International Organizations

Purpose of Course  showclose

This course will provide you with a basic understanding of two core concepts in International Relations and, more generally, Political Science: international governance and international government.  Governance refers to the processes of decision-making, while government is the formal institutions associated with those processes. These two dynamics are interdependent; it is necessary to study both to fully understand this subfield of international relations. Thus, this course will serve as the basis for further studies in the International Relations field within the Political Science major; it also serves as a companion course or “alter-ego” for the International Law course.

You will begin studying the fundamental issues of international organization by exploring some conceptual frameworks pertaining to governance dynamics.  This will be followed by investigating the three primary ways in which the participants in global affairs, both state and non-state actors, organize themselves: intergovernmental, nongovernmental and transnational organizations.  The United Nations will be given special attention due to the truly global scope of its activities and impact.  Your examination of the formal institutions will include questions pertaining to their structures, functions, activities and relevance for global events and issues.  Throughout your studies you will compare and contrast political/security, social/humanitarian and economic organizations; global and regional organizations and, finally, single and multipurpose organizations. By the end of the course, you will have a firm understanding of the interplay between international governance and government and how they shape international relations.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to POLSC312.  Below please find general information on this course and its requirements.
 
Course Designers: Marchéta Wright
 
Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:
Requirements for Completion: This course is designed in a somewhat modular manner.  Each unit, while being discrete, nonetheless builds upon previous material.  Therefore, at times you will need to refer back to previous units as you progress through the material.  As an advanced level undergraduate course, POLSC312 entails comparative analysis of the diverse organizations and theoretical concepts that are its foundations.  Political Science in general and International Relations in particular, relies on the nexus of political, economic, social, and cultural dynamics for a full, rigorous understanding of world affairs.  You will also need to complete the Final Exam.

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through all of the resources in each unit.
 
The successful completion of this course requires that you earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam.  Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: In general, this course should take approximately 104 hours to complete.  However, please keep in mind that these are rough estimates.  The expectation is that each person will work at her/his own pace.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  Thus, the time advisories are meant as general guidelines, not ‘hard and fast’ rules for completing each unit.  It may be helpful to review the time advisories for a unit, subunit or reading prior to beginning that section; this will enable you to set realistic goals and manage your time in an effective, efficient manner.  For example, Unit 1 should take 3.5 hours to complete and Unit 2 should take 8 hours to complete.  Perhaps you can sit down with a calendar and decide to complete Unit 1 (a total of 3.5 hours) on Monday; subunit 2.2 (a total of 4 hours) on Tuesday; subunit 2.3 (a total of 4 hours) on Wednesday; etc.

Tips/Suggestions: Studying international organizations is a bit like eating alphabet soup: a significant number of acronyms and abbreviations creep into any discussion or reading on the subject.  A reference list of organizations and other useful items is included in sub-subunit 1.1.2.  It might be useful to print this document or save it on your computer to quickly reference it throughout the course.  In addition, in Unit 3 the country membership list for the particular organization being studied is provided along with the readings for that subunit.  Make sure to take comprehensive notes on all of the resources; these notes will serve as a useful review as you study for the Final Exam.

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Define and correctly use the core vocabulary and concepts relevant for international organizations and global governance.
  • Discuss various theories of international governance as they pertain to regional and global contexts.
  • Identify and describe the major intergovernmental, non-governmental and transnational organizations that are participants in global relations.
  • Describe and discuss international regimes distinct from international organizations.
  • Compare and contrast various IGOs, NGOs and transnational organizations with respect to their structures, functions and activities.
  • Discuss the United Nations’ effectiveness with respect to addressing global issues such as armed conflict, human rights and environmental crises.
  • Evaluate the conceptual material in light of global realities through the exploration of case studies.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Be competent in the English language.

√    Have completed the following courses from the Political Science Discipline “Core Program: POLSC101 and POLSC211

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Foundations of International Governance and Government  

    International Organizations, as a subfield of International Relations, has been shaped by two fundamental concepts: global government – the formal institutions and global governance – and the decision-making processes.  It is the intertwining of these two dynamics that gives rise to various interpretations of what are essential political questions  who gets what and why – in a global context.  Despite the inherently interdependent nature of governance and government, this first unit will separate them for a more thorough understanding of their distinctiveness.  Subsequently, we will turn our attention to the interplay between international organizations and international law.
     
    A first consideration of global governance includes a brief look at historical circumstances that have posed challenges for decision-making in a global context.  While the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia (ending the 30 Years War) is generally credited with the birth of the state system, we will limit our considerations to more contemporary dynamics: the Cold War and post-Cold War periods, intensifying globalization (economic, political, social, etcetera), and expanding civil society.  Concepts such as balance of power, sovereignty, and legitimacy round out our initial examination of governance and lead to a discussion of global government.
     
    Exploring global government also begins with a foundation of historical contexts; here, however, we will reach back to the pre-World War I and inter-war years before considering post-World War II developments in formal international institutions.  A categorization of those institutions based on the membership, primary functions, and mandates (scope of their activities) provides a foundation for later units that will compare and contrast various global and regional international organizations.  Terminology such as ‘intergovernmental,’ ‘nongovernmental,’ and ‘transnational’ will be delineated along with ‘global,’ regional,’ and ‘sub-regional’ designations.
     
    Having completed a brief introduction to the governance and government concepts, our attention turns to international law and international organization(s) relationships.  The last subunit herein differentiates among the various sources of international law and reflects on some of the major issues that confront the nexus of law and organization: implementation, compliance, and enforcement.  For those individuals not familiar with international law, this serves as an introduction to relevant aspects of the topic; it provides a refresher for those who have already studied international law.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 What Is the Difference Between Governance and Government?  
  • 1.1.1 Governance — The Process  
  • 1.1.1.1 Historical and Contemporary Challenges of Governance  
  • 1.1.1.2 Approaches to Governance: Multilateralism v. Unilateralism  
    • Reading: Project Syndicate: Joseph S. Nye’s “Multilateralism vs Unilateralism”

      Link: Project Syndicate: Joseph S. Nye’s “Multilateralism vs Unilateralism” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the brief article.  In this article, Nye discusses the differences between multilateralism and unilateralism through the context of contemporary U.S, foreign policy.  Make sure you can define both terms.  Also, what are the advantages and disadvantages for a state when it engages multilaterally with other states? 
       
      Reading this text and answering the question above should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.2 Government — The Institutions  
  • 1.1.2.1 Key International Organizations  
  • 1.1.2.2 A Brief History of International Organizations  
    • Reading: University of Ghent: Encyclopedia of Law and Economics: Alexander Thompson and Duncan Snidal’s “International Organization”

      Link: University of Ghent: Encyclopedia of Law and Economics: Alexander Thompson and Duncan Snidal’s “International Organization” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to bottom of the webpage, and click on the “#9800” link to download the PDF file.  Read pages 693-698 (up through Section 6).
       
      Thompson and Snidal present a broad overview of the history of international organizations.  Make sure you are familiar with the following treaties and why they are important to the history of international organizations: 1648 Treaty of Westphalia; 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; Congress of Vienna; Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations; Bretton Woods agreements; and the United Nations.  
       
      This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2 What Is the Relationship between International Organizations and International Law?  
  • 1.2.1 International Organizations and Sources of International Law – Codification, Case Law and General Principles  
    • Reading: Northwestern Law’s “Sources of International Law”

      Link: Northwestern Law’s “Sources of International Law” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the information on this webpage.
       
