Heat Transfer
Purpose of Course showclose
Heat transfer is the thermal energy in transit due to a spatial temperature difference. The topic of heat transfer has enormous applications in mechanical engineering, ranging from cooling of microelectronics to design of jet engines and operations of nuclear power plants. In this course, you will learn about what heat transfer is, what governs the rate of heat transfer, and why heat transfer is so important. You will also learn about the three major modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat conduction is the transport of heat through a solid body, by vibrations of molecules or in the case of electrical conductors, by movement of electrons from one molecule to another. Heat convection is a process by which heat is transferred through a fluid by motion of fluid. Thermal radiation is the transport of energy between two bodies by electromagnetic waves. In addition to the three main modes of heat transfer, you will also learn about heat transfer during phase changes (boiling and condensation heat transfer).
Course Information showclose
Welcome to ME204. Below, please find some general information on the course and its requirements.
Course Designer: Tuan Dinh
Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:
 MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook
 YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s Video Lectures
 MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’sLecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion
You may also find the following tables resourceful as you work through the materials in this course:
 MIT Opencourseware: Intermediate Heat and Mass Transfer: “Selected Physical Constants” and “Selected Conversion Factors”*
Make sure to click on each “PDF” link in the Study Materials section to download these tables.
Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Pay special attention to Unit 1, as this unit lays the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units. You will also need to complete:
 Unit 1 Quiz
 Unit 2 Quiz
 Unit 3 Quiz
 Unit 4 Quiz
 Unit 5 Quiz
 Unit 6 Quiz
 The Final Exam
Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam. However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the resources in each unit.
In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 112 hours to complete. Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you 8 hours. Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete half of the Unit 1 reading (about 2 hours) on Monday night; the remainder of the Unit 1 reading (about 2 hours) on Tuesday night; the Unit 1 lecture on Wednesday night; etc.
Tips/Suggestions: As noted in the “Course Requirements,” multivariate calculus is a prerequisite for this course. If you are struggling with the mathematics as you progress through this course, consider taking a break to revisit MA103, focusing especially on Units 3 and 4.
It will likely be helpful to have a graphing calculator on hand for this course. If you do not own or have access to one, consider using this freeware version.*
As you read, take careful notes on a separate sheet of paper. Mark down any important equations, formulas, and definitions that stand out to you. It will be useful to use this “cheat sheet” as a review prior to completing the final exam. You may want to familiarize yourself with the tables of Selected Physical Constants and Selected Conversion Factors, linked under the Primary Resources heading, as they will prove to be useful during the course.
*Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the webpages above.
Learning Outcomes showclose
 Formulate basic equation for heat transfer problems.
 Apply heat transfer principles to design and to evaluate performance of thermal systems.
 Solve differential and algebraic equations associated with thermal systems using analytical and numerical approaches.
 Calculate the performance of heat exchangers.
 Calculate radiation heat transfer between objects with simple geometries.
 Calculate and evaluate the impacts of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of a particular heat transfer problem.
 Evaluate the relative contributions of different modes of heat transfer.
Course Requirements showclose
√ Have access to a computer.
√ Have continuous broadband Internet access.
√ Have the ability/permission to install plugins or software (e.g. Acrobat 7 Reader (or higher), Adobe Reader, and Flash).
√ Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.
√ Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).
√ Have competency in the English language.
√ Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.
√ Have completed the following courses listed in “The Core Program” of the Mechanical Engineering discipline: ME101 through ME203.
√ Have completed MA101, MA102 and MA103: Multivariable Calculus as a prerequisite.
Unit Outline show close
Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources

