Comparative Media Systems

Purpose of Course  showclose

Whether you know it or not, you are actively contributing to a comprehensive media environment forged on both regional and global levels – even when you are privately using social media websites!  The media we use today has come a long way, but the basic pattern of development remains consistent.  This course introduces various academic theories, cases, and models to make sense of local and global media development.  How does a locally operated newspaper trigger development of the national mass media market?  How does a global conglomerate media company set agendas for international news distribution?  Consider how the following historical events may be connected:

  1. In 1833, The Sun, a New York-based newspaper, became available to the general public for the first time.  This marked the beginning of the mass production of information and created a market sector that could be influenced by average people.
  2. In 1995, conglomerate media company, News Corporation, headquartered in New York City, acquired the Hong Kong-based television network, Star TV.  This groundbreaking acquisition expanded News Corp.’s influence at an international level.
  3. In 2005, New York-based journalist, Arianna Huffington, launched The Huffington Post, branded as “The Internet Newspaper.”  Huffington’s free newspaper utilized innovations such as user-contributed content and the rejection of information “gatekeeping.”
  4. Also in 2005, the Chinese television show, Super Girl, had remarkable success when the season finale commanded the attention of 400 million viewers – a profoundly high viewership within the strictly governed Chinese media system.

How should we assess the impact of these events on local and global scales?  In this course, we will explore the ways stakeholders influence the media environment we live in today.  On local levels, we will discuss how media evolves under mass market and political influences, and during economic development.  On the global level, we will analyze global media conglomerates’ agendas for international news distribution.  Further, you will critically examine the ways new media technology allows the general population to access and actively contribute to social media content.  Selected theories and models of regional media systems are also examined in this course.  The thread between the aforementioned events will be illuminated throughout this course, and you will be asked to analyze the socio-cultural impact of each item.

This comparative media course also provides a working knowledge of how media are operated and regulated under varied political and economic influences.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to COMM 323: Comparative Media Systems.  General information on this course and its requirements can be found below.

Course Designer: Li Liu

Primary Resources: This course is composed of a variety of free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following source(s):
Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials.  You will also need to complete:
  • The Final Exam
Time Commitment: This course should take a total of 139 hoursto complete.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  These should help you plan your time accordingly.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.  For example, unit 1 should take 9 hours to complete.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (a total of 2 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (a total of 1 hours) on Tuesday night; etc.

Tips/Suggestions: It is suggested that you take notes throughout each unit of the course.  It is vital to the learning process that you keep your own record of the theoretical framework presented throughout this course.  For example, Unit 1 introduces the Four Theories of the Press, which compares the nature of press and government-press relationship under four types of political governance.  It is beneficial to have access to your own succinct notes to look on when you’ve moved on to the next units; each unit is a building block for the next unit.  A substantial learning goal in this course is that you understand the consistent and influential role of government and economy in shaping the media systems you are so familiar with today.

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Discuss competing academic theories, models, and critiques pertaining to various regional media systems.
  • Discuss, compare, and contrast the historical development, current scope, regional influences, and global influences of the media systems highlighted throughout this course.
  • Explain the significance of media consumption patterns and how global and domestic forces influence these patterns.
  • Name the organizations that are relevant to media and communications technologies, as well as their policies, current projects, and scopes of influence.
  • Discuss the impact of global media conglomerates in non-Western nations.
  • Examine various forms of new media and its impact on consumers, advertisers, and traditional ways of producing media content.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g.  Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Have competency in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Media Systems Within the United States  

    In this unit, you will be introduced to a working definition of the term “media systems.” Media system can be generally understood as network of mass media outlets, including TV, radio, newspaper, and the Internet in a given national context; moreover, media system also refers to the complicated relationship among such mass media outlets and the society where they were established and operated. With this in mind, it makes sense to conceptualize the term with a group of intersecting areas of study that incorporate political science, sociology, and economics. At the beginning of this unit, we will introduce two foundational theoretical frameworks in comparative media study that each offers you comprehensive view of media system and the group of intertwining influences. You will learn about the foundation scholarship published in the Four Theories of the Press, published in 1963, which set forth four media system models, each situated in unique political and social environment.

    Following an introduction of these two theoretical frameworks, you will begin the exploration with an overview of media development in the United States. You will learn about the age of yellow journalism, mass distribution of newspapers, and the establishment of the Associated Press – one of the oldest news agencies in the world. This unit also focuses on the ways printed media promotes social change, which in turn, supports media development. Such mutual influence and close relationship resonates with both theoretical framework we read earlier in the unit, and lays the groundwork for your understanding of media system evolution within particular national contexts. Later in this course, this foundational knowledge will enable you to effectively compare and contrast a variety of media systems.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Media Systems: Overview of Important Theory  
  • 1.1.1 Four Theories of the Press  
  • 1.2 Early Newspapers in the United States  
  • 1.2.1 Colonial American Newspapers  
    • Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Section 4.1 History of Newspaper”

      Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Section 4.1 History of Newspaper” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read “Section 4.1”.  As you read through this chapter, pay attention to the correlation between newspaper development and political influence in the U.S.  For example, early colonial newspapers typically excluded political content to avoid confrontation from colonial authorities.  The close ties between politics and press that are presented in this reading should encourage you to continue your reflection on media systems within the framework of the Four Theories of the Press.

      Note: This reading also covers the information outlined in sub-subunits 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.3.1, and 1.3.2.

      Reading this section should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: The text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a CreativeCommons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.2.2 The Trial of John Peter Zenger  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below sub-subunit 1.2.1.

    Focus on the text below the heading, “the trial of John Peter Zenger,” as well as “Freedom of the Press in the early United States,” which come right after the section on “Colonial American Newspapers.”  During this monumental trial, John Peter Zenger, founder of the New York Weekly Journal, a publication that openly criticizes the newly appointed colonial governor, faced charges of producing “scandalous, virulent, false and seditious reflections” in his papers.  Zenger’s verdict marked changes in the press-government relationship: instead of avoiding political content, newspapers began to target political figures and openly shared editorial comments on current political issues.  Such increased freedom of the press, in return, played an influential role in the independent war and formation of political parties.

  • 1.3 Newspapers as a Form of Mass Media  
  • 1.3.1 The Penny Press: The Sun  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below sub-subunit 1.2.1.

    Focus on the text below the heading “Newspapers as a form of mass media,” which includes sections on “the Penny Press” and “growth of wire services.”  The introduction of the penny press set a unique historical stage for the newspaper to be treated as a commodity and a vehicle for political discussion.  While completing this reading consider the new dynamics within the government-press relationship.  Why was the penny press much more successful than its predecessors?  What are the approaches or focuses they chose to adopt?  To what degree should a market be matured enough, in terms of both depth and scope, to support a penny press like this?

  • 1.3.2 Public Taste Gone Wild: Yellow Journalism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below sub-subunit 1.2.1.

    Focus on the text below the heading, “Yellow Journalism” and “comics and stunt journalism,” which comes right after “growth of wire services.”  As you move on with the reading of the US newspaper history, ask yourself: what is the definition of the term sensationalism in this context?  Why did stories focused on crime, violence, emotion, and sex in the early 1800’s enjoy such popularity in the press?  How does this connect to the emergence of newspaper as a form of mass media and the maturity of the mass media market as we discussed earlier in 1.3.1?  This session marks the end of our reading on early US newspaper history.

