting Through Your Support  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments” reading.  It encompasses five recommendations that should guide how you handle your supporting details: use a variety of types of support, choose the appropriate form of support, check that your support is relevant, do not use redundant supporting details, and do not manipulate your supporting details.  Pay particular attention to the bulleted list associated with manipulating details, because oftentimes inexperienced speakers are not aware of what constitutes the unethical manipulation of information.

  • 7.3.3 Using Support Within Your Speech  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  For this subunit, it is important that you recognize that using information from sources other than yourself is one of the central ethical challenges in all formats of communication, public and private.  One important key to surmounting this challenge is the appropriate use of quotation, paraphrase, and summary.  As you review material in this subunit that relates to those three forms for handling information, keep in mind that choosing the right one is not an arbitrary decision: it is an ethical decision.  This is why you should pay particular attention to the numbered lists in the reading, which identify the rules to guide you in choosing the right form of supporting details in your speech.  Note, also, that two additional forms of support that are less impacted by ethical considerations are also covered in this section: numeric support and pictographic support.  Each form is introducing by a subheading in the “Section 8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments” reading.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Miami-Dade Community College: Nora Dawkins’ “Supporting Details Video Tutorial”

       Link: YouTube: Miami-Dade Community College: Nora Dawkins’ “Supporting Details Video Tutorial” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this 9-minute video as a tutorial assignment in which you will read slides covering how to recognize the main points and supporting details in reading material and then respond to applicable questions.  The answers to the questions are provided 30 seconds after the question-asking slide.  As you complete this tutorial, recognize that although the video was produced for a reading course, its contents are very appropriate for public speaking students as well, because it focuses on showing you how to recognize when you encounter major points and details in the materials you review when you are researching topics.  In addition, characteristics of writing that signal the presentation of supporting details are the same signals you should plan to point out when you are providing supporting details for your own audience.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.3.4 Evaluate the Adequacy of Your Support  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments” reading.  It introduces two guidelines that may help you decide whether you have enough supporting details to back up your main points or claims: work backward from your conclusion to assess whether you have provided enough support to reach that conclusion and make sure that every claim you state is associated with details that are specific and relevant enough to support it.

  • 7.3.5 Prepare Your Support's Oral Presentation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  Focus on the three steps you should follow as you prepare the actual words and statements which present support for an idea, point, or argument.  Those steps are the set up, the execution, and the analysis, and they are particularly important, because many speakers do not focus on the information they are using from their sources, neglecting the important details about the sources themselves which establish the credibility and impact of their information.  Each of the steps in presenting support is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 8.3: Using Support and Creating Arguments” reading.

  • Unit 7 Assignment and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 7 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 7 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 15 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 7 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 7 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 25 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 8: The Body of a Speech  

    This unit of the course deviates from the order of content presented in the textbook by presenting material on developing the body of your speech before material on developing the speech’s introduction.  This has been done because an introduction introduces the body of the speech, but if the body of the speech does not exist yet, the speaker has nothing to base the introduction on.  This unit also begins the second half of the course, which focuses on actually developing a speech.  Moreover, because public speaking requires performance as well as comprehension, starting with this unit, the rest of this course includes a number of assignments which challenge you to apply the information you obtain to specific tasks associated with writing or presenting a speech.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Determining Your Main Ideas  
  • 8.1.1 Revisiting the Specific Purpose  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.1: Determining Your Main Ideas” reading.  Its purpose is to remind you that all speeches can be categorized as one of three types based on their specific purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.

  • 8.1.2 Going From Specific Purpose to Main Points  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.1: Determining Your Main Ideas” reading.  It focuses on how to determine the number of main points your speech requires and how to reduce those points to a manageable number.

  • 8.1.3 Preparing the Main Points  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.1: Determining Your Main Ideas” reading.  It focuses on how to present the main points in your speech such that they are unified, distinct, balanced, parallel, and logical.

  • 8.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns  
  • 8.2.1 Categorical/Topical  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how categorical/topical main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.2 Comparison/Contrast  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how comparison/contrast main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.3 Spatial  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how spatial main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.4 Chronological  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how chronological main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.5 Biographical  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how biographical main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.6 Causal  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how causal main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.2.7 Problem-Cause-Solution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 10.2: Using Common Organizational Patterns” reading.  Pay particular attention to the embedded tables, which provide examples of how problem-cause-solution main points are directly related to a speech’s specific purpose.