      There are four broadly recognized sources of international law.  Make sure you are familiar with each.  Why are IGOs also now being considered a source of international law?
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2.2 International Organizations and International Law Processes  
  • 1.2.2.1 Implementation, Compliance, and Enforcement  
  • Unit 2: International Relations Theories and International Governance  

    Numerous theoretical perspectives have evolved in the discipline of international relations.  Among them, you will examine various permutations of Realism, Liberalism, Marxism, and Regime theory.  The focus of the material is the relevant aspects of each theory for international organizations given that this is not a course in ‘IR’ theory.  Hence, core concepts such as the participants in international/global relations, power, sovereignty, and interdependence will shape your studies.  In general, the theories can be separated into two groups: mainstream theories and theories of marginalization.  The first group embraces those theories that emerged to explain the, then perceived to be, principal dynamics of international affairs between discrete participants: inter-state relationships.  In essence, these theories are state-centric or, at the very least, state-oriented.  The latter theories, as a group, attempt to take a more holistic approach to global relationships and thereby emphasize the connections and relationships that characterize ‘have’ and ‘have-not’ interactions in global affairs.  Thus, non-state actors such as individuals, corporations, indigenous peoples, and terrorist groups enter into the equation.  As with the previous unit, historical contexts are a part of our inquiries. 

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Overview of IR Theory  

    As with any academic discipline, the role of theory is imperative to give us analytical leverage when exploring issues in the international arena including the behavior of International Organizations.  International Relations theory allows us to contextualize and provide insights into why and how International Organizations act in the international system.  IR  theory also serves as a framework to predict future behavior of  International Organizations.  We can recognize five broad schools of  IR theory: Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism, Marxism, and Feminism.  As you read the resource below, make sure you are clear on the following questions: (1) What is the organizing principle of the theory?  (2) Who are the main actors in each theoretical framework?  (3) What are the goals of these actors? and  (4) What are the core capabilities of these actors that produces particular patterns of behavior?

  • 2.2 How Have the ‘Mainstream’ IR Theories Shaped International Organizations?  

    As you read through the various mainstream  theories and how they have shaped International Organizations (IOs), make sure you are clear on what each theory says about the following: (1) What explains the emergence of IOs in the last century?  (2) How much power should IOs have in the international system vis-à-vis powerful states?  (3) Can we predict IO behavior?  If so, what variables should we examine? and  (4) What explains cooperation in the international system?

  • 2.2.1 Classic Realism and Neorealism  
  • 2.2.2 Liberalism and Neoliberalism  
  • 2.2.3 Institutionalism and Functionalism  
  • 2.2.4 Constructivism  
  • 2.3 How Do Theories of Marginalization Expand Our Studies of International Organizations?  

    Theories of Marginalization (also described as “critical theory”) challenge the assumptions of ‘Mainstream’ IR theory.  Marxist oriented theory argues that an understanding of the international system requires an analysis that interlinks political outcomes with dynamics that arise out of modern capitalism.  Marxists argue that structures of power in the international system, including prominent IGOs,  are a by-product of the spread of global capitalism that privileges some states, organizations, groups, and individuals while significantly constraining others.  Neo-Marxists focus on the role that ideology plays in facilitating hierarchical power relations in the international system.  Here, the focus is often how global elites, including those who work in prominent IGOs, help restructure and reinforce a global order supportive of the interests of transnational capital.  Dependency and World System theorists focus on the historical dynamics that have produced the dramatic gap in wealth between developed and developing countries.  Feminist theory focuses on issues of patriarchy and gender construction.  As you read through the theories, evaluate if each of these ‘Theories of Marginalization’ makes a relevant contribution to the study of International Organizations.

  • 2.3.1 Marxism & Neo-Marxism  
  • 2.3.2 Dependency Theory & the Dependentistas  
  • 2.3.3 World Systems Theory  
  • 2.3.4 Feminism  
  • 2.4 What Is Regime Theory and Does It Make a Significant Contribution to IO Studies?  

    The concept of international regimes emerged during the last quarter century of the 1900s in response to the increasing complexities of international and global governance.  After considerable discussion by scholars in the international relations discipline, the discourse was formalized in “International Regimes," a special issue of the journal International Organization (volume 36 spring 1982).   In essence, an international regime is seen as a collection of regional and/or global participants — states, NGOs, multi- or transnational corporations, IGOs, even individuals — that coalesce around a particular issue, e.g. trade, human rights, disarmament, the environment.  Regimes, then, are not single organizations.  Rather, the participants establish norms, rules, and procedures to facilitate their interaction focused on the issue at hand. 

  • Unit 3: Intergovernmental Organizations - IGOs  

    Intergovernmental Organizations – IGOs – are one of several types of organizations that make up the institutional or governmental structures of international and global relations.  In this unit, you will examine the differences between global, regional, and subregional organizations.  For example, the United Nations is a global IGO, while the Organization of American States and League of Arab States represent regional IGOs; subregional IGOs include the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Economic Organization of West African States (ECOWAS).  Another distinguishing feature of IGOs is the extent to which they are single or multipurpose.  The former type of IGOs has narrow, highly focused mandates or sets of purposes; this is exemplified by the Interamerican Commission on Human Rights.  Others have mandates that are very broad in scope; such multipurpose IGOs include the United Nations and African Union.  Thus, an IGO can be global, regional, or subregional and simultaneously single or multipurpose in scope.
     
    The unit begins with a brief introduction to the United Nations before turning to a consideration of other IGOs.  The UN, because of its significance for international organizations, receives much greater attention in Unit 4.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 What Are Global IGOs?  

    This first subunit introduces and differentiates among the various types of IGOs based on membership and the geopolitical scope of their activities.  Global IGOs are those that essentially undertake activities on a world-wide scale, have state membership that is completely inclusive of all states, or nearly so.  The UN is currently the only multipurpose global IGO; single purpose global IGOs are exemplified by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD or World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

  • 3.1.1 An Overview of the United Nations (UN)  

    The material here is meant to provide a somewhat cursory introduction to the UN system.  You should gain a general sense of the UN’s role as the premier global international governmental institution.  In addition, after reviewing the UN webpage and some of its links, you should be familiar with the scope and content of its world-wide activities.

  • 3.1.1.1 Successor of the League of Nations  
    • Reading: The BBC: Charles Townshend’s “The League of Nations and the United Nations”

      Link: The BBC: Charles Townshend’s “The League of Nations and the United Nations” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the material on the webpage.  You may navigate to various sections of the reading by using the links to the left of the article. 
       
      The League of Nations was the precursor – some would say ‘first generation’ – of the United Nations.  As such it constitutes the first truly comprehensive effort by the community of states to engage in international government and governance.  While ultimately a failed attempt, the League provided valuable lessons for subsequent undertakings of both government and governance.  Townshend’s article discusses the political tensions within the League of Nations and contrasts it with the emergent UN.
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to read.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.1.2 The Role of the UN in Global Governance  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ “UN at a Glance”

      Link: The United Nations’ “UN at a Glance (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The ‘UN at a Glance’ link takes you to the homepage of the UN.  Once there, click on the preferred language link.  Peruse the page noting the various issues (row of buttons just under the banner), topic areas within the UN structure, and resources and services provided by the UN.  After familiarizing yourself with the webpage, go to the ‘Your United Nations’ blue box near the top center of the page; click on the ‘UN at a Glance’ link;  it’s the first one in the box.  Read the material on this page.  Finally, return to the previous page, and explore the various links in the ‘In Focus’ box near the top right of the page.
       