Unit 1: Introduction to Heat Transfer
This first unit will introduce you to the subject of heat transfer. Mechanical engineers use the knowledge about heat transfer to solve many realworld problems from maintaining house temperature at a comfortable level to making fuel rods in nuclear reactors not overheated. We will discuss three basic methods of heat motion: convection, conduction, and radiation. In this section, we will also explore the similarities between heat transfer and thermodynamics.
Unit 1 Time Advisory show close
Unit 1 Learning Outcomes show close
 Web Media: MIT’s “Heat Transfer Experiment Video”
Link: MIT’s “Heat Transfer Experiment Video” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (5:54), which provides a brief overview of the three mechanisms of heat transfer and how each mechanism is used in engineering design. Find similar heat transfer phenomena that you encounter in your everyday life.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: YouTube: University of Colorado Boulder’s “Introduction to Heat Transfer (Potato Example)”
Link: YouTube: University of Colorado Boulder: “Introduction to Heat Transfer (Potato Example)” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (7:56), which demonstrates the basic concepts of heat transfer using potatoes as example.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 1”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 1” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. This is one of the best books on heat transfer. For this unit, please read “Chapter 1: Introduction” (page 335). The reading discusses the applications of heat transfer in everyday life (section 1.1), the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and heat transfer (section 1.2), as well as different modes of heat transfer (section 1.3). You may simply browse this reading. Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for all subunits in Unit 1.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 1: Introduction to Heat and Mass Transfer,” “Lecture 2: Introduction2,” and “Lecture 3: Introduction3”
Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 1: Introduction to Heat and Mass Transfer”, “Lecture 2: Introduction2”, and “Lecture 3: Introduction3” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch these videos (about 5054 minutes for each video), which will introduce you to the basic concepts of heat transfer. The videos will cover the material that you need to know for Unit 1. In Lecture 1, pay attention to the discussion on the distinction between heat transfer and thermodynamics at the 8:00 minute mark. Compare how Professor S.P. Sukhatme defined heat transfer and sections 1.1 and 1.2 in the LienhardLienhard textbook. Lecuture 2 introduced the concepts of control volume and the derivation of first law of thermodynamics for a control volume. Lecture 3 introduced you to the three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. This lecture reinforces what you learned from section 1.3 of the LienhardLienhard textbook.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.
 Web Media: MIT’s “Heat Transfer Experiment Video”

1.1 Overview of Heat Transfer
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

1.2 Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

1.3 Three Modes of Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

Unit 1 Assessment
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 1 Assessment"
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assesment” (PDF) and “Unit 1 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF).
Instructions: Please download the quiz linked above, and answer each question before checking your answers against the answer key.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 1 Assessment"

Unit 2: Conduction
In this Unit, you will be introduced to heat conduction, which is the primary mode of heat transfer in solid systems. Heat conduction occurs when there is temperature gradient in the system and involves transfer of thermal energy from regions with higher temperature (higher molecular kinetic energy) to regions with lower temperature (lower molecular kinetic energy) by collisions of molecules and interactions of electrons. The process of heat conduction plays a vital role in many engineering systems, ranging from metal casting, cooling of microelectronic devices, to dissipation of energy generated by nuclear fuel.
Unit 2 Time Advisory show close
In this Unit, you will learn about the basic concepts and equations of heat conduction and how to obtain solutions for heat conduction problems in simple geometric configurations.
Unit 2 Learning Outcomes show close

2.1 Introduction to Conduction
 Web Media: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller’s “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 2”
Link: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller’s “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 2”
Instructions: Please watch this science demonstration video, in which Dr. Julius Summer Miller performed several simple experiments to illustrate heat conduction. You may want to repeat some of these experiments at home.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read section 2.1 of “Chapter 2: Heat conduction Concepts, Thermal Resistance, and Heat Transfer Coefficient” (pages 4956) of Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook. The reading discusses the basic concepts (e.g. thermal conductivity, Fourier’s law, etc.) and the governing equations of heat conduction. Pay special attention to Example 2.1. Work through Example 2.6 which illustrates the concept of “boundary condition.” Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.1.12.1.5.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 4: Heat Conduction1”Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 4: Heat Conduction1” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video lecture (54:42 minutes), which will introduce you to the basic equations of heat conduction. The video will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.1.12.1.5. Pay attention to example discussed at 17:00 minute mark. At the 31:00 minute mark, Professor S.P. Sukhatme discussed how to calculate thermal resistance of an infinite composite slab. Compare this with Examples 2.2 and 2.4 in the LienhardLienhard chapter in this unit.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Web Media: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller’s “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Conduction – Part 2”