  • 8.3 Keeping Your Speech Moving  
  • 8.4 Analyzing a Speech Body  
  • Unit 8 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 8 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 8 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 7 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar. To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 8 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 8 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 25 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 9: Introductions and Conclusions  

    Now that you have an understanding of how to develop the body of your speech, it is time to focus on creating an engaging introduction and memorable conclusion.  This unit will provide information on the functions of an introduction and conclusion, as well as it will provide tips on developing effective openings and closings to your speech.  You will also review analysis of introductions and conclusions in this unit to use as models in understanding which techniques work best in developing strong introductions and conclusions.  As you review the resources in this unit, keep in mind that terminology used in instruction can vary from source to source.  Moreover, some sources will group together information which others keep separate.  These two traits are often the case with resources which discuss the functions of speech introductions and conclusions.  When you encounter differences in the resources in this section, consider focusing on that resource which breaks down the information the most.  Such a breakdown can be used as a checklist of what you must accomplish to be effective when you present these sections of your speech. This is particularly important with introductions and conclusions since different sources identify between three and five functions which these sections must fulfill. As a result, you should favor that source which identifies the most functions, thereby insuring that your introduction and conclusion sections are as effective as possible.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 Functions of the Introduction  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9, Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction”

       Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9, Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read both the Chapter 9 introduction and Section 9.1 in their entirety.  These readings describe five functions your introduction must accomplish in order to prepare your audience for the important information you present in the body of your speech.  Understanding the logic behind these tasks will enable you to realize why they are essential, not optional.  For example, you must start your speech with an attention-getter, because if your audience is not paying attention to your words, much of what you subsequently state may not be heard or understood.  Similarly, your audience must understand why you are addressing them, what you hope to accomplish by doing so, and why you are someone worthy of your audience’s attention.  Lastly, because you have an audience of listeners, you will work throughout your speech, starting with your introduction, to make sure they are anticipating the information you present.  Listeners’ comprehension increases when they know what information to expect.  Note also that this subunit provides an overview of the subject.  The textbook goes into more details about these points in Section 3 of Chapter 9.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading.  Note that this reading covers the topics in subunits 9.1.1 through 9.1.5.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Summary”

       Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Summary” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the summary of Chapter 9 of Lucas’ textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor’s lecture.  This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter’s details which Dr. Phillips’ lecture also presents.  As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9”

      Link: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9” (iTunes Video)
       
      Instructions: Please view this 31-minute presentation, which covers the topic introducing and concluding the speech.  This lecture is associated with subunits 9.1 through 9.7.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 9.1.1 Gain Audience and Interest  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” reading.

  • 9.1.2 State the Purpose of Your Speech  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” reading.

  • 9.1.3 Establish Credibility  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  You should note three traits combine to create speaker’s credibility: competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill.  This material is introduced in subheadings in the “Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” reading.

  • 9.1.4 Provide Reasons to Listen  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” reading.

  • 9.1.5 Preview Main Ideas  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.1: The Importance of an Introduction” reading.

  • 9.2 The Attention-Getter: The First Step of an Introduction  
  • 9.2.1 What to Consider When Choosing an Attention-Getter  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  It identifies four issues which you should take into account when you are deciding what kind of attention-getter to use: the appropriateness or relevance of the attention-getting device to the audience’s background, the purpose of your speech, the topic of your speech and the occasion for which you are speaking. These issues are each introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.2: The Attention Getter” reading.

  • 9.2.2 Attention-Getting Methods  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  It identifies ten ways you can attract an audience’s attention: referring to the speech’s subject, audience, current events, the speaker’s personal experience, history, or the occasion are six common methods.  The other four involve using an anecdote, startling statements, a question, or humor.  Each method is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.2: The Attention Getter” reading.

  • 9.3 Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction  
  • 9.3.1 Link the Attention-Getter to the Topic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.3: Putting It Together” reading.

  • 9.3.2 Give the Audience a Reason to Listen  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.3: Putting It Together” reading.

  • 9.3.3 Insure That You Appear Credible  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.3: Putting It Together” reading.

  • 9.3.4 Develop Your Thesis Statement  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3 and is introduced in a subheading in the “Section 9.3: Putting It Together” reading.