      Familiarizing yourself with the UN website should raise your awareness of the extensive scope of activities undertaken by this global IGO.  Specific questions begin to emerge:
       
      How have the two pillars of the UN – human rights and collective security – given rise to the myriad of issues currently addressed by the UN?
      What is the relationship between the various principal actors of the UN?
      What is the source of UN funding, and what other types of resources does it rely on to further its governance activities?
       
      Finally, the significance of the UN ultimately rests in the fact that it is the only organization that has as its members all but one state in the world (the Vatican).  Thus, it is the only truly global organization that undertakes governance to such an extensive breadth and depth.
       
      Studying this resource and considering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The United Nations: Joseph Deiss’ “Global Governance at the Beginning of the 21st Century: What Is the Role of the United Nations?”

      Link: The United Nations: Joseph Deiss’ “Global Governance at the Beginning of the 21st Century: What Is the Role of the United Nations? (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire speech by the President of the UN General Assembly.  Mr. Joseph Deiss first provides three reasons why it is appropriate for the UN to focus on global governance at this point in history.  He follows this by outlines three specific goals for the UN and its membership to pursue to improve governance as we move further into the 21st century.
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2 The Bretton Woods Institutions  
  • 3.1.2.1 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): History, Functions, and Policies  
    • Reading: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s “About Us – History & Interactive Timeline”

      Link: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s “About Us – History & Interactive Timeline” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please familiarize yourself with the homepage of the IBRD accessed by the above link.  Next, click on the ‘History’ link in the blue box of links on the left of the page; it is the 5th one on the list.  Read the material on this page.  Next, click on the ‘Interactive Timeline’ link in the box to the right of the text.  Click on the “1944: International Cooperation’ link and read the brief paragraph; click on the ‘more founding history’ link at the bottom to continue reading.  Click on and read the brief paragraph for each of the remaining time periods. 
       
      The IBRD is actually one of two financial entities that make up the World Bank.  The material accessed above provides an historical overview of the organization’s creation and activities.  It is important to note the wide range of projects that the IBRD has funded since its inception.  It responds to requests for assistance from various countries around the world.  The IBRD also initiates some programs based on the institution’s perceptions of global issues and problems.
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Institute for Policy Studies: Janet Redman’s “Dirty Is the New Clean”

      Link: The Institute for Policy Studies: Janet Redman’s “Dirty Is the New Clean” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the Institute for Policy Studies’ website and the article entitled “Dirty Is the New Clean.”  To read the entire article, please click on the “Download PDF” link to the right of the article’s title.  You will then have the option to either open or save the article.  Please read the entire article.  (Note: the article itself is about 18 pages; the remaining pages are an executive summary and annex of supporting material.)
       
      Beginning in the 1970s, the IBRD has been increasingly criticized for controversial development projects.  The primary criticism focuses on the questionable short term benefits of various projects in light of medium and long term detrimental consequences for the quality of life of local communities and the environment.  In short, the IBRD has been at or near the center of the development v. sustainable development debate.  Innumerable cases in Asia, Africa, and Latin America provide evidence for the ongoing negative assessment of this IGOs practices.  The reading for this subunit reviews the IBRD’s overall framework for development at its impact on climate change.
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2.2 Reforming the Governance of the World Bank  
  • 3.1.2.3 The International Monetary Fund (IMF): History, Activities, and Reform  
    • Reading: The IMF’s “Overview,” “History,” and “Governance”

      Link: The IMF’s “Overview”, (HTML and Adobe Flash), “History”, (HTML and Adobe Flash) and “Governance” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: The links above take you to the “Overview,” “History,” and “Governance” pages of the IMF website.  Please click on the links under the highlighted heading on the left hand side of the page and read the material presented.  Be sure to click on the videos to access that material.  You are not expected to access the material under the ‘related links’ headings; however, it does provide specific country/case study information if you are interested.
       
      These readings and attached video clips provide a concise initial understanding of the structure and functions of the IMF.  Of particular relevance is the extent to which the IMF does, or does not, work with other institutions to promote global governance.  In addition, please pay particular attention to commentaries on the evolution of the IMF – how it has changed since its inception in 1944 as global economic and financial conditions have changed.  Finally, please note the IMFs institutional structure as well as the processes of decision-making.  It is significant to note how the IMF differs from the IBRD with respect to its activities, membership, and scope of governance activities.  The short video clips are particularly useful; they highlight and provide examples and evidence to support the analysis in the text.
       
      This reading should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Jack Boorman’s (2008) “An Agenda for Reform of the International Monetary Fund”

      Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Jack Boorman’s (2008) “An Agenda for Reform of the International Monetary Fund” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Boorman, Jack - An agenda for reform of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
       
      This reading is from a policy report of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, based in Germany.  The New York City office of FES “… serves as a liaison between the United Nations, FES field offices and partners in developing countries to strengthen the voice of the Global South.  It contributes to UN debates on economic and social development, and on peace and security issues.  … In addition, it contributes to a dialogue on the work of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Washington D.C.”  (http://www.fes-globalization.org/new_york/about)
       
      Studying this reading will take approximately 3 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2.4 The IMF and Global Governance In Periods of International Economic Crisis  
  • 3.1.3 The World Trade Organization  
    • Reading: The World Trade Organization’s “What Is the WTO?”

      Link: The World Trade Organization’s “What Is the WTO?” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you directly to the WTO’s webpage entitled “What Is the WTO.”  Please read the short paragraph under that heading.  Then, click on the “Who we are,” “What we do,” and “What we stand for” links, and read all of the material on those pages.
       
      The WTO is the most recent manifestation of international governance and government that focuses on trade.  It is a much more highly structured and institutionalization of decision-making, policy formulation, implementation, and enforcement than any of its predecessors.  An international trade organization – the ITO – was actually a part of the 1948 ‘Havana Charter’ that is generally credited with the ‘birth’ of the WTO.  The failure to implement the ITO is typically characterized as the inability to resolve entrenched differences between the ‘North’ and the ‘South.’
       
      The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.3.1 Structures, Mandate & Functions  
    • Reading: The World Trade Organization “Understanding the WTO”

      Link: The World Trade Organization’s “Understanding the WTO (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you directly to the WTO’s webpage entitled “Understanding the WTO.”  Please read the short introductory paragraph under that heading.  Then, click on the five links under the “Basics” heading, and read the material on each page.  They are: “What Is the World Trade Organization?,” “Principles of the Trading System,” “The Case for Open Trade,” “The GATT Years: From Havana to Marrakesh,” and “The Uruguay Round.”
       
      The readings for this subunit provide a more detailed overview of the WTO’s operations and underlying philosophy.
       
      The reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.3.2 The Role of the WTO in Global Economic Governance  
    • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Erfried Adam’s (2004) “The WTO and the Crisis of Multilateralism: A Look at the Present Situation”

      Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Erfried Adam’s (2004) “The WTO and the Crisis of Multilateralism: A Look at the Present Situation” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Adam, Erfried - The WTO and the crisis of multilateralism: a look at the present situation.  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
       
      The WTO has garnered much attention and criticism since its inception in 1995 at the Uruguay Round negotiations of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade).  Its annual meetings are routinely the occurrence of world-wide protests — the focal of which is the on-going debate between free trade and fair trade.  This reading, after a brief description of the organization, reviews various substantive areas of WTO activity; for example, agriculture, special or differential treatment, and nonagricultural markets.  The analysis then shifts to considering the tensions between the WTO and multilateral, regional, bilateral, and pluryilateral approaches to governance in this issue area.
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2 How Do Regional IGOs Contribute to International Governance?  