  • 1.3.3 The Associated Press  
    • Reading: The Associated Press: “AP’s History”

      Link: The Associated Press: “AP’s History” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above to read the history of the Associated Press – one of the world’s oldest news agencies, established in 1846.  Several journalists who have worked for the Associated Press have won the Pulitzer Prize, which is considered as the highest level of professional recognition in journalism.  You will also learn how AP journalists have had to adapt to advancing technology in writing and new distribution.  While completing this reading, further consider the framework of the Four Theories of the Press.  Which theories are most prominently reflected in the development of the Associated Press?

      Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.3.4 Divergent Taste in Mass Media: The New York Times  
  • 1.3.5 The Emergence of Watchdog Journalism  
  • 1.4 The Current Media Market in the United States  
  • 1.4.1 Characteristics of Media Industries  
  • 1.4.2 The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)  
    • Reading: United States Federal Communications Commission: “What We Do”

      Link: United States Federal Communications Commission: “What We Do” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read through the “What We Do” page.  Relate the information from this FCC webpage to the three major media business models covered in the previous subunit: monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition.  What kind of business model does the FCC seeks to either encourage or discourage?  How does the FCC exercise its influence on the U.S. media market?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.4.3 The U.S. Radio Market  
    • Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 7: Radio”

      Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 7: Radio” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read through all of Chapter 7 to get an overview of radio as a mass medium.  Please pay attention to radio’s impact on culture: radio was such an influential medium during the 1930s; so much so, that many people believed that a radio program based on Well’s science fiction novel of invading aliens was actual news broadcasting, which produced social unrest.  Also, pay attention to radio’s new future with the introduction of the Internet.  Once again, we need to tie the learning experience back to the Four Theories of the Press: the development of radio as a mass media offered us a good example to see the importance of social responsibility and how it should, and can, be regulated.

      Reading this chapter should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: The text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a CreativeCommons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.4.4 The U.S. Television Market  
    • Reading: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 9: Television”

      Link: Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication: “Chapter 9: Television” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read through Chapter 9.  While reading, consider the significance of the chapter, beginning with the national strike for fairer pay, which included more than 12,000 film, television, and radio writers in November 2007.  Ultimately, this strike resulted in a new trend of delivering content through web-based channels, like iTunes and Hulu.  As you complete this reading, please pay attention to some of the unique trends in the TV industry, including corporate sponsorship, public television, and cable TV network.  Also, pay attention to new trends, including iTV, Hulu, and YouTube.  The variety shows us how the TV industry responds to an ever-changing media market.

      Reading this chapter should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: The text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a CreativeCommons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.4.5 Case Study: The Merger between NBC Universal and Comcast  
    • Reading: The Washington Post: Cecilia Kang’s “Planned Comcast-NBC Merger Ignites TV Access Battle”

      Link: The Washington Post: Cecilia Kang’s “Planned Comcast-NBC Merger Ignites TV Access Battle” (HTML) 

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the entire article.  This article offers an in-depth look at the stakeholders involved in the Comcast-NBC merger and provides a wonderful opportunity to review what you learned in this unit.  Consider the following questions as you read: can you relate the information to the Four Theories of the Press?   In the context of media industry competition models, is the merger producing a monopoly, an oligopoly, or monopolistic competition?  Finally, what is the role of the FCC in this case, and was it effective?  You should be able to support your reasoning with examples.

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.5 Unit 1 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • What has been the definition of the term sensationalism in the historical context of the early US newspaper?  Why would stories focused on crime, violence, emotion, and sex in the early 1800’s enjoy such popularity in the press?  Can you relate this account to our day?
      • Concerning the three major media business models (monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic), what are the specific conditions they each require?  How might they impact media content and distribution?  Can you think of any real life examples?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 2: Global Media Conglomerates  

    This unit introduces to you another major player within the international media environment: global media companies.  You will take a closer look at three of the six major global media companies: The News Corporation, Bertelsmann AG, and Disney.  We will explore their global business scope and their global-oriented corporate image building.  In other words, we try to understand the purpose behind such global-oriented corporate strategy: the pursuit of universal appeal of their media product, so they can achieve maximum global market share possible.  In this unit, you will also develop basic understanding of the global business web that major global media companies have developed over years.  The purpose of studying this global business web, therefore, is to understand the “commercial logic” based on which the media companies run their media business and what kind of impact it may bring to the culture we collectively share and live within.  Finally, we will explore some of the focal concerns relevant to multinational media companies in regards to cultural diversity and democracy.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Global Media Conglomerates  
  • 2.1.1 News Corporation  
    • Reading: The New York Times: “The News Corporation”

      Link: The New York Times“The News Corporation” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read through the entire article.  Please remember to click on the “read more” link to open the hidden portion of the text.  You should make sure your reading covers the following sub-headings: Overview, Background: Building a Vast Media Empire, Murdock’s Influence in Britain, and Murdock in America.  As you move on with your reading, it is helpful to keep the following questions in mind: when did the News Corporation becomes an international media company?  How does the News Corporation respond to a scandal like the e-mail hacking in 2011 in the UK?  To what extent do you think a global media company like the News Corporation is subject to national laws and regulations?  It is also helpful to reflect upon the learning experience we have generated so far after unit one.  The Four Theories of the Press deals with government-press relationship in four types of governance.  Among the four theories; which one do you think best approximate the case of the 2011 e-mail hacking scandal?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.2 Bertelsmann  
    • Reading: Bertelsmann AG: “Bertelsmann at a Glance” and “Creativity met Entrepreneurship”

      Link: Bertelsmann AG: “Bertelsmann at a Glance” (HTML) and “Creativity met Entrepreneurship” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Read the article, “Bertelsmann at a Glance”.  To complete the learning of this subunit, you need to read both this article and watch the corporate video, Creativity met Entrepreneurship, produced by Bertelsmann.

      When you read the article, “Bertelsmann at a Glance,” make sure to read the organizational structure and strategy.  Continue to think about how the role of a global media enterprise, as the company identifies itself as such, serve in the international community?  In other words, to what extent can we put a “national” label on a media company like Bertelsmann AG?  Could we define it as German, since it was originated from Germany?  Or should we define it as American, since some of its major businesses, like Random House, is considered “American”?  Do those questions promote you think further of the Four Theories of the Press?  What are the factors we also need to consider when evaluating the press-government relationship, if the “press” now refers to a global media enterprise like Bertelsmann AG, while the “government” now refers to multiple hosting-country governments that the enterprise interacts with on daily basis?

      Now move on to watch the four-minute video, “Creativity met Entrepreneurship.”  Click on the “play” button and watch the video.  Prepare yourself for a fast-paced narration of the company’s business scope, with focus on the global, multi-lingual, and multi-cultural aspect.  Bear in mind that this video was created to promote the company image as dynamic, modern, and global-oriented.  What are the benefits of this kind of corporate image?  Try to use the Four Theory of Press as your starting point to consider what can be avoided and what can be promoted for a company dealing with different types of political governance at the same time.