  • 9.4 Analyzing an Introduction  
  • 9.5 Functions of a Conclusion  
  • 9.6 Steps In Developing a Conclusion  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11, Section 11.2: Steps of a Conclusion”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11, Section 11.2: Steps of a Conclusion” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of Section 11.2, which discusses functions similar to those found in the introduction, except in almost-reverse order.  Now that you have read about the functions and content of the three parts of a speech—introduction, body, and conclusion—note how each part repeats information from previous parts.  Effective communicators use repetition to ensure that their message is absorbed accurately by their audiences.  Repetition as an effective technique is sometimes referred to as following the Tell’em3 Principle (pronounced “Tell ‘em cubed”) in which you tell your audience what you are going to tell them (by inserting near the end of your introduction a preview of the main points your speech will cover), then you tell them (by presenting your main points in the body of your speech), and then you tell them what you told them (by reviewing at the beginning of your conclusion the main points the body).  The Tell’em3 Principle is particularly important to use with listeners, because they cannot go back and re-read to enable them to remember what you stated.  This reading covers the topics in subunits 9.6.1 through 9.6.3.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 9.6.1 Restate the Thesis  

    Note: This topic is covered by the “Section 11.2: Steps of a Conclusion” reading assigned below subunit 9.6.

  • 9.6.2 Review The Main Points  

    Note: This topic is covered by the “Section 11.2: Steps of a Conclusion” reading assigned below subunit 9.6.

  • 9.6.3 Conclude With a Memorable Device  

    Note: This topic is covered by the “Section 11.2: Steps of a Conclusion” reading assigned below subunit 9.6.

  • 9.7 Analyzing a Conclusion  
  • Unit 9 Assignment and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 7 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards. After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 9 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 20 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz. Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type. You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction and Conclusion Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction and Conclusion Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and follow the assignment instructions. Basically, you will click on the links provided to watch the introduction and conclusion sections of several speeches. You will use the lists of attention-getting techniques and concluding devices to identify which ones are used in each speech.  Once you have completed the table, compare your work to The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction and Conclusion
      Assignment Answer Key" (PDF).

  • Unit 10: Outlining  

    This unit explores the use of outlining in preparation for giving a speech.  In this unit and the next, consider critically the authors’ recommendation to favor sentence outlines over keyword outlines.  Sometimes, the use of sentence outlines needs to be balanced with an inexperienced speaker’s tendency to produce a manuscript rather than a speech.  Unit 11 will emphasize using language designed for the ear rather than the eye when presenting a speech.  Many would argue that sentence outlines can interfere with that process.  Moreover, sentence outlines allow a speaker to be less familiar with a topic and thus less flexible in presenting it, even if, as the textbook also recommends, the sentence outline is converted to keywords and phrases on cue cards.  Lastly, sentence outlines can make a speaker dependent on pre-planned phrasing rather than addressing the audience through a natural, conversational style.  As a result of these potential pitfalls, pay particular attention to the “tricks” described at the end of the chapter, which are designed to avoid reliance on reading and/or on words that were originally written “for the eye rather than the ear.”

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 10.1 The Benefits of Outlining  
  • 10.2 Types of Outlines  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12, Section 12.2: Types of Outlines”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12, Section 12.2: Types of Outlines” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read Section 12.2 in its entirety.  This reading continues the emphasis on sentence outlines begun in the previous subunit while shifting focus onto the three functional types (working outline, full sentence outline, and speaking outline) rather than format types.  Pay particular attention to the examples of each type of outline, presenting in shaded boxes in the text.  In addition, remember the advice given previously and base your decisions on which format of outlining you require (regardless of function) on how independent you can be from statements you have written out fully in previous incarnations of the speech.  If you cannot liberate yourself from those drafts, you may want to avoid writing complete sentences at any point in your preparations, except when presenting the contents of direct quotes from your sources.  Attempt the questions in the Exercises section at the end of the reading.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Tom Fuszard’s Public Speaking Tip: “Outline Format for Notes or Script”

      Link: YouTube: Tom Fuszard’s Public Speaking Tip: “Outline Format for Notes or Script” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this 3-minute video, which connects the development of a speaking outline with the use of notes that can be used for your speech.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 10.3 Using Outlining for Success  
  • Unit 10 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 10 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 10 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 5 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar. To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 10 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 10 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 19 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field. (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Outlining Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Outlining Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: To complete this assignment, follow the instructions on the page carefully, and pay particular attention to the heading cues provided within the unfinished outline. This assignment should take you less than 1 hour to complete.  Once you have finished, check your work against the “Outlining Assignment Answer Key” (PDF).

