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Lifespan Development

Purpose of Course  showclose

Developmental psychology concerns itself with the changes (psychological and otherwise) that occur as a result of our physical and mental maturation. Typically, “development” refers to the systematic changes that take place between our conception and death. While this definition may seem quite broad, it will serve as a good starting point in our quest to understand the field of developmental psychology. The first thing we must realize as developmental psychologists is that our change is systematic. This means that the process by which we grow and mature over time is not defined by random, isolated events but by orderly and relatively long-term patterns. This also means that while individuals themselves may differ quite a bit, the developmental patterns that they undergo are similar. These concepts are crucial in that they allow us, as psychologists, to study the way in which people develop and to make predictions about the future based on that development. Developmental psychologists study both continuities and discontinuities in our development. Continuities refer to developmental patterns that remain the same throughout our lives, meaning that growth occurs steadily and smoothly. For example, some developmental psychologists examine links between infants’ temperament and their personality characteristics in later childhood and adolescence. In contrast, discontinuities refer to developmental patterns that remain the same for lengthy periods but occasionally show relatively sudden, rapid change. For example, you will learn much about the stages of psychosocial development proposed by Erik Erikson, whose research suggested that individuals struggle with a predominant internal conflict at each of eight stages of the lifespan. With the successful resolution of each conflict, such as trust versus mistrust in infancy, individuals acquire a greater capacity to handle the hallmark conflicts of subsequent stages.

This course emphasizes that development proceeds throughout all stages of the lifespan. After a brief introductory unit that will provide an overview of broad developmental issues, theories, and research methods, you will look at development in the womb, or prenatal development. The next three units examine development during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Within each unit, you will learn about key processes and issues related first to physical development, then to cognition (mental processes), and then to personality. Different subtopics will be emphasized in each lifespan stage. For instance, in the realm of cognitive development, language acquisition will be a major focus when you study childhood, since it is such a critical and amazing accomplishment of the early years. In adolescence, special attention will be given to how broad changes in thinking are linked specifically to growth in moral understanding. The course will conclude by exploring how humans approach and understand death.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to PSYCH302. Below, please find general information on the course and its requirements. 

Primary Resources: This course is composed of a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:

Note: This course will make use of several resources that require web browser add-ins.  Please confirm that you have the following plug-ins available on your computer, or download and install them from the provided web links.

For most of these plug-ins, you must close your web browser prior to installation. Be careful to choose the correct version for your specific operating system (e.g., Windows 7, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS, etc.).

Requirements for Completion: To complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. You will also need to complete the final exam.

To “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the final exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 69 hours to complete. Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit and then set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you 16 hours. Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete the first half of subunit 1.1 (a total of 2 hours) on Monday night, the second half of subunit 1.1 (a total of 2 hours) on Tuesday night, half of subunit 1.2 (a total of 2 hours) on Wednesday, and so forth. 

Tips/Suggestions: It may be helpful to take notes on the resources in each unit. These notes will be a useful study tool as you begin to prepare for your final exam.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • describe the fundamental issues encountered and assumptions made by psychologists who study development from the lifespan perspective;
  • discuss the interaction between and the roles of nature and nurture in lifespan development, including prenatal development;
  • describe the basic development of the human nervous system throughout the lifespan;
  • explain the developmental processes associated with the five senses;
  • describe the important developmental milestones and age expectations associated with motor skills, social skills, cognitive ability, sensory awareness, and the use of language;
  • discuss the important theories of cognitive development, including those of Piaget, Vygotsky, the information-processing approach, and the intelligence perspective;
  • discuss and contrast the nativist, behavioral-cognitive, functionalist, and learning stage theories of language development;
  • describe the developmental process of language, from cooing and babbling to mature language;
  • explain the important theoretical issues in the study of the development of personality;
  • discuss the most influential theories of personality development, including those of Freud, Erikson, Klein and Mahler, Bowlby, and Ainsworth;
  • explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, including the perspectives of its critics;
  • describe the physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescent development;
  • discuss the major issues of development in adulthood, including marriage and divorce, parenting, and midlife and later life physical and cognitive changes;
  • discuss how humans understand and approach death and grieving, including the extent to which there are similarities and differences related to age, personality, and culture; and 
  • describe the components and criticisms of Kübler-Ross’s theory regarding death.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course you must:

√    have access to a computer;

√    have continuous broadband Internet access;

√    have the ability/permission to install plug–ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash);

√    have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√    have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√    be competent in the English language;

√    have read the Saylor Student Handbook; and

√    have completed thefollowing course from “The Core Program” in the Psychology discipline: PSYCH101: Introduction to Psychology.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development  

    In order to help you build a firm base from which to explore the details of developmental processes, milestones, and stages, this unit will introduce you to central issues, theories, and methods in the study of lifespan development. While myriad theories historically and currently have guided our endeavors to discern how we become who we are, Paul Baltes, a contemporary German psychologist, formulated an overarching lifespan perspective on human development. Understanding the major features and assumptions of this perspective may especially help you see the processes of aging in a more positive light.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Basic Issues in Lifespan Development  
  • 1.1.1 What is Development?  
    • Reading: Connexions: Kelvin Seifert’s “Student Development: Why Development Matters”

      Link: Connexions: Kelvin Seifert’s “Student Development: Why Development Matters” (HTML, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, you will be taken to a webpage. Read this page in its entirety to gain an understanding of why psychologists study development and what, exactly, development means (especially as opposed to “learning”). Although this reading is drawn from a text geared specifically toward future educators of children, the issues it highlights regarding the nature of developmental trends are broadly applicable to the study of individuals throughout the lifespan. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.1.2-1.1.3. You may also download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. 

      Completing this assignment should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Kelvin Seifert under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0) 

  • 1.1.2 Universal versus Specific Trends  

    Note: This subunit is covered within the reading assigned for subunit 1.1.1. Focus on the third paragraph under the section, “Why Development Matters.”

  • 1.1.3 Sequenced Versus Kaleidoscopic Trends  

    Note: This subunit is covered within the reading assigned for subunit 1.1.1. Focus on the fourth paragraph under the section, “Why Development Matters.”

  • 1.1.4 Nurture versus Nature  
  • 1.1.4.1 Overview of the Nature-Nurture Debate  
    • Reading: Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Why Socialization Matters”

      Link: Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Why Socialization Matters” (HMTL, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read the webpage in its entirety for insight into one of the central debates of developmental psychologists: the role of nature (genetics) versus nurture (environment) in development. The contemporary view of psychologists is that these forces play essentially equally important and highly interactive roles in development. You may also download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. Note that this topic is also briefly touched upon in the reading for subunit 1.2.1.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0).

  • 1.1.4.2 The Role of Nature and Nurture in Personality  
  • 1.2 Major Developmental Theories  
  • 1.2.1 Overview of Theories  
  • 1.2.2 A Focus on Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory  
    • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Ecological Systems Theory”

      Link: Wikipedia’s “Ecological Systems Theory” (PDF)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, you will be taken to a webpage describing Ecological Systems Theory, which was originated by Urie Bronfenbrenner. He was a longtime Cornell University professor and cofounder of Head Start, a program that provides preschool and other services for low-income U.S. children and their families. Bronfenbrenner’s theory is one of the most influential contemporary developmental theories. To help you understand the five systems in his theory, try to identify at least three influences within each of those systems on your life as a young child.

      Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 1.3 An Overarching Lifespan Perspective  
    • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Paul Baltes”

      Link: Wikipedia’s “Paul Baltes” (PDF)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read the webpage in its entirety. While developmental psychologists work from many of the theoretical perspectives presented in the reading for subunit 1.2.1, there is an overarching framework that broadly guides thinking about human development. Paul Baltes was the key formulator of this modern “lifespan perspective.” Before you begin reading, think about how you expect to grow and change – or not – as you age. Compare your own assumptions about development with those of Baltes.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour. 

