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Research Methods Lab

Purpose of Course  showclose

This Research Methods Lab course is part two of the Research Methods series. You should not attempt this course without having first completed the Research Methods course (PSYCH202A). This Lab extends beyond the basics of research methodology and the logic of experimental design, concepts you learned in PSYCH202A.  You will learn to put these concepts into practice while conducting laboratory experiments. While we may not explicitly apply all of the concepts introduced in the Research Methods lecture course, remember that each of them will remain relevant during the evaluation and review phases of your research.

This course intends to acquaint the student with a variety of different research techniques.  Students will participate in every stage of experimentation, from creation and editing to evaluation and review.   As such, this course will not only review relevant concepts from the Research Methods lecture, but will also broach a number of practical matters, including the standard organizational format for research project documentation.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course you must:
 
√    Have access to a computer.
 
√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.
 
√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).
 
√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.
 
√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).
 
√    Be competent in the English language.
 
√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.
 

Unit Outline show close


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  • Unit 1: Developing a Research Question  

    One of the most important—and frequently overlooked—steps in successful research occurs prior to laboratory experimentation, when the researcher develops a question that can be accurately and effectively studied.   Though psychologists generate these questions in a number of different ways, many of the most successful arise from previous experiments performed by either the researcher him or herself or from others in the field.   However, even when a psychologist is building from existing research, there are a number of elements he or she must consider when establishing the parameters for further research.   In this unit, we will discuss different methods for the formulation of a solid research question as well as ways to determine the scientific value of a given experiment.  As we move through this unit, you should begin to develop a research question you are interested in reviewing or researching.

  • 1.1 What is a Good Research Question?  
  • 1.1.1 Must Be Testable  
    • Reading: Rutgers-Camden: Jon’a F. Meyer’s "Some Early Steps in Research”

      Link: Rutgers-Camden: Jon’a F. Meyer’s "Some Early Steps in Research” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the above webpage for a review of the early steps in research.  Afterward, think about a few different topics you might be interested in studying, and make sure that all of your questions are testable.  Although you will have the opportunity to change your choice of research question once you begin the literature review process, for now, choose one question to consider when taking the next few steps in the research process.  This reading applies to subunits 1.1.2-1.1.3

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.1.2 What Does the Research Add to the Existing Knowledge?  
  • 1.1.3 Has the Research Already Been Conducted?  
  • 1.1.4 The Costs and Benefits of the Research  
  • 1.2 A Call for Replication  
  • 1.2.1 How to Replicate Previous Research  
    • Reading: Santa Clara University: Dr Jerry Burger’s “Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?”

      Link: Santa Clara University: Dr Jerry Burger’s “Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?” (PDF)

      Instructions: Clicking on the above link will bring you to Dr. Jerry Burger’s webpage.  Please scroll down to the section titled “Research and Representative Publications” and select “Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?”  In PSYCH202, you read about the importance of replication as well as Jerry Burger’s partial replication of Milgram’s famous obedience experiment.  Please read through this in order to see an important real world example of a replication.

      As you are reading the article, consider whether or not you think the replication was necessary, what the risks were, and whether or not it added to previous knowledge.  Also, please note that this was a partial replication (meaning not all aspects of the original experiment were conducted) and consider the reasons for this.  This reading also applies to subunit 1.2.2.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Find Articles at BNET’s version of Christiane Kugler, Stefan Fischer, and Cynthia L. Russell’s “Preparing a Replication Study”

      Link: Find Articles at BNET’s version of Christiane Kugler, Stefan Fischer, and Cynthia L. Russell’s "Preparing a Replication Study" (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the above article through step 6.  Although the article describes replication in nursing research, it is also directly applicable to replication in psychological research.  This reading also applies to section 1.2.3 and 1.2.4.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.2.2 Partial Replications  
  • 1.2.3 When is Replication Appropriate?  
  • 1.2.4 Replication: Same vs. Different Design  
  • 1.2.5 Replication in a Different Population  
  • 1.3 Supporting and Counter Evidence  
    • Reading: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review"

      Link: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review” (PDF)

      Instructions: Clicking on the above link will bring you to the University of Washington’s Psychology Writing Center.  Scroll down to the list of writing guides, and under the section “Scientific Writing & APA Format,” click on “Writing a Psychology Literature Review” to download the PDF.  Please save this file as you will need to access it again for subunits 2.1.2 and 2.2.