    This subunit continues our exploration of IGOs by focusing on those of a regional nature.  Specifically, the Organization of American States (OAS), European Union (EU), African Union (AU), and League of Arab States (Arab League) provide us with case studies of such organizations.  As a set, they provide us with an overview of the historical development and evolution of regional international governmental institutions, as well as the governance processes employed by them.
     
    The readings for this subunit are particular to each organization being studied.  As you review the material, it is important to note the similarities and differences among the organizations at each ‘level’ – regional or subregional.  It is equally as important to compare and contrast the organizations from the different geopolitical regions.  Pay particular attention to the scope and purposes, structures, and decision-making processes and issues.  To what extent do the organizations differ because of differences in the regions and sub-regions themselves 
    – culture, key issues, history, etc.?  Finally, Asia does not have a comparable regional organization.  Might this be because of the extreme geographic size, or socio-political and economic diversity of the region?  Or is there some other reason that might explain this lack?

    • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Louise Fawcett’s (2006) “Regional Governance Architecture and Security Policy”

      Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Louise Fawcett’s (2006) “Regional Governance Architecture and Security Policy” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Fawcett, Louise - Regional governance architecture and security policy.  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
       
      While this reading’s central theme is security, the analysis remains relevant for challenges facing regional IGOs that address other issues.  In essence, the author observes that people the world over express a growing sense of insecurity despite the fact that the number of armed conflicts, coups, et cetera have decreased.  Her explanation for this may be generalized to other issue areas such as human rights, the environment, or economic relations.
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.1 The Americas: Organization of American States (OAS)  
    • Reading: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 1”

      Link: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 1” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This link provides access to the OAS webpage for the Charter.  To access the readings, scroll down and click links for Chapters I – VII.  The key to this reading lies in understanding how states choose to organize themselves in a regional context.  For the Americas one dilemma is the extreme diversity of states in the region with respect to political, economic, and social characteristics; the region contains arguably the ‘most powerful’ and among the ‘least powerful’ states in the world.  How, then, to create an effective institution – in essence a government – for fostering global governance when the member states are at such variance?  The tension between the Idealists’ assertion that all states are equal due to sovereignty (see unit 2) and Realists’ claim that power is the determining characteristic of state behavior plays out in the OAS’s structure, functioning and effectiveness.
       
      Members of the OAS: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, The Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.1.1 History, Structure, and Mandate  
  • 3.2.1.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance  
    • Web Media: YouTube: University of California – San Diego, Institute of the Americas’ “Encuentros: Jose Miguel Insulza and Jeffrey Davidow”

      Link: YouTube: University of California – San Diego, Institute of the Americas’ “Encuentros: Jose Miguel Insulza and Jeffrey Davidow” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: The video link above takes you directly to an interview with a former Secretary General of the OAS – Jose Miguel Insulza.  He discusses the key issues of democratic institutions, poverty, and the OAS’s interactions with specific countries in Latin America.  Regarding the first, he explores the tensions between regional IGOs intervention and state sovereignty.  Improvements and setbacks in the area of poverty are cast in the light of the Millennium Development Goals.  The Secretary General then continues with a discussion of the OAS’s activities with respect to various states, in particular Cuba and Venezuela.  The issues of crime, drug trafficking and jobs, among others, round out the discussion.
       
      Viewing this video lecture should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2 Europe: European Union (EU)  
    • Reading: The European Union’s “Basic Information”

      Link: The European Union’s “Basic Information” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the introductory information on this page.  There are various links within the text that may be of interest; they provide additional information about the key issues and functions of the EU.  Some of these will be explored in subsequent subunits.  Somewhat more extensive readings are provided for this regional IGO, because the EU, arguably, has undergone the most complex evolutionary changes since its inception.  It remains, along with the UN, one of the ‘grandest experiments’ in international governance and government; it requires setting aside state sovereignty and unprecedented levels of cooperation and coordination of policies among a very diverse groups of countries. 
       
      Members of the EU (as of December, 2011): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
       
      Candidate Countries: Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro, Turkey
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2.1 History & Evolution  
    • Reading: The European Union’s “History”

      Link: The European Union’s “History” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The link above takes you to a specific section of the EU webpage.  On the ‘History’ page read all of the material under each decade date range (e.g. ‘1945 – 1959’).  You will need to click on the ‘read more about the decade …’ link for the full text of the reading.  The embedded maps provide an effective visual indication of the evolution of the EU’s membership.   Beyond this, the reading’s focal points revolve around the ways in which regional and global events such as oil crises, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 have shaped the EU’s role in regional and global governance.  Finally, the institutional structures of the EU arguably provide a blueprint for more far reaching governmental institutions.  This is, of course, assuming it survives the financial crisis of the early part of this century.
       
      This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2.2 Structure  
  • 3.2.2.3 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance  
    • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Sven Grimm’s (2006) “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea”

      Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Sven Grimm’s (2006) “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Sven Grimm, “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea.”

      Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.  Grimm’s analysis of the EU characterizes that organization’s efforts to create, implement, and manage development policies in light of dramatically changing global conditions.  Specifically, he asserts that the EU has taken the lead with respect to such efforts through its Economic Partnership Agreements with African, Caribbean, and Asian-Pacific states.
       
      The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.2.4 The EU in Crisis  
  • 3.2.3 Africa: The African Union (AU)  
    • Reading: The African Union’s “AU in a Nutshell”

      Link: The African Union’s “AU in a Nutshell (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Be sure to scroll all the way to the bottom of the page.  This is a brief overview of the African Union.  Various aspects of its impact on regional and global governance issues are explored in subsequent readings.
       
      Members of the AU: All African states including Western Sahara but excluding Morocco.
       
      The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.3.1 History, Structure and Mandate  
    • Reading: The African Union’s “AU Organs”

      Link: The African Union’s “AU Organs” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The link above takes you to the English language version of the AU’s homepage (to access the page in Arabic, French, or Portuguese, click on the appropriate link in the top left corner of the page).  Under the “About Us” heading, a drop-down list will appear when you hold your cursor on the heading.  Please read the material accessed by clicking on the “Vision and Mission” link.  Next, under the “AU Organs” heading, a drop-down list will appear when you hold your cursor on the heading.  Please click on each link, except the last two, and read the short entry (about 1 paragraph each).  As with the European Union, the significance here is the scope and complexity of what the AU is attempting to achieve.  In fact, it is not accidental that the primary organs – institutional structure – and the issues areas reflect those of the EU to significant degree.  However, notable differences are AU issues such as rural economy and agriculture, women, gender, and development and civil society and Diaspora.
       
      The reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.3.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance  
  • 3.2.3.3 The AU and the Global Financial Crisis  
  • 3.2.4 Middle East and North Africa (MENA): The League of Arab States  
  • 3.2.4.1 History, Structure, and Mandate  
    • Reading: Yale Law School - Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945”

      Link: Yale Law School - Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the entire document accessed through this link.  Articles 2 through 9 are of particular importance for understanding the basic structure and functions of the Arab League.  Subsequent articles detail the decision-making processes, in particular the Council’s responsibilities and operation.  The first Annex addresses the status of Palestine.
       