2.1.1 Rate of Conduction Equation  Fourier's Law
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

2.1.2 Thermal Conductivity
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

2.1.3 Thermal Diffusivity
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

2.1.4 Heat Diffusion Equation
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

2.1.5 Boundary Conditions
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

2.2 Plane Wall Conduction
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read pages 5663 in section 2.2 of “Chapter 2: Heat Conduction Concepts, Thermal Resistance and Heat Transfer Coefficient.” This reading will introduce to you solutions of the heat conduction equations in plane wall geometry. Plane wall conduction is an example of onedimensional, steadystate conduction; one example of this is a wall separating an airconditioned room from the hot outdoors. Assuming constant outside temperature, we can use onedimensional, steadystate analysis to determine the amount of heat is conducted between the cool air inside and the hot air outdoor through the wall. Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.2.12.2.3.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”

2.2.1 Temperature Distribution
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2.

2.2.2 Thermal Resistance
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2.

2.2.3 Composite Walls
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2

2.2.4 Contact Resistance
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use.
For this unit, please read pages 6466 in section 2.3 of “Chapter 2: Heat conduction concepts, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient." This reading will introduce to you to contact resistance. Please pay attention to Example 2.4 and Table 2.1Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”

2.3 Radial System Conduction
 Reading: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 16.5: Steady QuasiOneDimensional Heat Flow in NonPlanar Geometry”Link: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 16.5: Steady QuasiOneDimensional Heat Flow in NonPlanar Geometry” (HTML)Instructions: Please read the entire page. In this reading, you will learn how to obtain solutions for onedimensional steadystate heat conduction problems in spherical and cylindrical geometries. Note that this reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.3.12.3.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 5: Heat Conduction2”
Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 5: Heat Conduction2” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (52:44 minutes), which will introduce you to heat conduction in radial systems and how to calculate thermal resistance. The example solved at 8:40 minute mark illustrates how to solve heat conduction problems in a radial system. Note that this video covers the material that you need to know for subunits 2.3.12.3.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 16.5: Steady QuasiOneDimensional Heat Flow in NonPlanar Geometry”

2.3.1 Cylinders
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.3.

2.3.2 Spheres
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.3

2.4 Fins
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. For this subunit, please read section 4.5 in “Chapter 4: Analysis of Heat Conduction and Some Steadystate OneDimensional Problems.” This reading will introduce to you to heat conduction in extended surfaces, such as fin. You will learn to calculate fin resistance and fin efficiency for a wide range of fin geometries.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 18.2: Heat Transfer from A Fin”Link: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 18.2: Heat Transfer from A Fin” (HTML)Instructions: Please read the entire page. This reading will provide you a brief introduction to fin heat transfer.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”

2.4.1 Introduction to Fins
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

2.4.2 Fin Effectiveness
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

2.4.3 Fin Resistance
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

2.4.4 Fin Efficiency
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

2.4.5 Fins with NonUniform CrossSectional Area
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

2.4.6 Overall Surface Efficiency
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.
 2.5 TwoDimensional, Steady State Conduction

2.5.1 Separation of Variables
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. For this subsubunit, please read section 4.2 in “Chapter 4: Analysis of Heat Conduction and Some Steadystate Onedimensional Problems.” Pay attention to pages 146150. This section introduces you to separation of variables, which is a method often used to obtain solutions to multidimensional and transient heat conduction problems.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”

2.5.2 Shape Factor and Heat Rate
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. For this subsubunit, please read section 5.7 in “Chapter 5: Transient and Multidimensional Heat Conduction.” Read pages 240248 carefully. This reading will introduce you to shape factor and how to calculate shape factor for a number of geometrical configurations.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”

