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Heat Transfer

Purpose of Course  showclose

Heat transfer is the thermal energy in transit due to a spatial temperature difference. The topic of heat transfer has enormous applications in mechanical engineering, ranging from cooling of microelectronics to design of jet engines and operations of nuclear power plants. In this course, you will learn about what heat transfer is, what governs the rate of heat transfer, and why heat transfer is so important. You will also learn about the three major modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation.  Heat conduction is the transport of heat through a solid body, by vibrations of molecules or in the case of electrical conductors, by movement of electrons from one molecule to another. Heat convection is a process by which heat is transferred through a fluid by motion of fluid. Thermal radiation is the transport of energy between two bodies by electromagnetic waves. In addition to the three main modes of heat transfer, you will also learn about heat transfer during phase changes (boiling and condensation heat transfer).

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to ME204.  Below, please find some general information on the course and its requirements.

Course Designer: Tuan Dinh

Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:

You may also find the following tables resourceful as you work through the materials in this course:

Make sure to click on each “PDF” link in the Study Materials section to download these tables.

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials.  Pay special attention to Unit 1, as this unit lays the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units.  You will also need to complete:

  • Unit 1 Quiz
  • Unit 2 Quiz
  • Unit 3 Quiz
  • Unit 4 Quiz
  • Unit 5 Quiz
  • Unit 6 Quiz
  • The Final Exam

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the resources in each unit.

In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again. 

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 112 hours to complete.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  These should help you plan your time accordingly.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.  For example, Unit 1 should take you 8 hours.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete half of the Unit 1 reading (about 2 hours) on Monday night; the remainder of the Unit 1 reading (about 2 hours) on Tuesday night; the Unit 1 lecture on Wednesday night; etc. 

Tips/Suggestions: As noted in the “Course Requirements,” multi-variate calculus is a pre-requisite for this course.  If you are struggling with the mathematics as you progress through this course, consider taking a break to revisit MA103, focusing especially on Units 3 and 4. 

It will likely be helpful to have a graphing calculator on hand for this course. If you do not own or have access to one, consider using this freeware version.*

As you read, take careful notes on a separate sheet of paper.  Mark down any important equations, formulas, and definitions that stand out to you. It will be useful to use this “cheat sheet” as a review prior to completing the final exam. You may want to familiarize yourself with the tables of Selected Physical Constants and Selected Conversion Factors, linked under the Primary Resources heading, as they will prove to be useful during the course.

*Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the webpages above.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Formulate basic equation for heat transfer problems.
  • Apply heat transfer principles to design and to evaluate performance of thermal systems.
  • Solve differential and algebraic equations associated with thermal systems using analytical and numerical approaches.
  • Calculate the performance of heat exchangers.
  • Calculate radiation heat transfer between objects with simple geometries.
  • Calculate and evaluate the impacts of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of a particular heat transfer problem.
  • Evaluate the relative contributions of different modes of heat transfer.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g. Acrobat 7 Reader (or higher), Adobe Reader, and Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Have competency in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

√    Have completed the following courses listed in “The Core Program” of the Mechanical Engineering discipline: ME101 through ME203

√    Have completed MA101, MA102 and MA103: Multivariable Calculus as a prerequisite.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Introduction to Heat Transfer  

    This first unit will introduce you to the subject of heat transfer.  Mechanical engineers use the knowledge about heat transfer to solve many real-world problems from maintaining house temperature at a comfortable level to making fuel rods in nuclear reactors not overheated.  We will discuss three basic methods of heat motion: convection, conduction, and radiation.  In this section, we will also explore the similarities between heat transfer and thermodynamics.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Overview of Heat Transfer  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

  • 1.2 Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

  • 1.3 Three Modes of Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below the Unit 1 introduction.

  • Unit 1 Assessment  
  • Unit 2: Conduction  

    In this Unit, you will be introduced to heat conduction, which is the primary mode of heat transfer in solid systems.  Heat conduction occurs when there is temperature gradient in the system and involves transfer of thermal energy from regions with higher temperature (higher molecular kinetic energy) to regions with lower temperature (lower molecular kinetic energy) by collisions of molecules and interactions of electrons.  The process of heat conduction plays a vital role in many engineering systems, ranging from metal casting, cooling of microelectronic devices, to dissipation of energy generated by nuclear fuel.
     
    In this Unit, you will learn about the basic concepts and equations of heat conduction and how to obtain solutions for heat conduction problems in simple geometric configurations.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Introduction to Conduction  
  • 2.1.1 Rate of Conduction Equation - Fourier's Law  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

  • 2.1.2 Thermal Conductivity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

  • 2.1.3 Thermal Diffusivity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

  • 2.1.4 Heat Diffusion Equation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

  • 2.1.5 Boundary Conditions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.1.