      As you learned in PSYCH202, research ideas are often based on previous research.  Please read the first two pages of this guide (through Library Research) to learn about the steps in developing your research question based on previous research and planning your literature review.  As you read this, start to think about the searches you could conduct on your topic, and ask yourself how you might narrow it down based on the previous studies you might find as a result of your research.  This reading applies to subunits 1.3.1-1.3.3.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.3.1 The Use of Previous Conclusions to Spur New Research  
  • 1.3.2 Reinforce a Previous Study’s Conclusions or Prove it Wrong  
  • 1.3.3 Connecting Two or More Ideas  
  • 1.3.4 Applied Research: Using Laboratory Research in Practical Areas  
  • Unit 2: The Literature Review  

    As researchers develop their questions, they must perform a review of existing literature in order to discover previous studies conducted in their areas of interest and identify gaps in the field’s body of research.   Frequently, these gaps are just as important—if not more so—than the body of existing research.   This brief unit will present ways of finding, accessing, and narrowing existing research documentation through either the Internet or a library.   By the end of this unit, the student should feel comfortable with this process, as it will be performed frequently throughout both the remainder of this program and over the course of your career in psychology.  You should also consider performing a literature review for the question you developed in Unit 1.

  • 2.1 Available Literature Searches  
  • 2.1.1 Online General Search Tools (e.g.PsycINFO)  
    • Web Media: YouTube: PsycINFO Training Video’s “APA PsycNET Direct Part 1 and "APA PsycNET Direct Part 2" and "PsycINFO on EBSCOhost: Finding Peer-Reviewed Items."

      Links: YouTube: PsycINFO Training Video’s APA PsycNET Direct Part 1 (YouTube) and "APA PsycNET Direct Part 2" (YouTube)  and  "PsycINFO on EBSCOhost: Finding Peer-Reviewed Items." (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch the videos associated with the first two links for an overview of the PsycNET’s search tools and a demonstration of how to use PsycINFO (one of PsycNET’s search tools) to conduct an online search for psychology articles.  These videos also instruct you in how to purchase full-text journal articles.  If you are currently enrolled in a school system, you can likely access PsycINFO through your school’s library homepage and do not need to pay for these articles through PsycNET.  If you have access through a school system, please watch the third link for an example of conducting a PsycINFO search through the common school library research database service EBSCO.

      After watching these demonstrations, conduct a search on your topic.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Reading: Douglas Degelman’s "Literature Search Essentials" and About.com: Psychology: Kendra Cherry’s “Full-Text Psychology Journals”

      Links: Douglas Degelman’s "Literature Search Essentials" (HTML) and About.  com: Psychology: Kendra Cherry’s “Full-Text Psychology Journals” (HTML)

      Instructions: In PSYCH202, you read Douglas Degelman’s “Literature Search Essentials”.  Please review the description and directions for using ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), another resource for conducting literature searches.  If you are not enrolled in a school system, you will only be able to access the abstracts for many of the journals that you find.  After reading the descriptions and directions,   conduct a search for your topic using this database.  Kendra Cherry’s webpage provides a number of other free resources for accessing certain full-text psychology journals online without a subscription or membership.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.2 Offline General Search Tools and Library Look-Ups  
    • Reading: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review"

      Link: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please access the above file, which you should have saved when you first encountered it in Unit 1.3.  If you have not already saved it, clicking on the above link will bring you to the University of Washington’s Psychology Writing Center.  Scroll down to the list of writing guides, and under the section “Scientific Writing & APA Format,” click on “Writing a Psychology Literature Review”.