      Members of the League of Arab States: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Emirates, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen
       
      The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.4.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance  
    • Reading: Mideast News: Adel Darwish’s “The Next Major Conflict in the Middle East Water Wars”

      Link: Mideast News: Adel Darwish’s “The Next Major Conflict in the Middle East Water Wars” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the text of a speech delivered at the Geneva Conference of Environment and Quality of Life, June 1994.  Please read the entire speech.  While oil has seemingly dominated any resource and development discussions about this region, it is, arguably, water that has and will continue to be the basis for the most contentious relationships within the Middle East.  We are all familiar with the ongoing, seemingly endless nature of the Middle East conflict with its most recent manifestation being between Israel and the Palestinian people.  However, what is often not included in the analysis of this region’s tensions is the underlying issue of water scarcity.  This article aptly presents the dynamics of this issue and its significance for governance in the region.
       
      The reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: UNESCO-IHP: Munther J. Haddadin’s and Uri Shamir’s “Water Conflict and Cooperation/Jordan River Basin, Part I”

      Link: UNESCO-IHP: Munther J. Haddadin’s and Uri Shamir’s “Water Conflict and Cooperation/Jordan River Basin, Part I” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  The two readings for this subunit, taken together, capture the focal points of the Arab League’s involvement in the water crisis in the Middle East.  This situation exemplifies the broader dilemmas of resource access and management as a regional governance issue.  While the first one is a bit older, its key points, sadly, remain relevant today.  This fact, alone, underscores the entrenched nature of the situation in the Middle East and the Arab League’s effectiveness.
       
      The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web pages above.

  • 3.3 How Do Sub Regional IGOs Facilitate Governance and Government?  

    The purpose of this subunit is to further detail the roles of IGOs with respect to international government and governance.  Sub-regional IGOs are key players because they are the ‘locals’ on the scene in global governance terms.  Quite often they can better identify problems and facilitate appropriate solutions because of their proximity to the situation.  The converse also has been argued; sub-regional IGOs are too entrenched in ‘local’ political and economic dynamics to remain effectively impartial.  This potentially is the most problematic with respect to conflicts in general and armed conflicts in particular.  Therefore, unlike the previous sections of this unit, the focus herein is on the activities of certain subregional IGOs rather than their organizational structures and internal operational procedures.  As you review the various materials below, think in comparative terms about the issues or problems faced by each organization and the choices made to address them.  Finally, please keep in mind that the organizations herein are merely a sample; each region has a plethora of subregional organizations.  Some are quite narrow in scope and activity, while others are rather broad and inclusive regarding the issues being tackled.

  • 3.3.1 Africa: ECOWAS & SADC – The Economic-Conflict Nexus  

    The readings on African sub-regional IGOs underscore the nexus of armed conflict and economic activity for the states of that continent.  While popular culture films such as Blood Diamond and Lord of War dramatize some of these dynamics, the realities for the African people are far more real and horrific.  The question remains: can African subregional IGOs build on past successes – however few they may be  and continue to have a positive impact on conflict resolution and sustainable economic development in Africa?

  • 3.3.1.1 Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS  
    • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Titilope Ajayi’s (2008) “The UN, the AU and ECOWAS – A Triangle for Peace and Security in West Africa?”

      Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Titilope Ajayi’s (2008) “The UN, the AU and ECOWAS – A Triangle for Peace and Security in West Africa?” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Ajayi, Titilope - The UN, the AU and ECOWAS: a triangle for peace and security in West Africa?  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
       
      ECOWAS, originally conceived to focus on economic development and trade issues, has become an integral participant in resolving non-economic disputes and conflicts in western Africa.  Examples include the civil wars in Liberia and Cote d’Ivoire.
       
      Members of ECOWAS: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinee, Guinee Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal Sierra Leone, Togolese
       
      The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.1.2 Southern Africa Development Community – SADC  
    • Reading: Southern Africa Development Community’s “Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan – Executive Summary”

      Link: Southern African Development Community’s “Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan – Executive Summary” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the entire “Executive Summary” accessed via the above link.
       
      SADC, like ECOWAS, quickly reached beyond a limited perspective of its role.  ‘Development,’ then, is a broadly conceived concept that includes quality of life issues such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender equity, and the importance of appropriate uses of science and technology.  Therefore, the focus of your reading should be to note the number and variety of issues that are addressed in the SADC’s strategic plan. 
       
      The reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.3.2 Asia: ASEAN & APEC – Economic Development . . . Sustainability Challenges  

    The Asian region, arguably even more so than Africa, is exceptionally diverse with respect to geographic, sociopolitical, and cultural characteristics.  Therefore, numerous sub-regional IGOs have developed in Asia.  It is also worth remembering at this juncture that there is no regional IGO in Asia comparable to the OAS, AU, or EU.  The two subregional IGOs profiled herein exemplify key governance issues and problems that beset the region and the institutional – government – attempts to address them.

  • 3.3.2.1 Association of South East Asian Nations – ASEAN  
  • 3.3.2.2 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation - SAARC  
    • Reading: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’s “Declaration on Climate Change Presented by His Excellency Maumoon Abdul Gayoom”

      Link: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’s “Declaration on Climate Change Presented by His Excellency Maumoon Abdul Gayoom” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and then scroll over the “Workshop Document” subheading and select “SAARC Declaration on Climate Change at Bali.”  Please read the entire Declaration.  Climate change, as an issue for international organizations and governance, manifests itself in different ways depending upon the socio-economic and political dynamics of the region.  For SAARC, the climate change declaration recognizes the interdependent character of climate change, sustainable development, and the region’s geographic realities.
       
      Studying the reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Web Media: YouTube: Powertalk with Santosh Shah’s “Interview with the Secretary General of SAARC” – Part I, Part II & Part III (2010)

      Link: YouTube: Powertalk with Santosh Shah’s “Interview with the Secretary General of SAARC” – Part I (YouTube), Part II (YouTube) & Part III (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch the interview (Parts I through III), accessed via the above links.  In it, the then Secretary General of SAARC reviews how that sub-regional IGO has identified and responded to the following issues, among others: Part I - terrorism, membership expansion, population growth; Part II – Nuclear power and development, shaping of the SAARC agenda, women’s empowerment; Part III – Afghanistan, role and participation of observers, closer economic integration.
       
      Members of SAARC: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
       
      Viewing the three parts of the video and pausing to take notes will take a total of approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.3 Europe: NATO, European Commission of Human Rights & European Court of Human Rights  
  • 3.3.3.1 NATO – Security and EU Expansion; Operations outside Europe  
    • Reading: Council on Foreign Relations: Lionel Beehner’s “NATO Looks to Expand Mission and Membership”

      Link: Council on Foreign Relations: Lionel Beehner’s “NATO Looks to Expand Mission and Membership” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Be sure to scroll down to see all of the text.  This review of NATO’s recent efforts to re-identify itself in the wake of significant regional and global changes reinforces the dynamic nature of governance and the need for institutions to remain flexible and adaptive.
       
      Members of NATO: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal , Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
       
      The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.3.2 European Court of Human Rights – Migration  
    • Reading: The BBC’s “Profile: European Court of Human Rights”

      Link: The BBC’s “Profile: European Court of Human Rights” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the brief overview the ECHR found on the BBC pages accessed via the above link.
       