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 1.4 Research Methods for Studying Development  
  • 1.4.1 Data Collection Methods  
  • 1.4.2 General Study Designs  
    • Reading: William Trochim’s “Types of Designs”

      Link: William Trochim’s “Types of Designs” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read this page in its entirety. It reviews material on social science research designs and was also included in PSYCH202A: Research Methods.

      Reviewing this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. The Saylor Foundation is grateful to Professor William Trochim for his kind permission to reference students to this site.

  • 1.4.3 Designs Specifically for Studying Development  
  • 1.4.3.1 Cross-Sectional  

    Note: This subunit is covered in the reading assigned for subunit 1.2.1, in the upper section of the page, entitled “Subject and Methods.”

  • 1.4.3.2 Longitudinal  

    Note: This subunit is covered in the reading assigned for subunit 1.2.1, in the upper section of the page, entitled “Subject and Methods.”

  • 1.4.3.3 Cross-Sequential  

    Note: This subunit is covered in the reading assigned for subunit 1.2.1, in the upper section of the page, entitled “Subject and Methods.” In essence, cross-sequential studies employ a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.

  • 1.4.3.4 Family (Twin and Adoption) Studies  

    Note: This subunit is partly covered by the reading assigned for subunit 1.1.4.

  • Unit 2: Foundations of Development  

    This unit will focus on the biological foundations of life and the very first stage of human development: prenatal development, which takes place in the womb. Our understanding of prenatal development has grown a lot in recent years due to medical and technological innovations. Because much of our development in this stage is the result of physical transformations, these innovations have given us a much greater insight into the physical maturation of a fetus. However, there are a number of mental changes that the fetus undergoes (mostly due to brain growth). While this unit will focus primarily on the physical changes, it is important to recognize that these physical changes may play a role in the infant’s psychological development. 

    The unit begins with an overview of genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) influences on the beginnings of development and then presents the processes of prenatal development, with special focus on the brain. How do the processes of prenatal development enable the immediate survival of the newborn in the world? The unit concludes with a peek at the newborn’s critical sensory capacities and the newborn’s reflexive responses.  

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Genetic Influences on Development  
  • 2.1.1 Genotype versus Phenotype  
    • Reading: Connexions: Le Dinh Luong’s “Genetics in Classical Understanding”

      Link: Connexions: Le Dinh Luong’s “Genetics in Classical Understanding” (HTML, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the webpage in full. If you are already familiar with these concepts from courses in biology, you may skim this page for a briefer period. You may download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. Note that this reading covers subunits 2.1.1-2.1.4.

      This reading should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Professor Le Dinh Luong under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0).

  • 2.1.2 Dominant/Recessive Gene Inheritance  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned under subunit 2.1.1. Focus on the section entitled, “Lecture 29. Mendelian Discovery of Genes,” for information on this topic. 

  • 2.1.3 Pleiotropy  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned under subunit 2.1.1. Focus on the section entitled, “Lecture 31. Genetic Complex Traits,” for information on this topic.

  • 2.1.4 Polygenic Inheritance  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned under subunit 2.1.1. Focus on the section entitled, “Lecture 31. Genetic Complex Traits,” for information on this topic.

  • 2.1.5 Chromosome-Based Risk Factors for Prenatal Development  
  • 2.2 Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development  
  • 2.2.1 Gene (Nature) – Environment Interactions  
    • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Gene-Environment Interaction”

      Link: Wikipedia’s “Gene-Environment Interaction” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: In recent years, the nature versus nurture debate in developmental psychology has given way to a general acknowledgment that neither nature nor nurture can be wholly responsible for development and that development, in fact, occurs as a result of some interaction between the two. Just how these forces interact is still somewhat unknown, however. Click on the link above and read the webpage in its entirety, focusing especially on the examples relevant to early development in humans.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 2.2.2 The Effect of Maternal Health and Stress  
    • Reading: MedicineNet: WebMD, Inc.’s “Fetus to Mom: You’re Stressing Me Out!”