      Please read pages 2-3 of this article: “Library Research.”  This reading addresses subunits 2.1.2 through 2.1.3.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational, noncommercial use by The University of Washington.  It can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 2.1.3 Specific Journal Searches  
  • 2.2 What To Read For  
  • 2.2.1 The Importance of the Abstract  
    • Reading: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review"

      Link: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s "Writing a Psychology Literature Review (PDF)

      Instructions: Please access the above file, which you should have saved when you first encountered it in sub-units 1.3 and 2.1.2.  If you did not save it, clicking on the above link will bring you to the University of Washington’s Psychology Writing Center.  Scroll down to the list of writing guides, and under the section “Scientific Writing & APA Format” click on “Writing a Psychology Literature Review.”

      Please read pages 3-8 of this article in order to understand what to read for when conducting literature reviews, as well as how to present studies in your literature reviews.  This reading covers subunits 2.2.1 to 2.2.5.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational, noncommercial use by The University of Washington.  It can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 2.2.2 If the Abstract is Relevant: Move to Discussion  
  • 2.2.3 An Understanding of Methods and Results  
  • 2.2.4 What Information Should be Used in a New Article  
  • 2.2.5 How to Communicate Previous Findings in a New Article  
  • Unit 3: Study Designs  

    In the lecture section of this course, we reviewed the types and purposes of many of the study designs most commonly used in psychology research today.  However, real-life examples of these theoretical designs may not appear as clear-cut as they did in theory.  While it is important to be able to recognize which research designs are most applicable to certain research question, it is equally as important to understand how designs can be shaped in order to fit a question—a matter we will discuss in this unit.   We will first review the design structures described in the lecture and then take a look at experiments in which researchers applied design structures to real-life questions.  You should determine which study design is most appropriate to your research question.

  • 3.1 Study Designs Revisited  
    • Assessment: Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction’s "Research Methods: The Laboratory"

      Link: Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction’s "Research Methods: The Laboratory" (HTML)

      Instructions: After you click on the link, click on the center of the screen where is says “Enter Lab.” The website will ask you for your first name.  After you enter a name, a smaller window will pop up that will give you a review of five research methods.  Please read through each description, nothing the strengths and limitations of each method.  After the limitations section, select “psychology” for an example of each type of method. This assessment requires adobe shockwave. If you do not already have it, you can download a free version here.  This assessment will address subunits 3.1.1-3.1.4.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.1.1 Experimental Design and Quasi-Experimental Design  
    • Lecture: University of Wisconsin at OshKosh Johnson/Meyerson "Experimental Designs 1" and "Experimental Designs 2"

      Links: University of Wisconsin at OshKosh Johnson/Meyerson "Experimental Designs 1" (iTunes U) and "Experimental Designs 2" (iTunes U)

      Instructions: Please listen to the entire first lecture and through minute 10 of the second lecture on experimental design for an overview of what defines a true experiment.  Note the description of a correlational study related to school achievement and television viewing.

      Toward the end of this lecture, the lecturer goes through the process of setting up an experimental design.  Pay close attention to these steps if you are planning to use an experimental design in order to investigate your topic of interest.  The example he discusses is an independent group design.  Also note that the lecturer addresses an important topic in the second link: the placebo effect.  Pay close attention to this.  This lecture applies to subunits 3.1.1 and 3.1.2.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.1.1 Independent Group Design  
  • 3.1.2 Correlation  
  • 3.1.4 Complex Experimental Designs  
  • 3.1.5 Posttest-Only Design  
  • 3.1.6 Pre-Test/Post-Test Design  
  • 3.1.7 Repeated Measures Design  
  • 3.1.8 Survey Research  
    • Reading: Professor William Trochim’s “Survey Research”

      Link: Professor William Trochim’s "Survey Research”.  (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read through the various sections of this topic on the above webpage (through “Plus & Minus of Survey Methods”) for a review of the process of survey research.  Please note that you also visited this webpage in PSYCH202.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation is grateful to Professor William Trochim for his kind permission to reference students to this site.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.1.9 Case Studies  
    • Reading: Colorado State University’s "Case Studies”

      Link: Colorado State University’s "Case Studies” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read through the various sections of this topic on the above webpage for a review of case studies.  Please note that you also visited this webpage in PSYCH202.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.1.10 Naturalistic Observation  
    • Reading: Russel A. Dewey, Ph.D’s "Observational Research"