      The reading should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: The Record Europe’s “Investigating the European Court of Human Rights” – Part I & Part II

      Link: YouTube: The Record Europe’s “Investigating the European Court of Human Rights” – Part I (YouTube) & Part II (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please watch both parts of this video presentation.  Part I reviews the current debate over the Court’s effectiveness, a brief history of its creation, and the implications of its unconventional mandate that includes access to the Court by any individual living in any member state.  Part II continues the discussion by exploring the issues of case appeals and specific states’ reactions to the Court.
       
      Members of the European Court of Human Rights: 47 states of Europe
       
      Viewing the two parts of the video will take a total of approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.4 Middle East: OAPEC, Not OPEC – Oil Reserve Imbalances  

    There is often a bit of confusion between two distinct yet related organizations: the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – OPEC and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries – OAPEC.  In general, OAPEC is a separate organization whose membership overlaps somewhat with that of OPEC.  It is OAPEC that is the focus of this particular section on sub-regional IGOs.

  • 3.3.5 North America: NAFTA – Labor, Migration and Trade  
  • 3.3.6 South America: MERCOSUR & Interamerican Commission and Court of Human Rights  
  • 3.3.6.1 MERCOSUR – Regional Cooperation and Integration  
  • 3.3.6.2 Interamerican Commission and Court of Human Rights – Indigenous Peoples  
  • Unit 4: The United Nations  

    Two focal points form the foundation for our exploration of the United Nations and its role in global governance and government.  The first is the UN’s structure; of importance here is to note the ways in which the six primary organs – the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice, Secretariat, and Trusteeship Council  have discrete yet related functions within the organization.  Beyond this, the specific decision-making mechanisms of each organ correspond to and reflect that organ’s purpose.  The second topic within this unit addresses the effectiveness of the UN in the context of global governance and government.  Here, you will study the two pillars of the UN: protecting and promoting human rights and collective security/peacekeeping.  For each, specific case studies are examined to assess the extent to which the UN has been successful, or not, in meeting its goals and mission.  In the end, it is important to understand that the UN, like the European Union and African Union, is still a ‘work in progress;’ that is, it continues to evolve and develop to meet the ever-changing needs of the global community as a whole and its individual members.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 What Is the Overall Structure of the UN and How Has It Evolved since Its Inception in 1945?  

    This subunit will provide you with an overview of the United Nations and its associated organizations through reading its founding document: The Charter of the United Nations.  The various chapters of this document will describe the six primary organs’ governing structures and processes (membership, voting, etc.), purposes, and areas of responsibilities.  In addition, you will explore a sampling of the specialized agencies of the UN.  The emphasis here is to compare and contrast them with respect to what they do and how they do it.  Note the range – narrow or broad – of their activities and the geopolitical regions of the world in which they operate.

    • Reading: The United Nations’ “The Charter of the United Nations”

      Link: The United Nations’ “The Charter of the United Nations” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to an interactive version of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the four readings, click on the links for “Introductory Note,” “Preamble,” “Chapter I: Purposes and Principles,” and “Chapter II: Membership” under the ‘Index’ heading in the center of the page.  You may read this material in one of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the documents in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      You should spend approximately 30 minutes studying this resource.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1 Six Primary Organs: Structures, Mandates & Functions  

    This section focuses on the six primary organs of the United Nations: The General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council.  As you read the materials, pay particular attention to their similarities and differences.  How do they differ and complement each other regarding their purpose or role in the UN?  What are the key areas of responsibility for each?  How does each organ make decisions; what is the voting system (simple majority, supermajority, weighted voting, etc.).  Note the breadth or narrowness of focus and the depth/detail of some of the topics and issues.

    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter III: Organs”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter III: Organs” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.1 General Assembly (GA)  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter IV: The General Assembly”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter IV: The General Assembly” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.2 Security Council (SC)  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter V: The Security Council”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter V: The Security Council” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take you less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.3 Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC)  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.4 International Court of Justice (ICJ)  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.5 Secretariat  
    • Reading: The United Nations: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XV: The Secretariat”

      Link: The United Nations: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XV: The Secretariat” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1.6 Trusteeship Council  
  • 4.1.2 Specialized Agencies  

    This subunit focuses on exemplary cases of specialized agencies and associated organizations of the United Nations.  As you read the materials, pay particular attention to the similarities and differences among the organizations.  For example, how does each organization govern itself in terms of both structure and process, that is, how does it make decisions?  Of equal importance are the mandate or purpose of each organization and the corresponding agenda – set of issues/topics in which it engages.  Note the breadth or narrowness of focus and the depth/detail of some of the topics, issues, and activities.  Also, note the various geopolitical regions of the world in which the organization is active.

  • 4.1.2.1 World Health Organization (WHO)  
    • Reading: The World Health Organization’s “About WHO” and “Programmes and Projects”

      Link: The World Health Organization’s “About WHO” (HTML) and “Programmes and Projects” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The first link above takes you to the home page of the World Health Organization (WHO).  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.  To access the readings, click the “About WHO” link on the far right of the ribbon at the top of the page.  Read the brief introduction at the top of the page and then click on the links for “History of WHO,” “The Role of WHO in Public Health,” and “The WHO Agenda,” and read all of the material on each page.
       
      The second link takes you to an alphabetized list of specific projects of the WHO.  Review the list and notice the incredibly wide range of activities of this specialized agency of the UN.  It becomes clear why the term ‘multipurpose’ organization is so appropriate.
       
      This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2.2 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)  
    • Reading: The Food and Agriculture Association’s “About FAO,” “FAO Governance,” and “Topics”

      Link: The Food and Agriculture Association’s “About FAO, (HTML) “FAO Governance”, (HTML) and “Topics (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above links takes you to the ‘About FAO,’ ‘FAO Governance,’ and ‘Topics’ sections of the Food and Agriculture Association (FAO) webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2.3 UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)  
    • Reading: The UN Environmental Programme’s “About UNEP” and “Six Priorities”

      Link: The UN Environmental Programme’s “About UNEP (HTML) and “Six Priorities (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The first link takes you to the “About UNEP” section of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) homepage.  Click on the following link under this heading: ‘UNEP Organigram’ (this document can be resized for clarity).  The second link will take you to the UNEP’s “Six Priorities.”  Under the headings are six icons representing each of the priorities.  They are, in order: Climate Change, Disasters and Conflicts, Ecosystem Management, Environmental Governance, Harmful Substances, and Resource Efficiency.  You may read this material in four of the six official languages of the United Nations: Chinese (Mandarin), English, French or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link to the far right in the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      The significance of this material lies in understanding the complexity of some IGOs that seems to be inconsistent with the apparent ‘single purpose’ nature of their mandate.  However, despite the UNEP ‘only’ being concerned with environmental issues, the ‘Organigram’ reinforces the multiplicity of what constitutes ‘the environment.’
       
      This material should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2.4 UN Development Programme (UNDP)  
    • Reading: The UN Development Programme’s “About Us”

      Link: The UN Development Programme’s “About Us (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Also, please click on the embedded ‘Millennium Development Goals’ link, and explore the material related to each of the 8 MDGs.  Finally, click on each of the links to the various issue areas covered by the UNDP (e.g. democratic governance, poverty reduction, environment, & energy), and read the material found on those pages.
       