  • 2.2 Plane Wall Conduction  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2” (PDF)

      Instructions: For this unit, please read pages 56-63 in section 2.2 of “Chapter 2: Heat Conduction Concepts, Thermal Resistance and Heat Transfer Coefficient.”  This reading will introduce to you solutions of the heat conduction equations in plane wall geometry.  Plane wall conduction is an example of one-dimensional, steady-state conduction; one example of this is a wall separating an air-conditioned room from the hot outdoors.  Assuming constant outside temperature, we can use one-dimensional, steady-state analysis to determine the amount of heat is conducted between the cool air inside and the hot air outdoor through the wall.  Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.2.1-2.2.3. 

       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.1 Temperature Distribution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2.

  • 2.2.2 Thermal Resistance  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2.

  • 2.2.3 Composite Walls  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 2.2

  • 2.2.4 Contact Resistance  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.  The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use. 

      For this unit, please read pages 64-66 in section 2.3 of “Chapter 2: Heat conduction concepts, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient."  This reading will introduce to you to contact resistance.  Please pay attention to Example 2.4 and Table 2.1

       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3 Radial System Conduction  
  • 2.3.1 Cylinders  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.3.

  • 2.3.2 Spheres  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.3

  • 2.4 Fins  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.   The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use.  For this subunit, please read section 4.5 in “Chapter 4: Analysis of Heat Conduction and Some Steady-state One-Dimensional Problems.”  This reading will introduce to you to heat conduction in extended surfaces, such as fin.  You will learn to calculate fin resistance and fin efficiency for a wide range of fin geometries.   

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 18.2: Heat Transfer from A Fin”

      Link: MIT: Professor Z. S. Spakovszky’s Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics and Propulsion: “Section 18.2: Heat Transfer from A Fin” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the entire page.  This reading will provide you a brief introduction to fin heat transfer.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4.1 Introduction to Fins  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.4.2 Fin Effectiveness  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.4.3 Fin Resistance  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.4.4 Fin Efficiency  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.4.5 Fins with Non-Uniform Cross-Sectional Area  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.4.6 Overall Surface Efficiency  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.4.

  • 2.5 Two-Dimensional, Steady State Conduction  
  • 2.5.1 Separation of Variables  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.   The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use.  For this sub-subunit, please read section 4.2 in “Chapter 4: Analysis of Heat Conduction and Some Steady-state One-dimensional Problems.”  Pay attention to pages 146-150.  This section introduces you to separation of variables, which is a method often used to obtain solutions to multi-dimensional and transient heat conduction problems.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5.2 Shape Factor and Heat Rate  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.   The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use.   For this sub-subunit, please read section 5.7 in “Chapter 5: Transient and Multidimensional Heat Conduction.”  Read pages 240-248 carefully.  This reading will introduce you to shape factor and how to calculate shape factor for a number of geometrical configurations.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • 2.6 Transient Conduction  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.   The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use.  Please read sections 5.1-5.6 (pages 193-235) in “Chapter 5: Transient and Multidimensional Heat Conduction.”    In this reading, you will learn how to obtain solutions for transient heat conduction problems using lumped capacitance method.  The lumped capacitance method assumes that the solid object in question has no internal temperature differences.  Always be sure to check that this method is applicable to your situation by first calculating the object’s Biot Number (based on its physical and geometric properties).  Note that this reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.6.1-2.6.3.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lecture 8: Heat Conduction-5”

      Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s Lecture Series on Heat Mass Transfer: “Lecture 8: Heat Conduction-5” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this video (53:29 minutes).  In this video, you will learn about unsteady state conduction in an infinite slab.  Compare what you learn here with section 5.3 in the Lienhard-Lienhard textbook.  Professor S.P. Sukhatme will also work through an example of transient heat conduction in a radial coordinate at the 38:00 minute mark.  This video covers the material that you need to know for subunits 2.6.1-2.6.3.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.6.1 Introduction to Unsteady States  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6.

  • 2.6.2 Lumped Capacitance Method  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6

  • 2.6.3 Spatial Effects  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 2.6

  • Unit 3: Convection  

    In this unit, we will study the second mode of heat transfer: convection.  While conduction is the major mode of heat transfer in solids (as you learned in Unit 2), convection is the major mode of heat transfer in fluids.  Convection occurs because of movements of fluids.  Heat is carried away and dispersed thorough the fluid.  Convective heat transfer occurs in nature (e.g. cooling down effects of wind) and in engineering systems (e.g. heating of homes, cooling of equipment).

    We will examine two major types of convective heat transfer: forced convection and natural convection.  In forced convection, movement of fluid is due to external forces such as a pump, while in natural convection, it is due to density differences driven by non-uniformity of temperature. 

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Introduction to Boundary Layers  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below the Unit 3 introduction.

  • 3.2 Local/Average Convection Coefficients for Heat and Mass Transfer  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below the Unit 3 introduction.

  • 3.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6” (PDF)

      Instructions: For this unit, please read sections 6.2-6.8 in “Chapter 6: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers (pp 278-323).”  Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 3.3-3.6, and any inclusive sub-subunits.  In Section 6.2, you may want to skim through page 288 and focus on equation 6.24 on page 289.  Make sure that you understand figure 6.11.  Pay attention to sections 6.4 and 6.6, which provide detailed discussions on the Prandtl number, boundary layer thicknesses, and the Reynolds analogy.  Browse through section 6.5, because we are going to revisit this section in subunit 3.7.