      Reading this artcle and watching the video should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.3 Disney  
    • Reading: The Walt Disney Corporation: “Disney Company Overview”

      Link: The Walt Disney Corporation: “Disney Company Overview” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read the “Company Overview”.  Ask yourself: who seem to be the targeted market for the company?  Imagine you were a child: what are the products the company offers might be attractive to you?  Imagine you were a parent: what are the products you might consider purchasing for your children?  What are the universal characteristics of Disney products that transcends national borders?  In other words, what helps Mickey Mouse gain popularity in countries other than the US?  Would you say the Mickey Mouse’s magical power in some way resembles Bertelsmann AG’s effort creating a “global culture?”  So far we’ve looked at three major global media conglomerates.  What seems to be the shared purpose behind the creation of such “global perspective?” Would you say, in the case of Disney, that part of the intention is to benefit from the universal appeal of family values, in order for the company to achieve maximum market share possible?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2 Merger Strategies  
  • 2.2.1 International Merger  
    • Reading: Public Broadcasting Service (PBS): Frontline’s “Media Giants”

      Link: Public Broadcasting Service (PBS): Frontline’s “Media Giants” (HTML)

      Instructions: Make sure you click through links behind all the media corporations’ names to learn their media businesses around the world.  Some questions to consider as you read this resource: Which merger is the largest media merger in history?  Which merger is the second largest after that?  How much market value were involved in both cases?  Which company has the number one music business in the world, with roughly 22% of the global market share?  It takes years to form this global web of operation.  After you go through all the businesses for each of the six major global media companies, could you find products that you are familiar with and track it back to its mother company?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.2 Marketing on the Universality  
    • Web Media: Public Broadcasting Service: Frontline’s “Merchants of Cool”

      Link: Public Broadcasting Service: Frontline’s “Merchants of Cool” (Flash)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and watch the PBS Frontline program “Merchants of Cool.”  Try reflecting back to earlier discussion within this chapter of media corporation’s pursuit of universal appeal to achieve the maximum market share possible.  Ask yourself: does the “coolness” mentioned in this documentary represent universal appeal to teenagers?  Pay particular attention to the third segment, “the MTV Machine.”  What was the initial concept of MTV?  Why does it make good “business” sense?  How does the MTV programming thrive upon music record companies, audiences, and singers alike?  Now that we know that MTV as a brand belongs to Viacom, one of the six major global media companies, we can get a better sense of how global media companies function.  Some scholars claim that in the age of globalization, multinational companies have replaced nation-state as the major players of global arena.  Would you agree with this ?  Why or why not?

      Watching this video should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3 Major Concern: Colonizing our Culture?  
    • Reading: Public Broadcasting Service: “Interview with Robert McChesney”

      Link: Public Broadcasting Service: “Interview with Robert McChesney” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read the interview transcript with Robert McChesney, author of Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times.  We will use this interview to summarize our discussion on global media companies.  McChesney pointed out that the “commercial logic” according to what media companies operate their business.  What are McChesney’s concerns?  He said that “[in] popular music, there’s a huge difference if you ultimately think the reason you’re listening to this music is because these musicians basically were hired because of some marketing thing.”  Reflect upon your own experience consuming music product.  Do you agree or disagree with McChesney on this?  In addition, McChesney also discussed the impact from major media companies, that with the powerful production and distributing channel, “they look at the teen market as part of this massive empire that they’re colonizing.”  Do you agree with McChesney that global media companies are “colonizing” the teen market?  Why or why not?

      Reading this transcript should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4 Unit 2 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • When did the News Corporation becomes an international media company?  How does the News Corporation respond to a scandal like the e-mail hacking in 2011 in the UK?
      • What are the universal characteristics of Disney products that transcends national borders?  In other words, what helps Mickey Mouse gain popularity in countries other than the US?
      • In the PBS documentary, McChesney said during the interview that “[in] popular music, there’s a huge difference if you ultimately think the reason you’re listening to this music is because these musicians basically were hired because of some marketing thing.”  McChesney pointed out that the “commercial logic” according to what media companies operate their business.  What are McChesney’s concerns?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 3: North American Media Systems  

    This unit offers a comparison between media systems based in Canada and the United States.  You will engage with material that presents the roles of government support and involvement in the establishment and distribution of media and content production in Canada.  Specifically, we explore the Canadian Broadcasting System (CBS), the national media outlet that functions as a corporation, but also under close government regulation.  We will also examine a range of independent interests groups, like the Canadian Radio-television and Tele-communications Commission (CRTC)  and the Competition Bureau.  You will also be introduced to the liberal model within the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model, which approximates media system in Canada, the UK, Ireland, and the USA; at the same time, you will also watch documentary in which leading critical scholars of our time, Edward Herman, Noam Chomsky, and Justin Lewis expressing their concerns of the notion of “liberal media” and its impact on democracy.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)  
  • 3.1.1 Early Development  
    • Reading: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: “Who We Are and What We Do”

      Link: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: “Who We Are and What We Do” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the web page.  Make sure that you also click through each one of the “view highlights” link on this webpage to expand the content to its full scope.  Canadian media systems differs from that of the U.S.  The national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), while operating as a corporation, is under government regulation at the same time.  Our discussion of the Canadian media system, therefore, will closely examine the consequence and rationale of such government-media relationship.  As you move on with the reading of the history of the CBC, try if you can find answers to the following questions: Canadian radio listeners began their media experience by tuning in to American radio programs.  What kind of impact might this bring to Canadian media development, and the country’s cultural and national identity?  Do you think the Canadian government worried about this influence?  If so, what kind of government policies or regulations have been implemented during critical phases of media technology advancement, say, when television was introduced in the 1950’s and when digital media was introduced in the 2000’s?  What kind of corporate strategy has been implemented during those critical phases?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Market Regulation  
    • Reading: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission: “A Competitive Balance for the Communications Industry”

      Link: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission: “A Competitive Balance for the Communications Industry” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the web page.  Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) is an independent public organization that regulates and supervises the Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications systems.  The organization represents the interests of citizens, industries, interest groups, and the government, then report to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage.  To continue our discussion on government-media relationships, please pay special attention on the recommendation to telecommunications and broadcasting licensing and the foreign capital merger with Canadian communications company.  What have been the rationale behind such regulations?  Now reflect upon subunit 1.4.2, where we reviewed the responsibilities of Federal Communication Commission (FCC) of the U.S.  What have been the similarities and differences?  Can you find expectations on licensing and foreign entity merger with domestic communications companies that is as explicit and strict?  What does this difference say about the American influence we talked about earlier this chapter to Canadian media market?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.3 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: The Challenges  
    • Reading: Competition Bureau: Konrad von Finckenstein’s “Study of the State of Canadian Broadcasting System”

      Link: Competition Bureau: Konrad von Finckenstein’s “Study of the State of Canadian Broadcasting System” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the statement.  Konrad von Finckenstein was the Commissioner of Competition, a role established for the maintenance and enhancement of competition in the Canadian marketplace, at the Competition Bureau when he wrote this statement.  This statement specifically targeted at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation  and shares consistent focus on cross-media ownership and foreign ownership rules.  However, since the Competition Bureau functions as an independent law enforcement agency, the language is worded slightly differently than that of Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).  As you read, focus on the similarities and differences of how either organization approaches the issues of cross-media ownership and foreign ownership.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.1.4 Strategy 2015  
    • Reading: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: “2015: Everyone, Every Way”