  • Unit 11: The Importance of Language  

    Critiquing the language you use in a speech is the oral equivalent of editing your own writing.  It can be difficult to recognize when words and phrases you use casually every day may not suit the context or audience of a public presentation.  Upon completing the readings and viewing the web media in this unit, you may conclude that it contains too many minor details about this subject.  However, that would be an inappropriate conclusion. You may not remember all of those details, your exposure to them will, at the very least, heighten your awareness of the importance of choosing language which suits the occasion, even if, as is often the case, it does not suit you as well.  Indeed, attention to language is often what distinguishes the professional communicator from the casual one, and it is why the term “wordsmith” is sometimes used as a compliment to those who do it well.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 11.1 Oral vs. Written Language  
  • 11.1.1 Basic Functions of Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.1: Oral vs. Written Communication” reading.  As you review it, pay particular attention to not only the definitions of connotative and denotative language but also their impact on audiences.

  • 11.1.2 How Oral and Written Language Differs  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.1: Oral vs. Written Communication” reading.  Focus on contrasting the traits of oral verses written language in this material, in particular noting that oral language is simpler, less formal, uses less vocabulary, is more repetitive, and is less precise.

  • 11.2 Using Language Effectively  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 13, Section 13.2: Using Language Effectively”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: Chapter 13, Section 13.2: Using Language Effectively” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read Section 13.2 in its entirety for an overview of those elements of speaking which engage listeners, regardless of whether the context is public speaking or personal speaking.  As you consider the points made in this reading, contrast the communication experiences you have had which you found that by the time the experience ended you had lost track of how much time had passed, because you found so intolerable that you stopped listening entirely.  Whether you are conversing one-on-one, listening to a radio talk show, watching a movie, or sitting in on a speech, the qualities of communication which engage or fail to engage you are the same.  Try to answer the questions in the Exercises section at the end of the reading to reinforce what you have learned in this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 11.2.1 Appropriate Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.2: Using Language Effectively” reading.  However, because that material focuses exclusively on identifying what is appropriate with respect to the four major determinants of speech content: the speaker, the audience, the topic, and the context, it leaves out many important issues concerning this subject in the broader context of communication.  This is why an additional reading assignment has been included below.

  • 11.2.2 Use Vivid Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.2: Using Language Effectively” reading.  Try to avoid the use of vague language when presenting speeches, and instead use a variety of language that is clear and specific to engage your audience.

  • 11.2.2.1 Imagery (Concreteness, Simile, Metaphor)  
  • 11.2.2.2 Rhythm (Parallelism, Repetition, Alliteration, Assonance)  
  • 11.2.2.3 Inclusivity (Gender, Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Disability)  
  • 11.2.3 Use Familiar Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.2: Using Language Effectively” reading.

  • 11.3 Six Elements of Language  
  • 11.3.1 Clarity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading.  Keep in mind that direct language can go a long way in presenting an idea clearly.

  • 11.3.2 Economy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading.  Try to avoid being verbose in your speech by making sure your language is clear and concise. 

  • 11.3.3 Obscenity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading.  Avoid using obscenity in speeches as this will divert the audience’s attention from the main point you are trying to convey.

  • 11.3.4 Obscurity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading.  Make sure to use definitions and explanation to help your audience understand certain terminology and words/phrases in your speech.

  • 11.3.5 Power  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading. In particular, pay attention to the examples of powerful and powerless language in Table 13.3.

  • 11.3.6 Variety  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 13.3: Six Elements of Language” reading.  Variety is an important element in keeping your audience interested in what you will say next. 

  • Unit 11 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 16 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard, and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 11 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 22 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Effective Language Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Effective Language Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to download the assignment instructions.  Prepare to spend some time on this detailed assignment, which asks you to evaluate 20 characteristics of a full-length student speech.  Once you have finished, check your work against the “Effective Language Assignment Answer Key” (PDF)

  • Unit 12: Delivering The Speech  

    It is not just what you say; it is how you say it.  This is why understanding the nature of oral delivery and improving your own oral characteristics are important in ensuring the success of your presentation.  Few speakers have pitch-perfect delivery.  Actors, politicians, businessmen and women, and clerics have been known to seek out delivery coaches to upgrade their oratory.  You will probably not have access to a speech coach, but if you are determined to present powerfully delivered speeches, there are two actions you can take to improve your skills: videotape yourself and seek out opportunities to deliver public presentations.  Private and public practice will create self-critiques and public exposure all speakers need to both educate and motivate them to improve.  There are two ways you can do this.  One is to consider joining Toastmasters International, a membership-based, educational organization which shares information about public speaking and gives speakers opportunities to practice their skills and be critiqued by other members.  According to the Toastmaster’s International website, the organization has over a quarter of a million members in 116 countries.  Another way you can get feedback from others about your public speaking skills is through OpenStudy.com, which is described on its homepage as “a social learning network where students ask questions, give help, and connect with other students studying the same things.”
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpages displayed above.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 12.1 Four Methods of Delivery  
  • 12.1.1 Extemporaneous Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.1: Four Methods of Delivery” reading.