2.6 Transient Conduction
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. Please read sections 5.15.6 (pages 193235) in “Chapter 5: Transient and Multidimensional Heat Conduction.” In this reading, you will learn how to obtain solutions for transient heat conduction problems using lumped capacitance method. The lumped capacitance method assumes that the solid object in question has no internal temperature differences. Always be sure to check that this method is applicable to your situation by first calculating the object’s Biot Number (based on its physical and geometric properties). Note that this reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.6.12.6.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 8: Heat Conduction5”
Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s Lecture Series on Heat Mass Transfer: “Lecture 8: Heat Conduction5” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (53:29 minutes). In this video, you will learn about unsteady state conduction in an infinite slab. Compare what you learn here with section 5.3 in the LienhardLienhard textbook. Professor S.P. Sukhatme will also work through an example of transient heat conduction in a radial coordinate at the 38:00 minute mark. This video covers the material that you need to know for subunits 2.6.12.6.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”

2.6.1 Introduction to Unsteady States
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6.

2.6.2 Lumped Capacitance Method
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6

2.6.3 Spatial Effects
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the quiz linked above, and answer each question before checking your answers against The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF).  Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME 204 Heat Transfer: Radial Heat Conduction”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME 204 Heat Transfer: Radial Heat Conduction” (PDF)
Instructions: Read the document and complete the assessment as instructed. The solution to the problem is given in the "Answer Key" (PDF).
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment”

Unit 3: Convection
In this unit, we will study the second mode of heat transfer: convection. While conduction is the major mode of heat transfer in solids (as you learned in Unit 2), convection is the major mode of heat transfer in fluids. Convection occurs because of movements of fluids. Heat is carried away and dispersed thorough the fluid. Convective heat transfer occurs in nature (e.g. cooling down effects of wind) and in engineering systems (e.g. heating of homes, cooling of equipment).
Unit 3 Time Advisory show close
We will examine two major types of convective heat transfer: forced convection and natural convection. In forced convection, movement of fluid is due to external forces such as a pump, while in natural convection, it is due to density differences driven by nonuniformity of temperature.
Unit 3 Learning Outcomes show close
 Web Media: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller’a “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 2”
Link: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller: “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 2” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch these two science demonstration video, in which Dr. Julius Summer Miller performed several simple experiments to illustrate heat convection. You may want to repeat some of these experiments at home.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use in this course. This is one of the best books on heat transfer. Please read section 6.1 in “Chapter 6: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers” (pp 271278). Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 3.1 and 3.2.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Web Media: YouTube: Julius Summer Miller’a “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 1” and “Heat Energy Transfer by Convection – Part 2”

3.1 Introduction to Boundary Layers
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below the Unit 3 introduction.

3.2 Local/Average Convection Coefficients for Heat and Mass Transfer
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below the Unit 3 introduction.

3.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read sections 6.26.8 in “Chapter 6: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers (pp 278323).” Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 3.33.6, and any inclusive subsubunits. In Section 6.2, you may want to skim through page 288 and focus on equation 6.24 on page 289. Make sure that you understand figure 6.11. Pay attention to sections 6.4 and 6.6, which provide detailed discussions on the Prandtl number, boundary layer thicknesses, and the Reynolds analogy. Browse through section 6.5, because we are going to revisit this section in subunit 3.7.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”

3.3.1 Velocity Boundary Layers
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

3.3.2 Thermal Boundary Layers
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

3.4 Boundary Layer Equations
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

3.5 Discussion over Dimensionless Parameters
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

3.6 Reynold's Analogy
Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

3.7 External Flow
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 7”Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 7” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use in this course. This is one of the best books on heat transfer. For this unit, please read “Chapter 7: Forced Convections in a Variety of Configurations” (pp. 342388). Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 3.7 and 3.8. This reading will introduce you to heat transfer for external flows, such as flows over a cylinder, a sphere, and across tube fields and forced convection heat transfer.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 18: Forced Convection,” “Lecture 19: Forced Convection2,” “Lecture 20: Forced Convection3,” and “Lecture 21: Forced Convection4”Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 18: Forced Convection”, “Lecture 19: Forced Convection2”, “Lecture 20: Forced Convection3”, and “Lecture 21: Forced Convection  4” (YouTube) .Instructions: Please watch these videos (ranging from approximately 4550 minutes for each video), which will introduce you to the basic concepts of forced convection. These videos cover the material that you need to know for subunits 3.7 and 3.8. In Lecture 18, pay attention to definitions of local heat transfer coefficient and average heat transfer coefficient. Also, make sure that you remember the definitions of Nusselt number, Reynolds number, and Prandtl number. In Lecture 19, Professor U.N. Gaitonde works through an example of convective heat transfer with constant heat flux at wall.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 7”