      Link: MedicineNet: WebMD, Inc.’s “Fetus to Mom: You’re Stressing Me Out!” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the above link, and then read all three pages of the article for an overview of how maternal health and stress can affect a fetus. To access each page of the article, click on “next” or the page number at the end of the text. Note that there are physical effects on both the mother and fetus due to maternal stress and the suggestions for how this should influence prenatal care. After you’ve read the article, return to page 1 and click on “Pregnancy Slideshow Pictures,” just under the title. Use the “next” button to click through all 23 pictures to review the stages of pregnancy and get a truly inside look at development inside the womb!

      Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3 Teratogens  
  • 2.2.3.1 Substances Crossing the Placental Barrier  
  • 2.2.3.2 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  
    • Reading: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDS)

      Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDS) (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above to learn about one of the most common teratogens affecting development in the womb. In the box entitled “FASD Topics,” first click on “Basics.” Read the page in full, minus the “Get Help” section. This part of the reading should take about 15 minutes. Then scroll to the top of page, and click on “Data & Statistics” in the box on the left. Read the brief section at the top, “In the United States,” and then explore whatever interests you on the remainder of the page.

      Exploring this resource should take approximately 20 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3 Stages of Prenatal Development  
  • 2.3.1 Germinal Stage of Development  
    • Reading: Healthline: Gale Encyclopedia of Children’s Health: Stephanie Dionne Sherk’s “Prenatal Development”

      Link: Healthline: Gale Encyclopedia of Children’s Health: Stephanie Dionne Sherk’s “Prenatal Development” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the article through the “fetal stage” (i.e., stop at the section entitled “Common Problems”). As you read, note the types of physical development that seem to come with each stage. With respect to the “germinal stage,” you should obtain a general understanding of the processes of fertilization, cleavage, and implantation. You may click on any embedded hyperlinks of interest to read associated content. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.3.1-2.3.3.

      Exploring this resource and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.2 Embryonic Stage of Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.3.1. You should obtain a general understanding of the processes of gastrulation and differentiation that are part of embryonic development. You do not need to memorize the specific developments that occur each week, but you should be able to describe a few developments that occur during this period.

  • 2.3.3 Fetal Stage of Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.3.1. You should obtain a general understanding of the fetal stage of development as a time of rapid growth and finalization of the structures that emerged in the embryonic stage. You do not need to memorize the specific developments that occur each week, but you should be able to describe a few developments that occur during this period.

  • 2.4 Maturation of the Central Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System  
  • 2.4.1 Brain Development by Age  
    • Lecture: YouTube: UC San Diego: Joan Stiles’s Lecture “Brain Development”

      Link: YouTube: UC San Diego: Joan Stiles’s Lecture “Brain Development” (YouTube)
       
      Also available in:
      Mp3
       
      Instructions: After clicking on the link above to access the video via YouTube, view this lecture in its entirety for an overview of early brain development. Note the physical changes in the brain before birth, through infancy, and after. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.4.1 and 2.4.2.

      Watching this video should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4.2 Brain Lateralization: Specialization  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1. The process of lateralization, which leads to the two hemispheres of the brain becoming specialized for different functions, contributes greatly to humans’ efficiency in processing information. 

  • 2.4.3 Abnormalities in the Developing Brain  
  • 2.5 Development of Senses  
  • 2.5.1 Vision  
    • Reading: Discovery Health: Rita Mullin’s “Senses in the Womb”

      Link: Discovery Health: Rita Mullin’s “Senses in the Womb (Adobe Flash)          
       
      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, click “continue” on the webpage, and then click on each of the dots associated with the five senses, reading through the information that appears for an overview of how the senses develop and change in utero and in infancy. Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.5.1-2.5.5.

      Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5.2 Hearing  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 2.5.1. In particular, on the Discovery Health website, click on the “dot” associated with the ears. Read the information that appears for an overview of how hearing develops and changes in utero and in infancy.