  • 12.1.2 Impromptu Speaking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.1: Four Methods of Delivery” reading.

  • 12.1.3 Speaking From a Manuscript  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.1: Four Methods of Delivery” reading.

  • 12.1.4 Speaking From Memory  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.1: Four Methods of Delivery” reading.

  • 12.2 Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery  
  • 12.2.1 Using Lecterns  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery” reading.

  • 12.2.2 Speaking in a Small or Large Physical Space  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery” reading.

  • 12.2.3 Speaking Outdoors  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery” reading.

  • 12.2.4 Using a Microphone  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery” reading.

  • 12.2.5 Audience Size  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.2: Speaking Contexts that Affect Delivery” reading.

  • 12.3 Using Notes Effectively  
  • 12.3.1 The Purpose of Speaking Notes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.3: Using Notes Effectively” reading.

  • 12.3.2 Tips For Using Notes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.3: Using Notes Effectively” reading.  It presents five guidelines, primarily for preparing your cue cards: use 4x6 note cards, include only key words on the cards, hold the cards naturally, use the cards to trigger your recall, and write in large letters on the cards.

  • 12.3.3 Using Notecards Effectively  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.3: Using Notes Effectively” reading.

  • 12.4 Practicing For Successful Speech Delivery  
  • 12.4.1 Qualities of a Good Delivery  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.1.1 Conversational Style  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.1.2 Eye Contact  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2 Use of Vocalics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2.1 Volume  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2.2 Rate  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2.3 Pitch  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2.4 Pauses  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

    • Web Media: YouTube: AgentStar.com’s Speaking Tip: “Verity Robins, Pausing”

      Link: YouTube: AgentStar.com’s Speaking Tip: “Verity Robins, Pausing” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this 4-minute video, which demonstrates effective techniques for dealing with lecterns.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 12.4.2.5 Vocal Variety  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • 12.4.2.6 Pronunciation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

    • Web Media: YouTube: WhatYouOughtToKnow’s “Things We Say Wrong”

      Link: YouTube: WhatYouOughtToKnow’s “Things We Say Wrong” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this 3-minute video, which takes a humorous approach to the challenges of correct pronunciation.  Note that even though this presentation is intended to be humorous, its message is important: Correct pronunciation varies from audience to audience, but you should be aware of faulty pronunciation that can distract your audience or discredit you as a credible speaker.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 12.4.3 Effective Physical Manipulation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4.  For this subunit, you should focus on the six characteristics of speakers which have the most significant impact on audiences: posture, body language, facial expression, movement, dress, and self-presentation. This material is introduced by subheadings in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading and is also dealt with visually and in greater depth in the web media which follow.

  • 12.4.4 Practice Effectively  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.4 and is introduced by a sub-subheading in the “Section 14.4: Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery” reading.

  • Unit 12 Assignment and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 19 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard. This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 12 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 25 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 13: Presentation Aids: Design and Usage  

    Decisions and opportunities associated with the design and use of presentation aids are innumerable, making it difficult to decide where to begin, but not if you approach such aids systematically.  Many students err in this area when they develop the entire contents of their speeches first and then go back and attempt to fit some aids into the presentation —or even more commonly, simply used such aids to summarize content.  Developing aids in such an isolated way almost always results in materials which do not strengthen a presentation, and sometimes even weaken it considerably.  Systematically approaching the development of presentation aids means you select identify what you will require “as you go.”  For example, you have been advised in this course to develop the body section of your speech first.  That section is controlled by main points and fleshed out by supporting details and evidence.  As you identify the contents for each of these elements, you should ask yourself whether they would be enhanced—made more powerful, clearer, more memorable, or just more understandable—if aided.  In other words, you should have a reason for including every presentation aid you use.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 13.1 Presentation Aids: Design and Usage  
  • 13.1.1 Improving Audience Understanding  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.1: Functions of Presentation Aids” reading.  It is important that you absorb from this subunit that there are two ways effective visual aids influence audience understanding: by clarifying information and by emphasizing information.  Ideally, your visuals should be intentionally designed to accomplish one or both of these goals. 

  • 13.1.3 Aiding Retention and Recall  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.1: Functions of Presentation Aids” reading.