3.7.1 Introduction to External Flow
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7.

3.7.2 Flow over a Flat Plate
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6” (PDF)Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book. Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use in this course. This is one of the best books on heat transfer. For this subsubunit, please read sections 6.5 in “Chapter 6: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers” (pp. 278323) carefully. The reading introduces you to equations that can be used to calculated heat transfer coefficient of forced convection over a flat plate.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”

3.7.3 Flow across a Cylinder
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

3.7.4 Flow over a Sphere
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

3.7.5 Flow across Tube Fields
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

3.8 Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7.

3.9 Free Convection
 Web Media: Infrared Imaging Experiments’s “Natural Convection  A Vertical View” and “Natural ConvectionA Horizontal View”
Link: Infrared Imaging Experiments’s “Natural Convection  A Vertical View” and “Natural ConvectionA Horizontal View” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please click on the above link, which will take you to a webpage of heat transfer experiments captured by Infrared video. Browse to the sections titled “Natural Convection  A Vertical View” and “Natural Convection  A Horizontal View.” Read the descriptions and watch the videos. Click on the link “Read more” if you are interested in a more detailed description of the experiments. The videos will provide you some insights into the dynamics of natural convection.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 8”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 8” (PDF)
Instructions: For this subunit, please read sections 8.18.4 (pages 399416), which will introduce you to natural convection and dimensionless numbers characterizing natural convective heat transfer. Make sure that you know how to define the Raleigh number for different geometrical configuration of the heating surface (section 8.3).
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Prof. S.P.Sukhatme and Prof. U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 22: Natural Convection1,” “Lecture 23: Natural Convection2,” and “Lecture 24: Natural Convection3”Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 22: Natural Convection1,”, “Lecture 23: Natural Convection2,” and “Lecture 24: Natural Convection3” (YouTube)Instructions: Please watch these videos in their entity (about 5053 minutes for each video), which will introduce you to the basic equations and dimensionless numbers for free convection.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Web Media: Infrared Imaging Experiments’s “Natural Convection  A Vertical View” and “Natural ConvectionA Horizontal View”

Unit 3 Assessment
 Assessment: California State University Northridge: Larry Caretto's "April 11 Homework"
Link: California State University Northridge: Larry Caretto's "April 11 Homework" (HTML).
Instructions: Open the link above that will take you to the homepage of ME 375 – Heat Transfer taught by Professor Larry Caretto. Click on "April 11": to download the Word file hw09.doc.
Solve all the problems listed in the homework. For each problem, read the problem statement in bold and attempt to solve it. After you complete your solutions, check with the answers below each problem statement.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 3 Assessment"
Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 3 Assessment" (PDF)
Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz. When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation's "Unit 3 Assessment Answer Key" (PDF).
 Assessment: California State University Northridge: Larry Caretto's "April 11 Homework"

Unit 4: Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are devices designed to transfer energy from one fluid to another. You can find heat exchangers in almost any engineering application, ranging from nuclear power plant to the cooling of electronic devices. Heat exchanges can be found in a wide variety of configurations, but can be generally classified into three basic types: the parallel or counterflow configuration, the shellandtube configuration, and the crossflow configuration. In this unit, you will learn about the pros and cons and how to evaluate performance of each configuration.
Unit 4 Time Advisory show close
Unit 4 Learning Outcomes show close