  • 2.5.3 Taste  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 2.5.1. In particular, on the Discovery Health website, click on the “dot” associated with the mouth. Read the information that appears for an overview of how the sense of taste develops and changes in utero and in infancy.

  • 2.5.4 Smell  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 2.5.1. In particular, on the Discovery Health website, click on the “dot” associated with the nose. Read the information that appears for an overview of how the sense of smell develops and changes in utero and in infancy.

  • 2.5.5 Touch  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 2.5.1. In particular, on the Discovery Health website, click on the “dot” associated with the hands. Read the information that appears for an overview of how the sense of touch develops and changes in utero and in infancy.

  • 2.5.6 Temperature Regulation  
  • 2.6 Reflexes: Sucking, Rooting, Moro, Galant, Stepping, Grasp  
  • Unit 3: Child Development  

    While the development process is unique to every individual, there are certain milestones that children reach in the course of normal development in their first few years. This unit begins by identifying these milestones and other expectations, with a focus on motor development and discussing what it means when these milestones are delayed or expectations are not met. It is important to note that these are just expectations – not requirements – for normal development.

    The unit then turns to cognitive development or changes in how individuals think and gain knowledge over time. This unit will focus on cognitive development in childhood (birth to about 11 years), but there is a growing body of literature on cognitive development in adolescence and adulthood, some of which will be addressed in later units. In childhood, cognitive processes are only beginning to take shape; the way they develop can dramatically affect our cognitive abilities as we further mature. Within the subunit on cognitive development, there will be special foci on the development of intelligence and of language. Intelligence, which is typically measured through an IQ (intelligence quotient), is reportedly a stable measure. But since we clearly gain more intelligence over our lifespan, how does the IQ remain stable over time? This is one of the key questions explored herein. Language is also one of the most complex human phenomena that psychologists study. When we talk about language in this unit, we do not just mean the audible aspect of it (though that is certainly a part of it) – we also mean the written word, grammar, sentence construction, and, of course, our ability to communicate meaning with it. Please note that many of the theories and explanations surrounding language development that we will learn in this unit have not been completely substantiated. You should ask yourself the extent to which these theories accurately and fully explain language development, identifying where they seem to fall short.

    The last major subunit will concern personality and socio-emotional development. Psychologists find it difficult to accurately and consistently test for personality traits and continue to refine their theories about the key elements and developmental trends of personality. As a result, little in the subfield of personality development is set in stone. Personality development research generally begins with the concept of infant temperament (or the way a baby behaves at an early age). Many psychologists are interested in how well early temperament predicts later personality traits. As you will learn, the relationship of temperament to an adult’s personality is tenuous at best, in part because of the various environmental factors contributing to personality development, from the type of early attachment bonds formed with caregivers to long-term exposure to a particular parenting style. 

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Physical Development: A Focus on Motor Development  
  • 3.1.1 Developmental Milestones and Age Expectations  
    • Reading: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “Developmental Milestones”

      Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s “Developmental Milestones” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This webpage contains links to important developmental ages and their associated developmental milestones. After clicking on the link above to open the website in your browser, use the links on the left under “Learn the Signs at Home” to review the milestones for the ages of 2 months through 5 years. While this resource focuses on developments in several domains, focus particularly on the milestones of physical development and how they interact with developments in other areas. For instance, how might learning to grasp objects connect to the changes in cognitive and social skills? Subunit 3.2.8 will cover language development in depth, but this resource will introduce you to the changes in language development.

      Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2 Processes of Motor Development  
  • 3.2 Cognitive Development: Major Theories of General Development, Intelligence, and Language  
  • 3.2.1 Piagetian Concepts in Cognitive Development  
    • Reading: Tufts Open Courseware: Anne Hurley’s “Cognitive Development: Overview”

      Link: Tufts Open Courseware: Anne Hurley’s “Cognitive Development: Overview” (HTML)

      Instructions: When learning about Piagetian theory, you will be introduced to a number of familiar terms that may be used in unfamiliar ways. In order to acquaint yourself with the terminology, click on the link above to access the lecture. It will provide an overview of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as well as key terms used in that theory. Scroll down to section II. Various Theorists of Development and read the entry on Jean Piaget. Then read section III. Important Piagetian Concepts in its entirety, including subsections A and B. This lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.2.1-3.2.1.9. It will also be a useful resource to consult while watching the video lectures in subunit 3.2.1.10, as it introduces the material covered in more depth in subunits 3.2.1.10-3.2.1.13 and 3.2.2.1-3.2.2.4.

      Studying this lecture should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Tufts OCW material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.

  • 3.2.1.1 Scheme  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of “scheme” in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

  • 3.2.1.2 Assimilation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of “assimilation” in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

  • 3.2.1.3 Accommodation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of accommodation in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

  • 3.2.1.4 Organization  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of organization in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

  • 3.2.1.5 Adaptation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of adaptation in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

  • 3.2.1.6 Equilibration  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of equilibration in the subsection entitled, “A. Piaget’s Four Factors that Influence Cognitive Behavior.”

  • 3.2.1.7 Object Permanence  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of object permanence in the subsection entitled, “1. Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years).”

  • 3.2.1.8 Egocentric/Egocentrism  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of egocentric in the subsection entitled, “2. Preoperational Period (0-2 years).”

  • 3.2.1.9 Conservation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. The term conservation refers to the understanding that changing the appearance of an object does not necessarily change the physical properties of that object; for example, rolling a ball of clay into a “worm” changes its shape but not its weight. The concept of conservation is introduced in the subsection entitled, “2. Preoperational Period (0-2 years),” and important changes in the ability to conserve are noted in subsection entitled, “3. Concrete Operations Period (7-11 years).”

  • 3.2.1.10 Piagetian and neo-Piagetian Theories  
    • Lecture: iTunes U: UMBC PSYC 200: Dr. David Schultz’s “Piaget Part 1” and “Piaget Part 2”

      Links: iTunes U: UMBC PSYC 200: Dr. David Schultz’s “Piaget Part 1”and “Piaget Part 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Scroll down the webpage to lectures 13 and 14, and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures. Watch the above lectures for an explanation of Piaget’s ideas and theories. These lectures will provide a foundation for you to understand more complicated aspects of Piaget’s theories and the theories of the neo-Piagetians that followed. In particular, note the information on constructivism. Note these lectures cover the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.1.10-3.2.1.13 and subunits 3.2.2.1-3.2.2.4. They also elaborate and illustrate many of the concepts introduced in subunits 3.2.1.1-3.2.1.9. 

      Viewing these lectures should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.1.11 Seriation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on seriation.

  • 3.2.1.12 Animism  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on animism.

  • 3.2.1.13 Centration  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on centration.

  • 3.2.2 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  
  • 3.2.2.1 Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to Two Years  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on the sensorimotor stage of development.

  • 3.2.2.2 Preoperational Stage: Two to Seven Years  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the preoperational stage of development.

  • 3.2.2.3 Concrete Operational Stage: Seven to Eleven Years  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the concrete operational stage of development.

  • 3.2.2.4 Formal Operational Stage: Eleven Years and Older  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the formal operational stage of development.

  • 3.2.3 Neo-Piagetian Theories  
  • 3.2.3.1 Case’s Theory  
  • 3.2.3.2 Fischer’s Theory  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.3.