      Link: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: “2015: Everyone, Every Way” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link and watch the corporate video, “2015: Everyone, Every Way.”  Relate the several key points the CBC/Radio-Canada’s President & CEO, Hubert T. Lacroix mentioned throughout the video clip.  Why these points are important to CBC?  So far we discussed the influence from U.S. media, concerns of foreign ownership, and cross-media ownership.  We also explore several stakeholders, including independent interests group like Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, independent law enforcement agency like the Competition Bureau and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which function as corporation but also receives close government regulation.  All those discussions paint for us a complex picture in which the government-media relationship has been different from what we have in the U.S.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2 Mass Media in the United States and Canada: A Comparative Perspective  
  • 3.2.1 The Liberal Model of Media Governance  
    • Reading: New York University in Paris: Sofya Gladysheva’s “The North Atlantic or Liberal Model”

      Link: New York University in Paris: Sofya Gladysheva’s “The North Atlantic or Liberal Model” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the blog entry.  This blog follows the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model to categorize Canada, the UK, Ireland, and the U.S. as North Atlantic Model based on commercialization of the press, connection between ruling parties and the media, and professionalization of journalistic practice.  After close examination of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, we might reach at a conclusion that although Canada and the U.S. media system are both under the “liberal model,” they also differ from each other, particularly in regards to the extent to what government choose to involve in regulating media content distribution and ownership, as well as the degree to what various stakeholders will involve in the decision-making process on how the media should move forward in an ever changing world.  As you finish reading this blog, which was written by a university senior student, ask yourself: what are the evidences cited here between the U.S. and Canada have been relevant to you?  Which arguments don’t seem convincing to you?  Why?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2 Critique to the Liberal Model  
    • Reading: Media Education Foundation: Katherine Sender’s “The Myth of the Liberal Media”

      Link: Media Education Foundation: Katherine Sender’s “The Myth of the Liberal Media” (Flash)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the interview and analysis from Edward Herman from Wharton Business School of University of Pennsylvania, Justin Lewis from University of Massachusetts, and Noam Chomsky from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, three of the leading critical scholars of our time.”  Although their discussion was not specifically situated within the Hallin & Mancinni comparative media system model, they nonetheless mention some of the important issues relating to the government-media dynamics.  For instance, why did Professor Herman stated that the media in our time have been “voice for the elite?”   Why did Professor Chomsky argued that “if you want to know how a system works, you look at its institutional structure... how it is organized, how it is controlled, how it is funded, so on?”  What kind of argument are they trying to establish, or critiques they are trying to provide against the existing notion of “liberal media”?  Watch the rest of the interview with those questions.  Use this documentary as a cornerstone to summarize our discussion this chapter on Canadian media system, government-media relationship and legislature on media ownership.  Finally, see if you can come up with our own answer to this question: why is the notion of “liberal media” considered be a myth?  Do you agree with this or not?  Why?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3 Unit 3 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • Canadian radio listeners began their media experience by tuning in to American radio programs.  What kind of impact might this bring to Canadian media development, and the country’s cultural and national identity?  Do you think the Canadian government worried about this influence?  If so, what kind of government policies or regulations have been implemented during critical phases of media technology advancement, say, when television was introduced in the 1950’s and when digital media was introduced in the 2000’s?  What kind of corporate strategy has been implemented during those critical phases?

      • Why did Professor Herman state that the media in our time have been “voice for the elite?”  Professor Chomsky argued that “if you want to know how a system works, you look at its institutional structure... how it is organized, how it is controlled, how it is funded, so on.”  What kind of important issues relating to the government-media dynamics they are trying to tackle here?
       Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 4: European Media Systems: Hallin & Mancini’s Models  

    In this unit, you will learn about the major influences that shape media systems in North and Central Europe, the North Atlantic, and the Mediterranean.  You will be introduced to Hallin & Mancini’s comparative media system models, which sets the research tradition for comparative media system analysis.  The Hallin & Mancini model started this tradition by proposing four dimensions: media market structure, political parallelism, professionalism in journalism, and the role of the state.  These four dimensions will be the key components within this unit.  We will read a research article comparing online newspapers in different European countries using the Hallin & Mancini model to develop a sense of the four key dimensions as well as the three models identified using the four dimensions.  We will then look into each of the sample countries within the three models to take a close look of their media system using the Hallin & Mancini model.  Our reading experience will be diverse: we will read news articles as well as encyclopedia entries when we delve into country-specific discussions.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 The Hallin & Mancini Study  
  • 4.1.1 Framework and Models  
    • Reading: Academia.edu: Hartmut Wessler et al.’s “Comparing Media Systems and Media Content: Online Newspapers in Ten Eastern and Western European Countries”

      Link: Academia.edu: Hartmut Wessler et al.’s “Comparing Media Systems and Media Content: Online Newspapers in Ten Eastern and Western European Countries” (HTML or PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the research article.  This reading is significant for our discussion in this chapter for two reasons.  To begin with, this article presents a detailed introduction of the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model, including the four major dimensions: maturity of media market, political parallelism, journalistic professionalism, and state intervention.  Secondly, this article shows us how we may use the Hallin & Mancini model to approach European countries’ media systems.  There are other important elements in the discussion as well, particularly in regards to the “vertical Europeanization” and “horizontal Europeanization” for Eastern European countries that joined the European Union after the 1990’s.  This reading will set solid foundation for us to make sense of the Hallin & Mancini model and capture some of the unique characteristics of European media systems.  It is helpful if you take notes while reading this article.  For example, what is the definition of the four important dimensions of a media system according to the Hallin & Mancini model?  What are the sample countries with liberal media systems?  What are the sample countries with Democratic-corporatist model?  What are the sample countries with polarized-pluralist media systems?

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2 Americanization, Globalization, and Secularization  
    • Reading: Konrad Adenauer School for Young Politicians: Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini’s “Americanization, Globalization and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media systems and Political Communication in the U.S. and Western Europe”

      Link: Konrad Adenauer School for Young Politicians: Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini’s “Americanization, Globalization and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media systems and Political Communication in the U.S. and Western Europe” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above, click on “Comparing_Political_Comm_Frank_Esser_n_Barbra_Pfetsch.pdf,” and go to page 25 to read the article.  Hallin & Mancini are leading scholars with their comparative media system model.  In this article, they examined topics relating to Americanization and globalization, which we already discussed in chapter two on multinational media corporations, as well as secularization and modernization, which are two terms that are more relevant European media system than to individualistic, market-oriented American political and media system.  Going through their discussions helps us develop a fuller understanding of the unique set of challenges European media systems collectively face across national borders.  For example, communist and Catholic subcultures have been evident within Italian society and have significant influence on its media system development.  Understanding the unique challenges will prepare us to better situate European media systems in their national political and cultural context.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 4.2 In-Country Examples for the Hallin & Mancini Models  
  • 4.2.1 Ireland and the UK: the Liberal Model  
    • Reading: The Guardian: “History of the Guardian”

      Link: The Guardian: “History of the Guardian (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read about the history of  the Guardian.  We talked about the history of early American colonial newspapers.  When was the earliest one established?  According to the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model, liberal countries usually feature a high degree of political parallelism: the degree in which the press reflects the major political currents in society.  The newspaper described its initial intention as “the paper’s intention was the promotion of the liberal interest in the aftermath of the Peterloo Massacre and the growing campaign to repeal the Corn Laws that flourished in Manchester during this period.”  Do you think this description fits into Hallin & Mancini’s liberal model?  Why or why not?  The Hallin & Mancini model applauds liberal countries for their strong professionalization of journalists.  The newspaper described its strategy coping with the newspaper price war in the 1990’s as “[remaining] at full price, investing resources in journalism and distancing itself from the price war through distinctive and innovative marketing, product development and consistently breaking big stories.”  Do you think this approach resonates with Hallin & Mancini’s liberal model?  Can you find other evidences in the newspaper’s history that also resonate with the liberal model?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Guardian: Seumas Milne’s “Don’t lose sight of why the U.S. is out to get Julian Assange”