  • 13.1.4 Adding Variety and Interest  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.1: Functions of Presentation Aids” reading.

  • 13.1.5 Enhancing a Speaker's Credibility  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.1: Functions of Presentation Aids” reading.

  • 13.2 Selecting Presentation Aids  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15, Section 15.2: Types of Presentation Aids”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15, Section 15.2: Types of Presentation Aids” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read Section 15.2 in its entirety, and consider committing to memory the list of presentation aid types it describes.  If your career points to frequent public speaking, knowing the range of aids that are available will help you make the most effective choices for your presentations, rather than just the most familiar ones.  As has been noted throughout this course, the textbook tends to present information in lists.  Some of those lists, like the list of presentation aid types in this section, contain information you want to become more than familiar with; some lists should be committed to memory, because they will expand your awareness of the options that are available.  Try to complete the questions in the Exercises section at the end of the reading to assess the use of presentation aids.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 13.2.1 General Pointers  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.2: Types of Presentation Aids” reading, which cover five recommendations for handling presentation aids: avoid overusing them, match them to the technology available, avoid distracting designs, let them speak for themselves, and design them as a coherent unit.

  • 13.2.2 Types of Aids  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.2: Types of Presentation Aids” reading.  It covers five types of aids: charts, graphs, representations, objects or models, and people or animals.

  • 13.2.2.1 Charts  
  • 13.2.2.2 Graphs  
  • 13.2.2.3 Representations  
  • 13.2.2.4 Objects or Models  
  • 13.2.2.5 People and/or Animals  

    Note: This topic is covered by the “Section 15.2: Types of Presentation Aids” reading assigned below subunit 13.2.

  • 13.3 Media to Use for Presentations  
  • 13.3.1 Computer-Based Media  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.3: Media to Use for Presentation Aids” reading.  For a broader understanding of what computer-based visual aids creation and presentation tools are available, consider exploring the links in Table 15.1.  Such software packages typically include on their homepages a summary or a link to a summary of what the software is capable of doing.  It is those capacities which will be instructive, because they represent opportunities that you can consider when designing your materials.  The challenge for many people who must create something from nothing is that if they do not know what options are available, what they create is limited to only what they know.  By reviewing software, you can become more informed of your options.

  • 13.3.2 Audiovisual Media  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.3 and is introduced by a subheading in “Section 15.3: Media to Use for Presentation Aids” Section 3 reading.  It covers four types of low-tech visual aid media: chalk or dry-erase board, flipcharts, poster board or foam board, and handouts.

  • 13.3.3 Low-Tech Media  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 15.3: Media to Use for Presentation Aids” reading.  It covers four types of low-tech visual aid media: chalk or dry-erase board, flipcharts, poster board or foam board, and handouts.

  • 13.4 Traits of Well-Designed Presentation Aids  
  • Unit 13 Assignment and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 13 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 13 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 9 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 13 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 13 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 25 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 14: Speaking to Inform and Entertain  

    In this unit, you will review and focus more directly on the purposes of informing and entertaining when giving speeches.  Even though the topics of this unit often stand on their own as significant sections, in this course they are shorter because most of the guidance that might be necessary to develop both informative and entertaining speeches has already been covered.  Unlike the theory-driven language and approaches you will discover are associated with persuasive speaking, the language and approach you take to inform or entertain is driven by you, the speaker, and your relationship to your audience, your topic, and your purpose—each of which have been the subject of entire units in this course already.  As a result, rather than review those subjects, the material in this unit focuses on the characteristics which make these two types of speeches distinct.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 14.1 Informative Speaking  
  • 14.1.1 Informative Speaking Goals  
  • 14.1.2 Why Speak to Inform  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 14.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 16.1: Informative Speaking Goals” reading.

    • Web Media: YouTube: MindBites: Public Speaking: “Types of Informative Speeches”

       Web Media: YouTube: MindBites: Public Speaking: “Types of Informative Speeches” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this 3-minute video, which identifies three types of information speeches.  As you watch, recognize that the types of speeches are actually categorized by what functions they fulfill.  As a result, the types of speeches in the video actually represent the reasons why you would speak to inform.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 14.1.2.1 Why Speak to Inform  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 14.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 16.1: Informative Speaking Goals” reading.