    • Reading: Harvard Graduate School of Education: The Dynamic Development Lab: L. Todd Rose and Kurt Fischer's “Dynamic Systems Theories”

      Link: Harvard Graduate School of Education: The Dynamic Development Lab: L. Todd Rose and Kurt Fischer’s “Dynamic Systems Theories” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and then select the following link to download the PDF file: Rose, L. Todd, Fischer, Kurt W., (2009) Dynamic Systems Theories. In Shweder, Richard A., (Ed.), The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. pp 264–265. The University Of Chicago Press. Read the section titled “Dynamic Systems Theories,” which starts on the bottom left side of page 264 and continues until the section called “Psychoanalytic Theories” on the bottom of page 265. As you are reading, consider the ways in which neo-Piagetian theories differ from Piaget’s theory.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.4 Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory  
  • 3.2.4.1 Biology versus Cultural Factors  
    • Reading: Muskingum College: Department of Psychology’s “Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky”

      Link: Muskingum College: Department of Psychology: Christina Gallagher’s “Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the page in its entirety for a description of Vygotsky and his socio-cultural theory. Pay special attention to the comparison of Vygotsky and Piaget’s theories. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.4.1-3.2.4.4.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.4.2 The Zone of Proximal Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Note that Vygotsky’s ideas about the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

  • 3.2.4.3 What Determines a ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Note that Vygotsky’s ideas about how the ZPD is identified.

  • 3.2.4.4 Scaffolding  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Pay special attention to the important concept of scaffolding.

  • 3.2.5 Information Processing Approach  
  • 3.2.5.1 Computers versus the Brain  
  • 3.2.5.2 Continuous Processing  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.5.1. Pay particular attention to the section entitled, “Information Processing and Memory,” which starts on page 10.

  • 3.2.5.3 Domain-General Approach versus Domain-Specific Approach  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.5.1. Focus in particular on the section called, “Encoding,” on page 10.

  • 3.2.6 Intelligence  
  • 3.2.6.1 What Is Intelligence?  
  • 3.2.6.2 Measuring Intelligence: How Do We Measure It and What Are We Actually Measuring?  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.1.

  • 3.2.6.3 What is an Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Stanford and Binet  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. These lectures should provide you with a good understanding of what IQ actually means and is intended to measure.

  • 3.2.6.4 Influencing Intelligence  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. What environmental factors influence performance on intelligence tests? Also, to what extent does it appear that heredity versus the environment influences intelligence, and how might the forces of nature and nurture interact in their influence?

  • 3.2.6.5 Cultural Differences  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

  • 3.2.6.6 Spearman’s G Factor  
  • 3.2.6.7 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.6. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

  • 3.2.6.8 A Case for Emotional Intelligence  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.6. What exactly is meant by “emotional intelligence”? Do you believe it is as vital as the traditional concept of intelligence as a cognitive function? Why or why not?

  • 3.2.6.9 Wechsler and the WISC Test  
  • 3.2.6.10 The Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children  
    • Reading: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Child Trends: “Early Childhood Measures Profiles”

      Link: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Child Trends: “Early Childhood Measures Profiles” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: After following the above link, choose the link titled “Full Report in PDF Format” to download the PDF. Once you have downloaded the PDF, read the sections on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. As you read the descriptions of the measures, consider what you have learned so far about cognitive development and how these tests account for developmental stages. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.6.10-3.2.6.11.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.6.11 Bayley Scales of Infant Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned for subunit 3.2.6.10. Focus particularly on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

  • 3.2.7 Poverty’s Effect on Cognitive Development  
  • 3.2.8 Language Development  
  • 3.2.8.1 Theories of Language Development  
  • 3.2.8.1.1 Nativistic Approach  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Scroll down to the section titled, “NATIVIST,” and read this brief section for an overview of the nativistic approach to language development.

  • 3.2.8.1.2 Behavioral and Cognitive Models  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Focus in particular on the sections entitled, “Child External” and “Child Internal.”

  • 3.2.8.1.3 Functionalist Theory  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Focus in particular on the section entitled, “EMPIRICIST.”

  • 3.2.8.2 The Nature of Language  
    • Lecture: Kent State University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s “Language”

      Link: iTunes U: Kent State University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s “Language” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, and then select “View in iTunes” for the lecture titled “Language.” Listen to the above lecture on the nature of language in its entirety. This lecture will also discuss what ages tend to correlate with different stages of language development, which you also read about earlier in this course. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.8.2.1-3.2.8.2.7.