      Link: The Guardian: Seumas Milne’s “Don’t lose sight of why the U.S. is out to get Julian Assange” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the news article about the founder of Wikileaks, Julian Assange.  You probably are familiar with the impact that Assange had on the global political arena with the biggest leak of secret government documents in history.  However, what we plan to focus on for this story is the liberal frame through which free, independent opinions are expressed by citing multiple opposing sources and caters to different interest groups.  What are the different interest groups?  Would you say that the publication of a story like this imply the “liberal” state of the media outlet?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.2 The Mediterranean: The Polarized Pluralist Model  
    • Reading: European Journalism Centre: Elisa Giomi’s “Media Landscape: Italy”

      Link: European Journalism Centre: Elisa Giomi’s “Media Landscape: Italy” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  You may want to go over the characteristics of  the Polarized Pluralist Model before moving on.  The polarized-pluralist countries are characterized by a media system under the influence of an elite-oriented press, low newspaper circulation, and a strong television programming presence.  Do you think these characteristics are produced by the Italian media system?  What are the specific examples?  It is helpful if you take notes and fit in specific statistics or examples.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Irish Times: “Italian Media Opens Up in Berlusconi’s Wake”

      Link: Irish Times: “Italian Media Opens Up in Berlusconi’s Wake” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  This article describes how the Italian media opened up after Berlusconi stepped down.  Some important facts to remember: what happened to Berlusconi’s television company, Mediaset?  What kind of changes took place to the voting process on the membership of Authority of Communications Guarantees (Agcom)?  What kind of political or social implications did this change have?  Answering these questions helps us understand that the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model is not static but rather fluid; media systems in any given country can develop if sufficient trigger events occur.  Finally, notice that this is published in an Irish newspaper.  Where does Ireland stand in the Hallin & Mancini model?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.3 Northern and Central Europe: The Democratic Corporatist Model  
    • Reading: European Journalism Centre: Werner A. Meier’s “Media Landscape: Switzerland”

      Link: European Journalism Centre: Werner A. Meier’s “Media Landscape: Switzerland” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the blog.  Again, taking notes while reading should help you stay on track with the major dimensions within the Hallin & Mancini model.  For instance, the Swiss film industry depends heavily on public subsidy.  In 2010 the Federal Office of Culture has a budget of 10.8 million euro to support film projects.  Film makers also receive local government support.  How does this differ from the case of liberal model, like the UK or Canada, in terms of state intervention of market maturity?  While using Switzerland as one example, questions like this help you effectively evaluate media systems in other Central and Northern European countries where democratic Corporatist Model has also been identified.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.3 Unit 4 Discussion  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • What is the definition of the four important dimensions of a media system according to the Hallin & Mancini model?  What are the sample countries with liberal media systems?  What are the sample countries with Democratic-corporatist model?  What are examples of countries with polarized-pluralist media systems?

      • The Swiss film industry depends heavily on public subsidy.  In 2010 the Federal Office of Culture has a budget of 10.8 million euro to support film projects.  Film makers also receive local level government support.  How does this differ from the case of liberal model, like that of the UK or Canada in terms of state intervention of market maturity?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 5: Media Systems of Asia and the South Pacific  

    Media systems in Asia differ significantly from the systems you explored in previous units.  This unit begins with an introduction of Dr. Daya Thussu’s scholarship on globalization and its impact on media culture in the southern regions of Asia.  Dr. Thussu’s scholarship explores the unique cultural and political environment that influences the establishment and regulation of media systems within Asia and the Pacific.  We will also study Professor Joseph Man Chan’s work on Chinese media system development under globalized media environment.  Since most modern media systems in Asia have evolved under the influence of Western practices, you will also learn how the media systems respond and cope with such influences.  As we explore each country’s media systems, we always start with relevant government regulations and then introduce media system development under local government regulation and global influence.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Globalization, Commercialization and International Communication  
    • Reading: Global Media Journal: Daya Kishan Thussu’s “Book review for International Communication: Continuity and Change”

      Link: Global Media Journal: Daya Kishan Thussu’s “Book review for International Communication: Continuity and Change (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the book review.  Professor Thussu’s book, International Communication: Continuity and Change, provides important theoretical framework for us to understand the media system dynamics in Asian and Pacific countries for a good reason: it points to the process of cultural globalization among Asian and Pacific countries that are inevitably brought by globalized media as well as the concept of “contra flow,” a process that non-Western media organizations seek to fit in the existing global media landscape.  This is a book review provided by Professor Crabtree from Fairfield University.  From her review, especially how she relates the scholarship to the reflection of her own teaching philosophy, we may develop a sense of the value of Thussu’s scholarly claim.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2 India  
  • 5.2.1 Government Regulation  
    • Reading: BBC News Asia: “Fierce Debate on Media Regulation in India”

      Link: BBC News Asia: “Fierce Debate on Media Regulation in India” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the news article.  Government regulation, or government’s involvement in media operation is one of the four key dimensions within the Hallin & Mancini model.  Interestingly, according to this article, it seems that in India government regulation may also have an impact on level of journalistic professionalism, which is another key dimension in the same model.  Would you say that such connection between two dimensions has been as similar to other countries we discussed so far, like in Ireland or Italy?  If you were to put India within the Hallin & Mancini model, which model you think best approximates to the media system in India?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.2 The Global Impact of Bollywood Cinema  
    • Reading: Bollywood Tourism: “History of Bollywood”

      Link: Bollywood Tourism: “History of Bollywood” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  Consider how the development of Bollywood has been under Western influence since the very beginning: the technology was brought by the French Lumiere Brothers in 1896.  Also consider how local film makers responded to western influences and create local, indigenous version of film entertainment.  When was the “golden age” for India’s Bollywood film industry?  If you are by any chance familiar with Indian history, what do you think were the factors contributing to this development?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Guardian: Maseeh Rahman’s “Story of Love and Tomatoes Leads Bollywood’s Global Charge”

      Link: The Guardian: Maseeh Rahman’s “Story of Love and Tomatoes Leads Bollywood’s Global Charge” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article on the international success of the movie, Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (Won’t Get Life Back Again).  Please go over the figures of the movie’s box revenue generated from its international coverage.  Ask yourself: does this mean that in the near future, Bollywood will compete with Hollywood?  The author seems to think so; do you agree?  What are the factors to be considered in addition to market share and box revenue, if Bollywood is competing with Hollywood?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3 Australia  
  • 5.3.1 Broadcasting Service Act of 1992  
    • Reading: Australian Law Reform Commission: “The Current Classification Scheme: the Broadcasting Service Act”