4.1 Introduction to Heat Exchangers
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 3: Heat Exchangers”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 3: Heat Exchangers” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read “Chapter 3: Heat Exchanger Design” (pp. 99129), which will introduce you to heat exchangers. You will also learn about some basic considerations when designing heat exchangers. Practice “Experiment 1” on page 101. Make sure you know how to calculate logarithmistic mean temperature difference (LMTD), which is critical for evaluating performance of heat transfer coefficient.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 25: Heat Exchangers1,” “Lecture 26: Heat Exchangers2,” “Lecture 27: Heat Exchangers3,” and “Lecture 28: Heat Exchangers4”Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 25: Heat Exchangers1,” “Lecture 26: Heat Exchangers2,” “Lecture 27: Heat Exchangers3,” and “Lecture 28: Heat Exchangers4” (YouTube).Instructions: Please watch these videos in their entirety (ranging from 5060 minutes for each video), which will introduce you to the basic equations and dimensionless numbers for free convection. These videos will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 4.14.5.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics & Propulsion: “Section 18.5: Heat Exchangers”Link: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics & Propulsion: “Section 18.5: Heat Exchangers” (HTML)Instructions: Please read the entire page. This reading will provide you a brief overview of simple heat exchangers. The reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunit 4.1.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Stanford University: Professor Channing Robertson’s Introduction to Chemical Engineering: “Lecture 12: Heat Exchangers”
Link: YouTube: Stanford University: Professor Channing Robertson’s Introduction to Chemical Engineering: “Lecture 12: Heat Exchangers” (YouTube)
Also available in:
iTunes U
Adobe Flash
Instructions: Please watch this video (52:06 minutes), which will provide you a simplified overview of heat exchangers. This lecture video covers the material that you need to know for subunits 4.1 and 4.2.
Terms of Use: The video above is reposted from Stanford University's YouTube Channel. This video is released under a Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works License. The original version can be found at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpmMQv6clwQ&.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 3: Heat Exchangers”

4.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

4.3 Overall Surface Efficiency/Fin Efficiency
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

4.4 Log Mean Temperature Difference
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

4.5 Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Analysis Method
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the quiz linked above, and answer each question before checking your answers against The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF).  Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME 204 Heat Transfer: Design of A Heat Exchanger"
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME 204 Heat Transfer: Design of A Heat Exchanger” (PDF)
Instructions: Read the document and complete the assessment as instructed.
When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation's "ME204 Heat Transfer Assessment Answer Key.” (PDF)
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment”

Unit 5: Radiation
In this unit, we will study the third mode of heat transfer: radiation. Unlike conduction (Unit 2) and convection (Unit 3), thermal radiation does not require matter to act as its medium of transference. In this unit, we will first look at the basic terminology and fundamental equations of radiation. You will first be introduced to blackbody radiation heat transfer and then move onto how to calculate exchange of radiative energy between two surfaces.
Unit 5 Time Advisory show close
Unit 5 Learning Outcomes show close

5.1 Fundamentals of Radiation
 Reading: Infrared Imaging Experiments’ “Conduction, Convection and Radiation from A Light Bulb”
Link: Infrared Imaging Experiments’ “Conduction, Convection and Radiation from A Light Bulb” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please click on the above link, which will take you to a webpage of heat transfer experiments captured by Infrared video. Browse to the sections titled “Conduction, Convection and Radiation from A Light Bulb”. Read the descriptions and watch the video. Click on the link “Read more” if you are interested in a more detailed description of the experiment. Feel free to watch other experiments on the website.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read sections 10.110.4 of “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (pp. 527565), which will introduce you to basic concepts and governing equations of thermal radiation. The reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 5.15.6.
You should start by reviewing section 1.3, pages 2732, to make sure that you know all the key ideas of radiation (e.g. blackbody, electromagnetism, absorbance).
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 10: Thermal Radiation,” “Lecture 11: Thermal Radiation2,” “Lecture 12: Thermal Radiation3,” “Lecture 13: Thermal Radiation4,” “Lecture 14: Thermal Radiation5,” and “Lecture 15: Thermal Radiation6”Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 10: Thermal Radiation,” “Lecture 11: Thermal Radiation2,” “Lecture 12: Thermal Radiation3,” “Lecture 13: Thermal Radiation4,” “Lecture 14: Thermal Radiation5,” and “Lecture 15: Thermal Radiation6” (YouTube)Instructions: Please watch these videos (about 5556 minutes for each lecture), which will introduce you to the basic concepts of radiation heat transfer. This video will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 5.15.6.Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above
 Reading: Infrared Imaging Experiments’ “Conduction, Convection and Radiation from A Light Bulb”

5.1.1 Emittance
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.1. Read pages 529532 of section 10.1 of the LienhardLienhard textbook.