      This material should take approximately 3 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2.5 International Labor Organization (ILO)  
    • Reading: The International Labor Organization’s “About the ILO,” “Topics,” and “Programmes and Projects”

      Link: The International Labor Organization’s “About the ILO, (HTML) “Topics, (HTML) and “Programmes and Projects (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to various pages on the International Labor Organization’s (ILOs) website.
       
      After clicking on the ‘About the ILO’ link, please read the brief paragraph at the top of the page.  Next, read the subsections entitled: “How we work,” “Mission and objectives,” “Origins and History,” and “Key Issues.”  Be sure to click on the small red double arrow to the immediate left of each heading to access the full text material for that link.  On the origins and history page, please be sure to watch the short video clip.
       
      To access the “Topics” material, please click on the ‘Topics’ link near the top left corner of the webpage.  Peruse the various topics on this page to gain an understanding of the scope of the ILO’s work.
       
      To access the “Programmes and Projects” material, please click on the ‘Programmes and Projects’ link near the top center of the webpage.  Read the material on this page, paying attention to the breadth and depth of the issues and activities.
       
      This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2 Has the UN Been Effective and How Might It Be Reformed?  
  • 4.2.1 Human Rights & Humanitarian Activities  

    Protecting and promoting human rights is one of the two cornerstones of the UN.  As this responsibility is quite broad, it comprises the single largest area of UN activity.  The range of its involvement includes determining operational definitions and legal frameworks for the most severe violations – genocide, torture, etc. – to creating local, regional and global infrastructures that identify and deliver basic human needs – clean water, health care, education, etc.  UN human rights activities have been fraught with tensions and controversies since the inception of the organization despite the seemingly straightforward nature of this work.  The cases profiled below provide insight into the past and ongoing human rights activities of the UN.  Following the cases is a section on key international legal documents that are critical for the UN’s work.  As you review the materials below please consider the extent to which you think the UN has been successful in accomplishing this part of its mandate.  What criteria are you using to assess the UN’s behavior in this context?  Why?

  • 4.2.1.1 Protecting and Promoting Human Rights  
  • 4.2.1.1.1 Case: Africa – Apartheid & Genocide  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ “The United Nations: Partner in the Struggle against Apartheid”

      Link: The United Nations’ “The United Nations: Partner in the Struggle against Apartheid” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read all of the material on the page accessed via the above link.
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: FreeDocumentaries: Public Broadcasting Station: Frontline’s “Ghosts of Rwanda”

      Link: FreeDocumentaries: Public Broadcasting Station: Frontline’s “Ghosts of Rwanda” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: This link takes you to the ‘Ghosts of Rwanda’ page on FreeDocumentaries.  Click on the ‘Watch Film Now’ link to watch the film.  The Rwandan genocide has come to be the most flagrant example of the UN’s failure to take appropriate, timely action to prevent this egregious form of human rights violations.  As you watch the documentary, consider the various points at which decision were or were not made and how the situation could have been resolved in a different manner.  Is the failure of the UN the result of structural/organizational flaws or the lack of political will to make tough decisions on the part of the members?  Does the film underscore the, at times, seemingly indecisive nature of the UN membership (keep in mind that the organization is made up of independent, autonomous states) or of a fundamental weakness in the institutional structure of the UN itself?
       
      Viewing this video and answering the questions above will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.1.1.2 Case: Asia – Self-determination & Sovereignty  
    • Web Media: TopDocumentaryFilms.com: Maria Florio, Victoria Mudd, Tom Peosay and Sue Peosay’s “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion”

      Link: TopDocumentaryFilms.com: Maria Florio, Victoria Mudd, Tom Peosay and Sue Peosay’s “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion (Flash)
       
      Instructions: This link takes you to the “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion” page on TopDocumentaryFilms.  To watch the documentary, click on the ‘Watch Film’ link under the brief paragraph description. 
       
      China’s tumultuous relationship with Tibet is the subject of this documentary.  In essence, the government of China has claimed Tibet as part of its territory and undertaken policies to solidify that claim.  For example, immigration to Tibet by Chinese nationals is strongly encouraged, thus increasing the Chinese population of Tibet.  The decades-long situation highlights the unresolved tensions between state sovereignty, self-determination, and humanitarian intervention.  Each concept is at the core of the UNs mandate and operations; nonetheless, the organization has yet to establish a coherent set of guidelines to balance the claims of sovereignty by governments with people’s cries for self-determination and the protection of basic human rights and needs.  As with the Rwandan situation, how might the UN change its decision-making processes and structures to better facilitate a positive resolution to the situation?
       
      This video will take 1 hour and 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.1.1.3 Case: Europe – Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina  
  • 4.2.1.2 Facilitating International Human Rights  
  • 4.2.1.2.1 Benchmark Documents – Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR), Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Convention on Genocide) and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment  
  • 4.2.1.2.2 Key Covenants – Civil and Political Rights (UNCCPR), Economic, Social & Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)  
  • 4.2.1.2.3 Human Rights of Women, Children and Indigenous Peoples  
  • 4.2.1.2.4 Human Trafficking  
  • 4.2.2 Collective Security  

    Collective security is the second of the two cornerstones of the United Nations.  As with protecting and promoting human rights, the focus of this area of UN activity emerged out of WWII.  Chief among the UN’s organs for addressing collective security is, clearly, the Security Council.  The materials below provide an overview of the scope of the UN’s mandate in this area.

  • 4.2.2.1 Conflict Resolution & Cooperation  
  • 4.2.2.1.1 Brief Background on History of Conflict Resolution Mechanisms  
    • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes”

      Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in one of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
       
      This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.2.1.2 Exemplary Cases of UN Effectiveness and ‘Tactical Diplomacy’  
  • 4.2.2.2 Peacekeeping  
  • 4.2.2.2.1 Brief Background on History of UN Peacekeeping  
  • 4.2.2.2.2 Exemplary Cases  
  • Unit 5: International Non-Governmental Organizations  

    INGOs, international non-governmental organizations, have grown in both number and scope over roughly the last century and, in particular, since the end of WWII.  Collectively they form a counterpoint or balance to the work of IGOs.  By definition they are not affiliated with any particular governmental entity.  Thus, their impartiality has enabled them to engage in advocacy with respect to key global issues in ways that are not possible for the governments of states in the context of IGOs.  This unit, then, will survey the types of INGOs with an emphasis on their contributions to global governance and government.  In essence, what do they contribute to the processes and institutional dynamics of the international organizations?  In answering this question, you will turn your attention to INGOs relationships with IGOs as well as with other INGOs.  As with the previous unit on the UN, you also will assess the effective of INGOs in the context of their own mandates and activities.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Do Global INGOs Facilitate or Inhibit International Governance?  
  • 5.1.1 Relationships with the UN  

    Nongovernmental organizations may be granted Observer Status with the United Nations.  Various levels or categories of this status indicate the degree to which a particular INGO may participate in UN deliberations.  The highest category enables the designated organization to attend and actively participate (short of voting) in virtually all UN sessions.  Less extensive permissions limit the UN organs or agencies with which the INGO may interact, the degree of proactive v. observing participation, or both.

  • 5.1.2 Cases of NGO-UN Interactions  
  • 5.1.2.1 Amnesty International  
    • Reading: Amnesty International’s “About the UN”

      Link: Amnesty International’s “About the UN” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read all of the material under the heading “About the UN.”  Despite the title, the article describes Amnesty International’s interactions with the UN as an officially recognized observer.
       
      Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.2.2 Case: International Committee of the Red Cross  
  • 5.1.2.3 Case: Greenpeace  
  • 5.2 What Roles Do Regional and Subregional INGOs Play with Respect to International Governance?  

    As with the global arena, the relationship between IGOs and INGOs can be both cooperative and contentious.  The relationship may be either much more intense – positively or negatively – given the somewhat narrower context within which the organizations’ interactions take place.  The specific geopolitical region and its dynamics can, in fact, contribute to the willingness of organizations to address situations and simultaneously create seemingly intractable problems and tensions for the organizations’ relationships.  The diverse NGO case material below underscores and exemplifies such dynamics.

  • 5.2.1 Europe  
  • 5.2.2 The Middle East  
    • Reading: Middle East Research and Information Project: Julia Pitner’s “NGOs’ Dilemmas”

      Link: Middle East Research and Information Project: Julia Pitner’s “NGOs’ Dilemmas” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the article accessed via the above link.  While the article addresses human rights NGOs, the real focus of the article is the reaction of state governments in the Middle East to the activities of NGOs in the region.  The argument presented outlines the perception that such activity undermines states’ ability to ensure peace and security.
       
      This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to read.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.3 Africa  
  • 5.3 How Do NGOs Link Diverse Issues to Enhance Global Governance?  

    Quite often NGOs will link seemingly divergent issues together when engaging in problem solving activities.  Essentially, it is a horizontal, integrated or ‘multi-tasking’ rather than a hierarchical, top-down prioritizing approach to problem solving.  Such an approach by NGOs may be particularly effective when resources are limited.

  • 5.3.1 Case: Cultural Survival – Indigenous Peoples, the Environment and Development  
    • Reading: Cultural Survival’s ‘Explore Our Work’ – Endangered Languages, Community Radio Project, Global Response, Universal Periodic Review, and Bazaars

      Links: Cultural Survival’s ‘Explore Our Work’ – Endangered Languages (HTML), Community Radio Project (HTML), Global Response (HTML), Universal Periodic Review (HTML), and Bazaars (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Cultural Survival is dedicated to protecting and promoting indigenous peoples’ languages and cultures.
       
      The links above take you to various projects currently being undertaken by Cultural Survival: Endangered Languages, Community Radio Project, Global Response, Universal Periodic Review, and Bazaars.
       
      Click on the ‘Endangered Languages’ link, and read the brief description provided.  After reading the initial paragraph, click on the ‘What we are doing’ link just below the paragraph, and read the material on that page. 
       
      Click on the ‘Community Radio Project’ link, and read the brief description provided.  After reading the initial paragraph, click on the ‘What we are doing’ link just below the paragraph.  A list of five project objectives is provided.  Please click on each link and read the brief descriptions.
       
      Next, click on the ‘Global Response’ and ‘Universal Periodic Review’ links and read the material presented.  When considered with the previous two links, it becomes apparent that Cultural Survival connects together a wide range of activities to effectively work on behalf of indigenous peoples.
       
      Finally, click on the Bazaars link and read the brief paragraph provided.
       
      Each of these projects seems to be unrelated to the others.  However, by linking together such diverse projects, Cultural Survival is able to create a network of awareness in which activity on each issue reinforces the others.
       
      These readings should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
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  • 5.3.2 Case: The Greenbelt Movement – Women’s Rights and the Environment  
    • Reading: The Greenbelt Movement International’s “Who We Are”

      Link: The Greenbelt Movement International’s “Who We Are” (HTML)

      Instructions: The above link takes you to the Who We Are page of the Greenbelt Movement International.  Please start by reading all of the material under the Who We Are heading near the top of the page.  Then, please continue to read through the rest of the website placing much of your time and focus on the What We Do section.  The significance of the reading lies in the holistic approach that the INGO takes with respect to its work.  Environmental, women’s rights, social, and economic development are each recognized as an integral part of human, regional, and global decision-making and governance.

      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.3 Case: Women for Women International – War and Women  
    • Reading: Women for Women International’s “About Us”

      Link: Women for Women International’s “About Us” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the ‘About Us’ short paragraphs and examine the ‘How it Works’ image below it.  After having done that, please scroll down and click on the “How Our Programs Work” and “How We Create Lasting Change” tabs.  Please read all of the material for each tab.
       
      This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 6: Transnational Organizations  

    Transnational organizations are, as the name implies, organizations that work across countries’ boundaries.  But, beyond this, they are entities that are not defined in relationship to states.  Hypothetically, if you eliminate all the states of the world, transnational organizations could, and arguably would, still exist.  Thus, this unit will survey such entities as professional associations, cultural and religious entities, business/economic organizations, and terrorist organizations.  Key dynamics herein are the extent to which transnational organizations help or hinder other aspects of the global governance and government.  Do such entities provide a useful supplement to or undermine IGOs’ and INGOs’ activities as they address global issues?  In what ways have other global participants reacted or responded to transnational organizations?

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 What Roles Do Professionals’ Associations Play in International Governance?  
  • 6.1.1 Science/Technology Sharing  
  • 6.1.2 Human Rights Advocacy – American Association for the Advancement of Science – History of Human Rights Advocacy  
  • 6.2 Do Transnational NGOs Enhance or Hinder Governance Efforts?  
  • 6.2.1 Facilitating Conflict Resolution  
  • 6.2.2 Promoting and Protecting Human Rights  
  • 6.3 In What Ways Do Transnational NGOs Impact Business Practices in a Globalizing Economy?  

    In an international system defined in many ways by the forces and interests of globalizing capital, we have witnessed an upswing of transnational NGO activity that targets various labor issues.  These include: wages, working conditions, the right to organize unions and collectively bargain, and sexual harassment.  Assess if these issues would be addressed if transnational NGOs were not in the picture.  As outlined in sub-subunit 6.3.2, there are also attempts by transnational NGOs to promote alternative business models focused on “Fair Trade.”

  • 6.3.1 Wages and Working Conditions  
  • 6.3.2 Fair Trade vs. Free Trade Debate  
  • 6.4 How Has International Governance and Government Responded to and/or Been Shaped by the Activities of Terrorist Organizations?  
  • 6.4.1 Defining and Characterizing Transnational Terrorist Organizations  
  • 6.4.2 IGO Responses to Terrorist Organizations’ Activities  
  • Unit 7: Future Considerations for International Organizations  

    As the final unit for this course we will simultaneously take a look backwards and forwards to discern possible patterns, trends, and discontinuities in international government and governance.  Ultimately, the adage “if you don’t learn from the past, history will repeat itself,” while trite, is nonetheless appropriate here.  Thus, it is incumbent upon us, the current and future participants in global affairs, to learn from our collective past, identify current issues and pursue reasoned, appropriate solutions for potential future problems.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 What Patterns in International Organizations Have Emerged since WWII?  
  • 7.2 What Issues or Challenges Will Develop for International Organizations as We Move Further into the 21st Century?  
  • 7.2.1 Global Governance in a Multipolar World  
  • 7.2.2 The G-20 and Global Governance  
  • 7.2.3 Globalization and Global Governance  
  • 7.2.4 Global Governance and Declining U.S. Power  
  • 7.2.5 The Rising Power of China and International Organizations  
  • Final Exam