      Link: Australian Law Reform Commission: “The Current Classification Scheme: the Broadcasting Service Act” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click the link above and read the entire article.  The Broadcasting Service Act of 1992 contains an objects section that aims to state the goals and principles of broadcasting policy, and a statement of regulatory policy expressing a commitment to ‘light touch’ regulation intended to promote greater competition, new technologies, and the development of new services.  As you move on with your reading, please pay particular attention to specific requirements on Internet content hosts, ISPs, mobile carriers, and content service providers.  In the end, Peter Coroneos, former chief executive of Internet Industry Association (IIA), has described the IIA codes as “promoting industry facilitated user empowerment” and “designed to achieve the broad objectives of the legislation without significant burden on or damage to the industry.”  Based on what we’ve discussed so far on government regulations on media content distribution and if we compare this act with regulations published elsewhere, would you say that Australian government is especially concerned with Internet content?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.2 Government-Owned Public Broadcasters  
    • Reading: Australia Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): “Government Confirms Funding for New-Look Australia Network”

      Link: Australia Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): “Government Confirms Funding for New-Look Australia Network” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link and read the press release.  The new network service will combine the existing Australia Network television operation with Radio Australia’s services and the ABC’s online and digital operations.  Do you think such a deal will jeopardize diversity of media content?  What may be the rationale behind such government support?  If we compare this deal with the NBC-Comcast merger deal in the U.S., why did this deal received government support, instead of public skepticism?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.4 Unit 5 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • Does the International success of the Bollywood movie Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (Won’t Get Life Back Again) mean that in the near future, Bollywood will compete directly with Hollywood?  What are the factors to be considered, in addition to market share and box revenue, if Bollywood is competing with Hollywood?

      • What is the process of “contra flow” as described by Professor Thussu?  Can you find a local, relevant example that matches that description?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 6: Latin American Media Systems  

    This unit introduces Latin American media systems as an interesting counterpoint to Asian media systems, which you studied in Unit 5.  Though both regions exhibit colonial influence in media content and regulations, Latin America has distinctively different practices in corporate regional media governances.  Many political-economic characteristics are unique to Latin American countries.  For example, large transnational media conglomerates are able to produce their Spanish television programs in the United States to cater to the Spanish-speaking communities living there, despite the sweeping popularity of regularly televised American shows.  But does this immediately mean that the Latin American cultural influence has won the battle?  Introducing the concept of cultural imperialism and hegemony may help us better understand how global influences define local media landscapes in this region.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Cultural Imperialism  
  • 6.1.1 Definition  
    • Reading: New Influencer: “Cultural Imperialism”

      Link: New Influencer: “Cultural Imperialism” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the short introduction on cultural imperialism, its major argument, its two models, contributions as well as criticism.  Please pay particular attention to the two ways local countries responding to such imposed influence, that they “either adopts this influence as a deliberate commercial or political strategy, or simply absorbs this influence unreflectively as the result of the contract.”  Use this statement as the key to make sense with the process of media system development in Latin American as we begin country-specific journey.

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1.2 Cultural Imperialism: Identity and Western Media Influence  
    • Reading: The World Association for Christian Communication (WACC): Philip Schlesinger and Nancy Morris’ “Cultural Boundaries: Identity and Communication in Latin America”

      Link: The World Association for Christian Communication (WACC): Philip Schlesinger and Nancy Morris’ “Cultural Boundaries: Identity and Communication in Latin America” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  Many believed that cultural imperialism as an academic term was originated form study of culture and communication discourse in Latin American countries.  This article situated the discussion of “collective identity” for the entire Latin America family in the context of cultural imperialism to unveil the dynamics between western media message and local indigenous culture.  The article also incorporates valuable scholarship from critical scholars like Dorfman and Mattelart’s (1970) on Disney: “Why is Disney a threat?.... [B]ecause this product of Disneyland ... is imported, along with so many other consumer objects, to the dependent country.... [B]y importing a product ... we are also importing the cultural forms of that society.”  While you move one with your reading, try keeping the definition of cultural imperialism in mind and take notes whenever you find something that seems interesting and relevant to the discussion of cultural imperialism.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1.3 The Myth of Cultural Imperialism: Cases Beyond the Theory  
    • Reading: The Freeman: Robert K. Rauth Jr.’s “The Myth of Cultural Imperialism”

      Link: The Freeman: Robert K. Rauth Jr.’s “The Myth of Cultural Imperialism” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  Some of the critics that cultural imperialism usually receives are that usually the responses from local community have been ignored.  This delicious piece of reading provided several interesting cases in which local communities reacts to incoming American commercial cultural icons, including the difficult landing of Disneyland Theme Park in Paris and fierce reaction against American’s attempts at opening Brazil’s local computer market, when President Reagan depicted as Rambo, “slamming Brazilian President José Sarney over the head with a computer.”  After this reading, you should have a good idea of cultural imperialism, its theoretical claim and how it may relate to real-life examples.  We will then discuss the case of Brazil to further understand the concept of cultural imperialism.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2 Media Development in Brazil  
  • 6.2.1 Overview  
    • Reading: United Nation Education Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): “Media Development in Brazil”

      Link: United Nation Education Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): “Media Development in Brazil” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the overview of media development in Brazil.  This overview provides information on commercial media, public media, and community based media and capacity of professional training.  Please also pay attention to the fact that due to historical reasons, media ownership in Brazil is highly concentrated.  Keep these in mind as we move on with a discussion and analysis of this country.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2.2 Media and Pop Culture in Brazil and Latin America  
    • Reading: Lisa Shaw and Stephanie Dennison’s Pop Culture in Latin America! Media, Arts and Lifestyle: “Chapter 10. Mass Media” and “Chapter 11. Popular Cinema”

      Link: Lisa Shaw and Stephanie Dennison’s Pop Culture in Latin America! Media, Arts and Lifestyle: “Chapter 10. Mass Media” and “Chapter 11. Popular Cinema” (HTML or PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and jump to page 240 using the box on the top of the page to read Chapter 10 and Chapter 11.  Pay particular attention to facts relevant to concentration of media ownership, as well as the western influence on indigenous culture in Brazil.  Some argue that since the programs produced by TV Globo, Brazil’s largest TV program producer have been exported to more than 130 countries, influence of cultural imperialism gradually disappeared as Brazil is exporting TV programs to the outside world.  Do you agree with this argument or not?  Take a closer look at the picture on page 244, for example, in which Brazilian singer, actress, and television phenomenon Xuxa posts in front of the camera.  Pay attention to the way she presented herself and ask what type of message she was trying to send to her audience.  Do you think the program is truly Brazilian or is in fact an American version of Brazil?  Move on with your reading of both chapters following this pattern.  Always look for traces to understand how local media respond to American commercial cultural influence.

      Reading these chapters should take approximately 4 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3 Major Media Corporation: Televisa  
  • 6.3.1 History of Televisa  
    • Reading: Televisa: “Corporate History”

      Link: Televisa: “Corporate History” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the webpage.  Pay attention to a series of merger and corporation between Televisa and other major media corporations around the world, including Univision, NBC, and Sky.  What does this imply in terms of the global impact it may produce through such enhanced distribution channel?  Relating back to the discussion in previous chapter, does such enhanced distribution always suggest greater presence of authentic Latin American culture?