  • 14.1.2.2 Creating Clarity and Interest  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 14.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 16.1: Informative Speaking Goals” reading.  As with many of the units in this course, you will find that the topic has been broken down, this time into the following list of recommendations for developing clear and interesting informative speeches: adjust the speech’s complexity to the suit the audience’s comprehension level, avoid unnecessary jargon, create concrete images, keep the information limited, make it memorable, make it relevant and useful, and personalize the content.  

  • 14.1.3 Informative Speeches Subjects and Challenges  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16, Section 16.2: Types of Informative Speeches”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16, Section 16.2: Types of Informative Speeches” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of Section 16.2, which discusses several minute details about public speaking which are often overlooked by speakers and also rarely covered in textbooks.  Try to complete the exercises at the end of the reading.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Belmont Speech Lab’s Informative Speech: "Alopecia"

       Link: YouTube: Belmont Speech Lab’s Informative Speech: "Alopecia" (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please re-watch this entire 7-minute video of a complete informative speech.  Pay particular attention to the speaker’s use of a variety of presentation aids as well as the transitions and signposts she uses to point out where in the speech content she is and what kind of information she is preparing to provide.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 14 – Key-Term Flashcards"

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 14 – Key-Term Flashcards" (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures and other resources for this unit, respond to all 10 key-term flashcards in the link noted above. Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described. If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer. Realize that this process of looking up terms you do not recognize is the reason why the time advisory for this assignment is 30 minutes. Be aware, also, that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards. After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself. Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar. To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard. This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term. If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.” This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard. Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard. The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 14 – Study Questions"

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 14 – Study Questions" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 24 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions. You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question. When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz. Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type. You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field. (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Informative Speech Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Informative Speech Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Prepare to spend some time on this detailed assignment, which asks you to evaluate 20 characteristics of a full-length student speech.  Once you have finished, check your work against the “Informative Speech Assignment Answer Key” (PDF)

  • 14.1.3.1 Subject Categories  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 14.1.  For this subunit, you should note the five categories of informative speaking subjects: objects, people, events, concepts, and processes. These subtopics are introduced by subheadings in the “Section 16.2: Types of Informative Speeches” reading.

  • 14.1.3.2 Dealing With Sources of Audience Confusion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 14.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 16.2: Types of Informative Speeches” reading.  It focuses on two types sources of audience confusion: difficult concepts or language, difficult-to-envision processes or structures, and hard-to-believe subjects.

  • 14.1.3.3 Dealing With Ethics  
  • 14.2 Speaking to Entertain  
  • 14.2.1 Understanding Entertaining Speeches  
  • 14.2.2 Special Occasion Speeches  
  • 14.2.3 Keynote Speaking  
  • Unit 14 Assignments and Assessment  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 5 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards. After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 17 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 15: Persuasive Speaking  

    Most speakers consider persuasive speaking as the most difficult of the three basic types (informative, persuasive, and entertaining).  One of the reasons why understanding the demands of persuasive speaking is more difficult is because it requires a knowledge of terms that are specific to argumentation, such as claims and evidence.  What is important to realize, however, is that while the terms may be different, most of the elements they refer to function in ways that are similar to what occurs in informative and entertaining speeches.  Main points are called arguments, supporting detail is evidence, but presenting your observation and then backing them up with the kind of information your audience can understand, accept, and/or appreciate is universal communicative behavior. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 15.1 Persuasive Speaking  
  • 15.1.1 What is Persuasion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.1: Persuasion: An Overview” reading.  The topic is broken down into two sets of persuasive goals: 1.) changing attitudes, values or beliefs, and 2.) changing behavior.

  • 15.1.2 Why Persuasion Matters  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.1 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.1: Persuasion: An Overview” reading.  The web resources which follow may not appear to be relevant to this topic, but as the readings indicate, persuasion is a common and essential communication strategy, which is why pursuing it ethically should be an integral part of the process.

  • 15.1.3 Theories of Persuasion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.1.  For this subunit, you should pay attention to the distinguishing elements of the social judgment and cognitive dissonance theories, as well as the five traits associated with the elaboration likelihood model: personal relevance and involvement, accountability, personal responsibility, incongruent information, and the need for cognition.  These subtopics are introduced by subheadings in the “Section 17.1: Persuasion: An Overview” reading.            