      Link: Russel A. Dewey, Ph.D’s "Observational Research" (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the above webpage for a review of the differences between naturalistic observation and controlled (or systematic) observation.  Please note that you also read this webpage in PSYCH202.  This reading applies to subunits 3.3.10 and 3.1.11.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.11 Systematic Observation  
  • 3.2 Examples of Use  
  • 3.2.1 Observational Studies  
  • 3.2.2 Animal vs. Human Studies  
  • 3.2.3 Experimental Studies: Within Subjects Designs  
    • Activity: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Gettysburg College: Martha E. Arterberry and Professor William P. Wilson’s “Gender Perception”

      Link: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Gettysburg College: Martha E. Arterberry and Professor William P.  Wilson’s "Gender Perception Explanation" (HTML)

      Instructions: A great way to learn about how studies are conducted is to participate in them.  Although this is not a required part of the course, it would help to deepen your understanding of the way that an experiment works.  If you do wish to participate, follow the above link, enter your gender and age, and indicate that you would like to participate.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Reading: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Gettysburg College: Martha E. Arterberry and Professor William P. Wilson’s “Gender Perception”

      Link: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Gettysburg College: Martha E. Arterberry and Professor William P.  Wilson’s "Gender Perception Explanation" (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an explanation of the study you just participated in.  Pay special attention to the explanation of the study design, and note that it is a within-subjects design because every participant experiences each of the conditions.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.2.4 Experimental Studies: Between-Subjects Design  
    • Activity: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Clarion University of Pennsylvania: Mark Mitchell’s “Be a Juror”

      Link: The American Psychological Association’s Online Psychology Laboratory: Clarion University of Pennsylvania: Mark Mitchell’s “Be a Juror” (HTML)

      Instructions: Participation in the above experiment is not a requirement for the class, but it is an excellent way to get an understanding of how research is conducted.  When you click on the above link, you will need to provide some basic information about yourself (your gender and your age) prior to entering the experiment.  Once you have completed the assignment, please reader the “Be a Juror Explanation” (HTML) in order to understand the between-subjects experiment you just participated in.  Recognize that there were two other conditions that you did not experience, which explains why this experiment is considered a between-subjects design.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 3.3 Deciding Which Design is Right for You  
  • 3.3.2 Proposed Audience  
  • 3.3.3 Costs and Available Funds (Both Monetary and Resource Related)  
  • 3.3.1 Population and Sample  
    • Reading: StatPac’s “Sampling Methods”

      Links: StatPac’s "Sampling Methods" (HTML)

      Instructions:  The above reading will give you a brief summary of the sampling methods you learned about previously in the course.  Consider the research question you are interested in answering and, using this guide and what you know already about sampling, define an ideal sample and population for your study and determine which method would be best for obtaining their responses.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 4: Measurement and Statistics  

    You have now performed each of the steps necessary to design your experiment, but how will you be able to tell whether your result is significant?  This unit will present different techniques for measuring your result.  The lecture portion of this course introduced the concepts behind these techniques, but we will now learn to determine when and how to use each of them.  While we will discuss statistics in this unit, a sophisticated understanding of the subject is unnecessary.   That being said, a working knowledge of statistics is a valuable asset during all stages of experimentation.   In this unit, you should identify the measurement techniques most applicable to your question and design and be able to explain your selection.

  • 4.1 Sampling Techniques  
  • 4.1.1 Simple Random Sampling  
  • 4.1.2 Stratified Random Sampling  
    • Lecture: iTunes University: University of Glamorgan: “Research: Sampling Methods: Stratified Sampling”

      Link: iTunes University: University of Glamorgan: "Research: Sampling Methods: Stratified Sampling" (iTunes U)

      Instructions: Please view the above lecture for an overview of stratified random sampling.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 4.1.3 Cluster Sampling  
  • 4.1.4 Convenience Sampling  
  • 4.1.5 Snowball Sampling  
  • 4.1.6 Quota Sampling  
  • 4.1.7 Purposive Sampling  
  • 4.2 Self-Reporting and Scales  
  • 4.2.1 Operationally Defining your Variable  
    • Reading: The University of Florida: L.K. Curda’s "Operational Definitions of Variables"