5.1.2 Intensity of Radiation
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.1. Read pages 532535 of section 10.1 of the LienhardLienhard textbook.

5.2 Kirchhoff's Law
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read section 10.2 of “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer,” which will introduce you to Kirchhoff’s Law. The law states that at thermodynamic equilibrium, a body emits as much energy as it absorbs from each direction and at each wavelength. Make sure that you understand the gray body approximation on page 538.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”

5.3 Radiation Exchange between Two Finite Black Bodies
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read section 10.3 of “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (pp. 527565). You will learn about how to calculate radiation heat exchange between two finite black bodies. Make sure that you can explain view factor reciprotiy (pp 540541). Work through examples 10.1.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”

5.3.1 Calculation of View Factor
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.3. Read pages 542550 of section 10.3 of the LienhardLienhard textbook. Make sure that you understand table 10.2 on page 545, which will allow you to calculate the view factor for a number of twodimensional configurations.

5.4 Radiation Exchange between Two Gray Bodies
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”(PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read section 10.4 of “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (pp. 527565). You will learn about how to calculate radiation heat exchange between gray bodies. Make sure that you can define irradiance and radiosity, then explain the analogy between Ohm’s law for electricity and radiation exchange between two gray bodies. Work through Example 10.5 on page 553.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”

5.5 Solar Radiation
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 5 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 5 Assessment” (PDF)
Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz. When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 5 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF)  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer” (PDF)
Instructions: For this unit, please read section 10.6 of “Chapter 10: Radiative Heat Transfer.”
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 5 Assessment”

Unit 6: Boiling and Condensation
In this final Unit of the course, we will turn our attention back to heat conduction and convection and study their roles in boiling and condensation. Heat transfer in boiling and condensation is very complex but of considerable technical importance. You will learn about different boiling regimes (including nucleate boiling, film boiling, and critical heat flux) as well as different condensation modes (including film condensation and dropwise condensation). You will need to use what you learned in Units 2 and 3 to derive the equations for boiling and condensation heat transfer.
Unit 6 Time Advisory show close
Unit 6 Learning Outcomes show close
 Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lectures 2932: Boiling and Condensation”
Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lectures 2932: Boiling and Condensation” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please click on the links to the videos for Lectures 2932 and watch them in their entirety. Each will last about an hour. The videos will introduce you to the basic concepts and governing equations of heat transfer during boiling and condensation. You will also learn to apply these equations to solve several basic boiling and condensation heat transfer problems. Note that the video lectures will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 6.16.8.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 9”
Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook:“Chapter 9” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form. After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book for free. The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB). Save a copy of the book for future use. This is one of the best books ever written on heat transfer. Please read Chapter 9, which will get you familiar with heat transfer under different boiling conditions (i.e. nucleate boiling, pool boiling, and film boiling). Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 6.16.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lectures 2932: Boiling and Condensation”

6.1 Introduction to Boiling
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.2 Pool Boiling
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.3 Forced Convection Boiling
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.4 Introduction to Condensation
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.5 Laminar Condensation
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.6 Turbulent Condensation
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.7 Condensation on Cylinders
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

6.8 Condensation inside Tubes
Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 6 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 6 Assessment” (PDF)
Instructions: Please complete the linked quiz. When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 6 Assessment Answer Key” (PDF).
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 6 Assessment”

Final Exam
 Final Exam: Saylor Foundation's ME204 Final Exam
Link: The Saylor Foundation's ME204 Final Exam (HTML)
Instructions: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Final Exam: Saylor Foundation's ME204 Final Exam