  • 15.2 Types of Persuasive Speeches  
  • 15.2.1 The Definitional Claim Type  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.2.2 The Factual Claim Type  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.2.3 The Policy Claim Type  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.2.4 The Value Claim Type  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.2 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.2: Types of Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.3 Persuasive Organizational Patterns  
    • Reading: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17, Section 17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches”

      Link: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking: “Chapter 17, Section 17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of Section 17.3, which covers the three most commonly used organizing patterns in argumentation.  There are also two other patterns that should be aware of, although there is no consistent terminology to refer to them.  These alternative patterns focus on dealing with opposing arguments and are less audience-oriented than the ones presented in your textbook.  The “trial lawyer” model uses a point-counterpoint pattern to refute each opposing claim and is used when the number of arguments for and against is balanced.  The “refute and overwhelm” model is used when one side has more arguments for it than against it.  This model starts with a balanced refutation of opposing claims and then moves on to “overwhelm” the opposition by presenting additional, irrefutable arguments.  Attempt the exercises at the end of the reading to reinforce concepts learned in this subunit.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 15 – Summary"

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: "Chapter 15 – Summary" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the summary of Chapter 15 of Lucas’ textbook, recognizing that in a typical class students are expected to have completed and taken notes on the assigned reading before they listen to the instructor’s lecture.  This summary is similar to the abbreviated discussion of the chapter’s details which Dr. Phillips’ lecture also presents.  As a result, reviewing it will enable you to follow the lecture more effectively.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 & 16”

      Link: iTunes: Missouri State University: Gary Phillips’ COM 115: Fundamentals of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 & 16” (iTunesU Video)
       
      Instructions: Please view the last 12 minutes of this 22-minute lecture, which focuses on rationales behind different persuasive approaches.   Please note that this lecture is associated with the topics outlined in subunits 15.3, as well as any inclusive sections.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 15.3.1 Monroe's Motivated Sequence  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.3 and is divided into the sequence’s five parts: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. This material introduced by subheadings in the “Section 17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.3.2 Problem-Cause-Solution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • 15.3.3 Comparative Advantages  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 15.3 and is introduced by a subheading in the “Section 17.3: Organizing Persuasive Speeches” reading.

  • Unit 15 Assignments and Assessments  
    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16 – Key-Term Flashcards”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 23 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an Internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 16 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 24 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen, and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple-choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 – Key-Term Flashcards”

       Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 – Key-Term Flashcards” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed all of the readings, lectures, and other resources for this unit, respond to all 16 key-term flashcards linked above.  Click on “Instructions” in the shaded bar below the flashcard and follow the directions and options described.  If at any point in reviewing the flashcards you are unsure of the answer, refer to the course textbook, Lucas’ textbook’s summary or outline pages, and/or perform an internet search to uncover the answer.  Be aware that if you discover the terms used deviate significantly from the textbook readings or the lecture, you can click on “Key Terms” in the shaded bar to see the complete list of terms and definitions for the set of flashcards.  After you have reviewed that list, click on “Start Over” to re-test yourself.  Keep in mind that you can choose to a.) see the term and provide the definition or b.) see the definition and provide the term by toggling the box to the left of the phrase “key term first,” located on the right-hand side of the pink shaded bar.  To check the accuracy of your answers, click on the word “flip” in the lower right-hand corner of the flashcard.  This action will turn the card over and prompt the system to announce the correct term.  If your response was incorrect, click on flashcard box labeled “study again.”  This will save the term for you to return to later and then turn over a new flashcard.  Once you have completed all of the flashcards in the set, if you got any of them incorrect, consider reviewing the chapter summary, the reading assignments, and/or the lecture again before you click on any of the unshaded boxes in the row at the bottom of the flashcard.  The unshaded boxes represent key terms you did not identify correctly in your previous attempt and give you the opportunity to reinforce your learning experience by revisiting those terms.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 – Study Questions”

      Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Steven E. Lucas’ The Art of Public Speaking: “Chapter 15 – Study Questions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After you have completed the preceding flashcard assignment, respond to all 24 questions in this self-scoring study question quiz, including the last 3 open-ended questions.  You should plan to spend about 1 minute on each question.  When you have finished, click on the “submit answers” button in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and review how you performed on the quiz.  Notice as you do so that any questions you answered incorrectly will include a green check mark identifying the correct answer, as well as an explanation for that answer presented in bold-faced type.  You can also check your answers to the open-ended questions at the end of the quiz by comparing them to the bold-faced text which will appear in the answer field.  (Note, however, that only the multiple choice questions are used to calculate your actual quiz score.)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Persuasive Speech Assignment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Persuasive Speech Assignment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to download the assignment instructions.  Prepare to spend some time on this detailed assignment, which asks you to evaluate 20 characteristics of a full-length student speech.  Once you have finished, compare you work against the “Persuasive Speech Answer Key” (PDF).

  • Final Exam  

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