       
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  • 3.3.1 Velocity Boundary Layers  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

  • 3.3.2 Thermal Boundary Layers  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

  • 3.4 Boundary Layer Equations  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

  • 3.5 Discussion over Dimensionless Parameters  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

  • 3.6 Reynold's Analogy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading below subunit 3.3.

  • 3.7 External Flow  
  • 3.7.1 Introduction to External Flow  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7.

  • 3.7.2 Flow over a Flat Plate  
    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6”

      MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book.  Note that the only information required on the form is your city, country, and occupation.   The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use in this course.  This is one of the best books on heat transfer.  For this sub-subunit, please read sections 6.5 in “Chapter 6: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers” (pp. 278-323) carefully.  The reading introduces you to equations that can be used to calculated heat transfer coefficient of forced convection over a flat plate.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.7.3 Flow across a Cylinder  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

  • 3.7.4 Flow over a Sphere  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

  • 3.7.5 Flow across Tube Fields  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7

  • 3.8 Forced Convection Heat Transfer  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 3.7.

  • 3.9 Free Convection  
  • Unit 3 Assessment  
  • Unit 4: Heat Exchangers  

    Heat exchangers are devices designed to transfer energy from one fluid to another.  You can find heat exchangers in almost any engineering application, ranging from nuclear power plant to the cooling of electronic devices.  Heat exchanges can be found in a wide variety of configurations, but can be generally classified into three basic types: the parallel or counter-flow configuration, the shell-and-tube configuration, and the cross-flow configuration.  In this unit, you will learn about the pros and cons and how to evaluate performance of each configuration.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Introduction to Heat Exchangers  
  • 4.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

  • 4.3 Overall Surface Efficiency/Fin Efficiency  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

  • 4.4 Log Mean Temperature Difference  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

  • 4.5 Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Analysis Method  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 4.1.

  • Unit 5: Radiation  

    In this unit, we will study the third mode of heat transfer: radiation.  Unlike conduction (Unit 2) and convection (Unit 3), thermal radiation does not require matter to act as its medium of transference.  In this unit, we will first look at the basic terminology and fundamental equations of radiation.  You will first be introduced to blackbody radiation heat transfer and then move onto how to calculate exchange of radiative energy between two surfaces.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Fundamentals of Radiation  
  • 5.1.1 Emittance  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.1.  Read pages 529-532 of section 10.1 of the Lienhard-Lienhard textbook.

  • 5.1.2 Intensity of Radiation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.1.  Read pages 532-535 of section 10.1 of the Lienhard-Lienhard textbook.

  • 5.2 Kirchhoff's Law  
  • 5.3 Radiation Exchange between Two Finite Black Bodies  
  • 5.3.1 Calculation of View Factor  

    Note: This topic is covered by the resources below subunit 5.3.  Read pages 542-550 of section 10.3 of the Lienhard-Lienhard textbook.  Make sure that you understand table 10.2 on page 545, which will allow you to calculate the view factor for a number of two-dimensional configurations.

  • 5.4 Radiation Exchange between Two Gray Bodies  
  • 5.5 Solar Radiation  
  • Unit 6: Boiling and Condensation  

    In this final Unit of the course, we will turn our attention back to heat conduction and convection and study their roles in boiling and condensation.  Heat transfer in boiling and condensation is very complex but of considerable technical importance.  You will learn about different boiling regimes (including nucleate boiling, film boiling, and critical heat flux) as well as different condensation modes (including film condensation and dropwise condensation).  You will need to use what you learned in Units 2 and 3 to derive the equations for boiling and condensation heat transfer.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
    • Lecture: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lectures 29-32: Boiling and Condensation”

      Link: YouTube: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor S.P.Sukhatme and Professor U.N.Gaitonde’s “Lectures 29-32: Boiling and Condensation” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the links to the videos for Lectures 29-32 and watch them in their entirety.  Each will last about an hour.  The videos will introduce you to the basic concepts and governing equations of heat transfer during boiling and condensation.  You will also learn to apply these equations to solve several basic boiling and condensation heat transfer problems. Note that the video lectures will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 6.1-6.8.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook: “Chapter 9”

      Link: MIT: Professors John Lienhard IV and John Lienhard V’s A Heat Transfer Textbook:“Chapter 9” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link “Download A Heat Transfer Textbook,” which will take you to a download request form.  After you fill in relevant information about you, you will be able to download the book for free.  The book is in PDF format (17.2 MB).  Save a copy of the book for future use.  This is one of the best books ever written on heat transfer.  Please read Chapter 9, which will get you familiar with heat transfer under different boiling conditions (i.e. nucleate boiling, pool boiling, and film boiling).  Note that the reading will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 6.1-6.3.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1 Introduction to Boiling  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.2 Pool Boiling  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.3 Forced Convection Boiling  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.4 Introduction to Condensation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.5 Laminar Condensation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.6 Turbulent Condensation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.7 Condensation on Cylinders  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • 6.8 Condensation inside Tubes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture and reading below the Unit 6 introduction

  • Final Exam  

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