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.2 Televisa’s Influence  
    • Reading: The Guardian: Jo Tuckman’s “Pressure on Mexican Presidential Candidate in Televisa Media Row”

      Link: The Guardian: Jo Tuckman’s “Pressure on Mexican Presidential Candidate in Televisa Media Row” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the news article.  This story provides an overview of the alleged scandal in which Mexico’s presidential candidate, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, has been charged of purchasing favorable coverage on Mexico’s biggest television network, Televisa.  As the last piece of reading material in Unit 6, this story reminds us the complicated picture among Latin America countries that reflects both highly concentrated media ownership and historically strong cultural influence coming from the West.  Such complexity in part triggered political dynamics described in news stories like this.  Try connecting the dots as you read the story and see if you can come up with your insight of the situation: what have been the major social, cultural, and political forces behind the scene?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.4 Unit 6 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • What is the definition of cultural imperialism?  Try to relate your understanding to the Dorfman and Mattelart’s (1970) scholarship on Disney, where they argue ask: “why is Disney a threat?.... [B]ecause this product of Disneyland ... is imported, along with so many other consumer objects, to the dependent country.... [B]y importing a product ... we are also importing the cultural forms of that society.”

      • Some argue that since the programs produced by TV Globo, Brazil’s largest TV program producer have been exported to more than 130 countries, influence of cultural imperialism gradually disappeared as Brazil is exporting TV programs to the outside world.  Do you agree with this argument or not?  Why or why not?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 7: Middle Eastern Media Systems  

    In this unit, you will examine media systems in the Middle East.  Attention will be given to both the overall trend of changing audience consuming habit and media market structure, as well as in-country specific cases with major country like Egypt.  This unit will also focus on regional and global influences produced through alternative content coming from media outlets like Al Jazeera.  Later in this unit, you will learn about the development of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Middle East.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Media Industries in the Middle East  
  • 7.1.1 Overview  
  • 7.1.2 Film Industry  
  • 7.1.3 Changing Audience in the Middle East  
    • Reading: Business Intelligence in Middle East: “Power Shifting in Middle East Media Industry, Say Experts”

      Link: Business Intelligence in Middle East: “Power Shifting in Middle East Media Industry, Say Experts” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  This reading provides us with an audience perspective.  Please pay close attention to the following statement: “in 1940 news travelled the Arab world via word-of-mouth, which was the primary source of news for most Arabs, but by 2000 Arabs had gained access to radios, newspapers, the Internet and as many as 60 satellite TV channels.”  This statement describes changes to the Middle East’s media audience within a time-span of 60 years.  How do these changes correlate with the changing political landscape of the Middle East?  If you continue with your analysis using the four dimensions within the Hallin & Mancini comparative media model, would you conclude that political parallelism and government involvement should be considered as the primary influence when it comes to media development in the Middle East?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.1.4 Changing Media Market Structure  
    • Reading: The National: Ben Flanagan’s “Balancing Act for Middle East Media”

      Link: The National: Ben Flanagan’s “Balancing Act for Middle East Media” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  This article reminds us to pay attention to the “unbalanced media market structure.”  Ask yourself: why does the television industry receive extra attention?  Why does new media like social media receive relatively less attention?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.1.5 The Case of Egypt  
  • 7.2 A Different Discourse: Al Jazeera  
  • 7.2.1 Different Discourse: The Last Shepherds of the Valley  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Al Jazeera World’s “The Last Shepherds of the Valley”

      Link: YouTube: Al Jazeera World’s “The Last Shepherds of the Valley” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and watch this Al Jazeera documentary, which depicts the conflict between Palestinian shepherds and the Israeli occupation.  Pay attention to the perspective, focus, and attitude of the documentary and then compare those with the coverage about this conflict from other sources.  Many claim that Al Jazeera presents a different viewpoint than other media sources.  Do you agree? Why or why not?

      Watching this documentary should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.2.2 Influences in the Middle East and Beyond  
  • 7.3 ICT and the Middle East  
  • 7.3.1 ICT and Socio-Economic Context  
    • Reading: Wamda: Katherine Maher’s “Digital Freedoms: A Middle East Update”

      Link: Wamda: Katherine Maher’s “Digital Freedoms: A Middle East Update” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  The author, Katherine Maher, is a Policy Fellow at Access, where she follows internet policy and digital rights in the Middle East.  This article provides an overview of the political and social context of major countries in the region and points out the connection between public access to ICT and democratic movements.  If we use the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model to approach the media trends in Middle Eastern countries, where would you place the region’s technology development?  Would you say it resonates more with local media market development (for more access to ICT), local journalist professionalism, or both?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.3.2 Future Trends in ICT Development in the Middle East  
  • 7.4 Unit 7 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • What have been the differences between the film industry in Dubai and Egypt?  Try situating your analysis within the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system models.

      • If we use the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model to approach the general trend among Middle Eastern countries, where would you position technology development?  Would you say it resonates more with local media market development (for more access to ICT), or local journalist professionalism?  Or both?

      • What kind of impact do you think the education reform on ICT access will bring to future journalist professionalism among Middle Eastern countries?  And what kind of influence might this bring to the general society outside of the news room?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 8: African Media Systems  

    This unit focuses on media infrastructures of various African nations within the context of developmental theory, which puts great emphasis on partnership and adoption of new technologies.  This unit will also introduce a competing theory, neo-colonialism, from critical approach to point out potential negative impact on African countries from receiving foreign aid.  All of the African nations discussed in this unit are former colonies of Western nations.  This course will introduce neo-colonialism to illustrate how these countries construct national identities under colonial influence and how the establishment of modern media is important.

    Unit 8 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 8 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Overview of African Media  
  • 8.1.1 African Coverage of HIV/AIDS  
  • 8.1.2 Economic Development Theory  
  • 8.1.3 The Reality of African Media  
    • Reading: Free African Media: Theresa Mallinson’s “Africa’s media freedom map: a depressing picture”

      Link: Free African Media: Theresa Mallinson’s “Africa’s media freedom map: a depressing picture” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  This article breaks down trends in media freedom across Africa.  While you read, think about the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model and development theory in the context of African countries.  What are the influential factors, such as foreign aid and local economic development, that you consider most important in contributing to African media freedom?  Or, if several are important, how do they relate with one another?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 8.1.4 The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)  
    • Reading: Journalism, Mass Communication & Contemporary Issues: Subhash Dhuliya’s “International Communication-NWICO”

      Link: Journalism, Mass Communication & Contemporary Issues: Subhash Dhuliya’s “International Communication-NWICO” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link and read this article, which gives a thorough overview of the New World Information and Communication Oder (NWICO) and the context of debates surrounding the order.  The NWICO was developed during an initiative to overcome some of the challenges that surround African media development. Did it function in the way that it was originally intended?  While you read, think about questions like these.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 8.2 Neo-Colonialism  
  • 8.2.1 Definition and Ideological Concerns  
    • Reading: Marxism in Africa: Kwame Nkrumah’s “Neo-Colonialism, the Last State of Imperialism”

      Link: Marxism in Africa: Kwame Nkrumah’s “Neo-Colonialism, the Last State of Imperialism” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link and read this article, which presents a competing critical theory about economic development in African countries.  It might be useful to see how this alternative argument has been constructed when approaching foreign aid from institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), particularly when it comes to the potential negative influences on domestic affairs in African countries.  Understanding these alternate arguments about neo-colonialism might be helpful when developing an overall picture of media development in African countries.

      Reading this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 8.2.2 Growth of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  
  • 8.3 Media Infrastructure in Africa  
  • 8.3.1 An Overview of Media Infrastructure  
  • 8.3.2 Egypt  
  • 8.3.3 Ethiopia  
  • 8.4 Unit 8 Discussion  

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”
     
    Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

    • Describe your understanding of the development theory and how it may be relevant to African media systems.