      Link:  The University of Florida: L.K. Curda’s "Operational Definitions of Variables" (HTML)

      Instructions: The above link will bring you to a course Website.  Please click on “Readings” and then “Operational Definitions of Variables.”  Read the explanation of operationalizing variables and answer the questions at the end of the document to test your knowledge of operationalization.  Once you have completed this reading, consider your research question and work to define how you will operationalize each variable.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.2 Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales Revisited  
  • 4.2.3 Examining Available Scales  
    • Web Media: YouTube: PsycINFO Training Video’s “PsychINFO on EBSCOhost: In search of Tests and Measures”

      Link: YouTube: PsycINFO Training Video’s "PsychINFO on EBSCOhost: In search of Tests and Measures" (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch the above video in order to learn about searching for tests and measures for use in a study.  Note that although the search is conducted in PsychINFO through EBSCOhost, you do not need to use EBSCOhost to conduct this search.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 4.2.4 Do You Need to Create Your Own Scale?  
    • Reading: Professor William Trochim’s “Constructing the Survey”

      Link: Professor William Trochim’s "Constructing the Survey" (HTML)

      Instructions: You will occasionally be unable to find a previously-created scale or measure that asks the questions you want to ask in your study.  If this is the case, there are a number of factors to consider.  Please review the information on the above webpage in order to learn about the considerations that should go into developing survey questions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation is grateful to Professor William Trochim for his kind permission to reference students to this site.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 4.2.5 The Problems with Self-Report  
  • 4.3 Other Data Collection Methods  
  • 4.3.1 Physiological States  
  • 4.3.2 Qualitative Data and Coding  
  • 4.4 Results and Statistics  
  • 4.4.1 First look: Central Tendency and the Mean  
  • 4.4.2 Correlation  
  • 4.4.3 What Statistical Test is Appropriate?  
  • Unit 5: Activity: Sample Experimental paper  

    In this unit, you will practice writing a research paper.  Although your paper will not reflect any actual data and will lack the depth of traditional research paper, this activity will require you to synthesize what you have learned in the previous units by asking you to demonstrate how you would design and carry out a working experiment.   You should identify and explain the reasoning behind your choices, methods, and measurement techniques.  The inclusion of statistical knowledge is desirable but not necessary.  The goal of this exercise is to illustrate that practical applications can diverge from strict theory.

  • 5.1 Sample Paper  
    • Reading: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s version of Daryl J. Bem’s “Writing the Empirical Journal Article”

      Link: University of Washington: Psychology Writing Center’s version of Daryl J. Bem’s "Writing the Empirical Journal Article" (PDF)

      Instructions: Clicking on the above link will bring you to the University of Washington’s Psychology Writing Center.  Scroll down to the list of writing guides and, under the section “Scientific Writing & APA Format,” click on “Bem: Writing the Empirical Journal Article.”  This article provides instructions for and tips on writing the various sections of a research paper.  Please read the article thoroughly and refer to it frequently as you write your sample paper.  This reading applies to subunits 5.1.1-5.1.4.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational, noncommercial use by The University of Washington.  It can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 5.1.1 Introduction: Literature Review and Research Question  
  • 5.1.2 Methods and Measurement  
    • Reading: American Psychological Association: Leland Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference’s “Follow-up Report - Task Force on Statistical Inference: Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations”

      Link: American Psychological Association: Leland Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference’s" Follow-up Report - Task Force on Statistical Inference: Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations" (PDF)

      Instructions: Clicking on the above link will bring you to the American Psychological Association’s Webpage for the Task Force on Statistical Inference.  On this webpage, please scroll down and click on “Follow-up Report: Task Force on Statistical Inference: Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations” to download the PDF. This document applies to subunits 5.1.3 and 5.1.4.  As you are writing your sample paper, make sure you are considering the applicable guidelines.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 5.1.3 Statistics and "Results" (Optional)  
  • 5.1.4 Conclusions: Explain the Choices for the Above Decisions  
  • Final Exam  

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