    • Think about the Hallin & Mancini comparative media model and development theory in the context of African countries.  How do nation-states, foreign aid, and local economic development contribute to media freedom in Africa?
    Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 9: International Organizations  

    After the close examinations of local and regional media systems conducted in the previous units, this unit will focus on the global level as we discuss the responsibilities, policies, and projects of influential international organizations.  Through discussion of their policy and recent projects, we will come to understand how such policies and projects may play a role on the local and regional level, and how they influence local news agendas and the flow of information.

    Unit 9 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 9 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 International Telecommunications Union  
  • 9.1.1 Overview  
  • 9.1.2 History  
    • Reading: International Telecommunication Union: “ITU’s History”

      Link: International Telecommunication Union: “ITU’s History” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article, which provides an overview of the ITU’s history.  The International Telecommunication Union is the oldest international organization in this area, and it is closely tied to the advancement of communications technology.  As you read, pay attention to the approaches the organization has adopted to meet new challenges of technology advancement, and the significance of the organization’s position as a U.N. specialized agency.

      Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: ITU’s “In Signal Honour – A History of ITU, Part 1” and “In Signal Honour – A History of ITU, Part 2”

      Link: YouTube: ITU’s “In Signal Honour – A History of ITU, Part 1” and “In Signal Honour – A History of ITU, Part 2” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please click on the link and watch this ITU centenary film.  Pay attention to the historical events introduced at the beginning of the film.  What kind of historical context, in terms of significant inventions, political events, and commercial expansions, might have contributed to the establishment of the union?  The second half of the film discusses the expansion of communication technology.  For example, the political and cultural implications of the Olympic Games increased thanks to advanced communication technologies.  As you finish watching the video, think about the political ramifications of the ITU and its mission.

      Watching this video should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.1.3 Responsibility  
    • Reading: International Telecommunication Union: “What does ITU do?”

      Link: International Telecommunication Union: “What does ITU do?” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  ITU’s major activities fall into three main categories: radio-communications, standardization, and development.  Make sure you understand what standardization involves; for example, imagine that you took a picture with your iPhone this afternoon and posted it on your Facebook profile page.  How might the ITU be involved in this process?  What are the “transport protocols” that may be relevant to your daily communication needs?  Also watch the eight-minute video to learn more about ITU standards.

      Reading this article and watching the short video should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.1.4 Recent Projects  
  • 9.2 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)  
  • 9.2.1 History  
    • Web Media: United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization: “The Organization’s History”

      Link: United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization: “The Organization’s History” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch both videos about the history of UNESCO.  Please read the accompanying articles on the political context of the organization.  Pay attention to the connection between the organization’s commitments and its political context.  Does the fact that the organization was founded by the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) affect its commitment to cultural preservation and global sustainable development?

      Watching these videos and reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.2.2 Report: Many Voices, One World  
    • Reading: International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems: “Many Voices, One World”

      Link: International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems: “Many Voices, One World” (HTML or PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the first three chapters of “Many Voices, One World.”  While reading, think about how communication technology advances, and how the development and expansion of modern mass media occurs.  Why does the report say that certain cultures are at risk?  Do you think that the report’s recommendations will help marginalized cultures survive?

      Reading this report should take approximately 3 hours.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Media Alliance: Dee Dee Halleck’s “Many Voices, One World”

      Link: Media Alliance: Dee Dee Halleck’s “Many Voices, One World” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  Dee Dee Halleck is a professor at the University of California, San Diego and an organizer for independent media since the 1960s.  What kind of insights does she provide on the effectiveness of the “Many Voices, One World” report?  Do you agree with her?  Why or why not?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.2.3 The Memory of the World  
  • 9.3 The European Union  
  • 9.3.1 History  
    • Reading: The European Union: “The history of the European Union”

      Link: The European Union: “The history of the European Union” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article, which also contains optional links where you can read more about each decade.  As we go through the history of the union, please reflect upon the relationship between the government and the press as it relates to the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model.  Do you think for an international organization like the EU, such government-press relationships are still relevant?  If so, how?  Examine specific historical events to find the answers to this question.

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.3.2 Recent Projects  
  • 9.4 Unit 9 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”
       
      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread or respond to other students’ postings.

      • Imagine that you took a picture with your iPhone this afternoon and posted it on your Facebook profile page.  How might the ITU be involved in this process to make everything possible for you?  What are the “transport protocols” that may be relevant to your daily communication needs?

      • Please review the history of development of the EU within the Hallin & Mancini comparative media system model.  Do you think for an international organization like the EU, such government-press relationships are still relevant?  If so, in which way?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.

  • Unit 10: The Impact of New Media on Traditional Media Systems  

    Today, many people spend more time transmitting and receiving information on their phones than on their computers.  How do your parents and grandparents access information?  How can you make sense of such revolutionary changes in media sharing and consumption?  In this unit, you will examine the remarkable impact of new media.  This unit begins with an exploration of definitions for “new media” before delving into the influences of daily social patterns and media consumption habits.

    Unit 10 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 10 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 10.1 The Internet and Social Media  
  • 10.1.1 The Evolution of the Internet  
  • 10.1.2 Social Media and Web 2.0  
  • 10.1.3 Blurred Boundary Between Mass and Interpersonal Communication  
  • 10.1.4 Issues and Trends  
  • 10.2 New Media Content Distribution Channels  
  • 10.2.1 Cable Television and Hulu  
    • Reading: Laptop Magazine: Jeffrey L. Wilson’s “Can Cable TV Survive the Hulu Era?”

      Link: Laptop Magazine: Jeffrey L. Wilson’s “Can Cable TV Survive the Hulu Era?” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this news article.  This article invites a closer look at one of the interesting cases that has been made relevant with the introduction of the new media.  How can a traditional stakeholder in a media industry, such as television, survive the competition with free programing available online?  If you have used Hulu to watch a show, consider the impact your personal media viewing habits may have on the entire industry.

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 10.2.2 User Generated Content and YouTube  
  • 10.2.3 From Barnes and Noble to E-Reading on the Kindle  
  • 10.3 New Methods of Media Content Production  
  • 10.3.1 Removal of Traditional Gatekeepers  
    • Reading: Google: “About Google News”

      Link: Google: “About Google News” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read all the paragraphs underneath “About Google News” and take a look at the list of features.  Read more by following the “learn more” links.  Pay attention to how the company describes the process that generates its news: a “computer-generated news site that aggregates headlines from news sources worldwide.”  By introducing a news site like this, has Google presented a scenario where news content flows freely to consumers without the presence of a gatekeeper?

      Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 10.3.2 The New Information Gatekeepers  
  • 10.4 New Audiences: New Media’s Impact on Personal Identity  
  • 10.4.1 The Audience as Community Member  
  • 10.4.2 The Audience as Content Producer  
  • 10.5 Unit 10 Discussion  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “COMM323 Course Discussion Board”
       
      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board.  Feel free to start your own thread and respond to other students’ postings.  Here are a few sample topics to consider as you post:

      • The evolution of the Internet challenged most existing roles or influences of stakeholders in our media system.  How would the government, for instance, coordinate and balance the media-government relationship?  How do media consumers to continuously shape and influence the media market?

      • Do you believe that major social media sites: (Google, Apple, Twitter, and Facebook) are the new information gatekeepers?  In other words, is the old market rule identified through Hallin & Mancini model within media systems valid in the age of the new media?
      Posting and responding on the discussion board should take approximately 3 hours.