      Listening to this lecture should take approximately 20 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.8.2.1 Language at Birth: Hunger, Anger, Pain, Discomfort  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. Focus in particular on the discussion of language at birth.

  • 3.2.8.2.2 Cooing versus Babbling  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. Try to understand how cooing and babbling help the infant get his or her needs met.

  • 3.2.8.2.3 Echolalia and Expressive Jargon  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture should help explain the statement, “Monkey hear, monkey say.”

  • 3.2.8.2.4 Holophrastic Speech versus Telegraphic Speech  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. If you have ever been around a child less than two years old, you should have a good practical understanding of these two interesting language concepts.

  • 3.2.8.2.5 Morpheme versus Phoneme  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture provides an introduction to how linguists describe the structure of language.

  • 3.2.8.2.6 Stages of Language Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture will give you a good idea of how language develops over the first few years of life.

  • 3.2.8.2.7 Naming Explosion  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture describes the fun time in parents’ lives when their young children are acquiring words for things – nouns.

  • 3.2.8.2.8 Language Acquisition and Sex Differences  
  • 3.2.8.3 Bilingualism  
  • 3.2.8.4 Terms for Reference  
    • Reading: The Wandering Glitch: Andrew Matthews’ “Child Linguistic Development”

      Link: The Wandering Glitch: Andrew Mathews’ “Child Linguistic Development” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, click on “Child Linguistic Development” to download the PDF of the paper. A variety of unfamiliar terms may come up when studying language and language development, and it will likely be helpful to familiarize yourself with the terminology used since you may encounter these terms in the future. Read sections 6 through 10 of this paper (pages 17-26) as well as the glossary for a review of language stages and definitions of terms often used in the study of language development.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3 Personality and Socioemotional Development  
  • 3.3.1 Temperament  
  • 3.3.1.1 What is Temperament?  
  • 3.3.1.2 Measuring Temperament  
  • 3.3.1.3 Thomas and Chess’s Types of Temperament: Easy, Difficult and Slow-To-Warm-Up  
  • 3.3.1.4 Temperament versus Personality  
    • Reading: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Personality”

      Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Personality” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for an overview of the relationship between temperament and personality. After you read, consider the ways in which temperament differs from personality and how different personality types might be expressed through different temperaments.

      Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.
        
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.1.5 Temperament and Culture  
  • 3.3.1.6 The Influence of Heredity on Temperament  
  • 3.3.2 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Freud  
  • 3.3.2.1 The Id, Ego, and Superego  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This overview should give you a good description of Freud’s proposed personality structures and how they compete for “control.”

  • 3.3.2.2 Libido  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Freud’s theory concentrated on sex and sexual impulses. This is a good overview of how Freud viewed the role of the libido in development.

  • 3.3.2.3 Fixation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Freud was more interested in developmental problems than successes. In his theory, fixation is one of the primary causes of developmental issues.

  • 3.3.2.4 Theory of Psychosexual Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. As previously stated, Freud’s developmental ideas were based heavily on the role of innate sexual impulses. This lecture provides an overview of his stages of development.

  • 3.3.2.5 Oral Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. For Freud, early development was all about innate biological needs. This lecture discusses the stage characterized by the importance of oral stimulation.

  • 3.3.2.6 Anal Stage  

    Note: This topic is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. In the Freudian view, control over one’s biological functions was an important developmental issue. This lecture covers the anal stage of psychosexual development.

  • 3.3.2.7 Phallic Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This phase involves becoming aware of one’s genitals.

  • 3.3.2.8 Latency Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This lecture discusses the latency stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory, when sexual instincts are relatively low.

  • 3.3.2.9 Genital Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Late in development, Freud thought that the genitals played an important role in the development of “normal” sexual relationships.

  • 3.3.3 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Erikson  
    • Reading: Wikipedia: “Erik Erikson” and “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development”

      Link: Wikipedia: “Erik Erikson” and “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” (PDF)

      Instructions: First, for an introduction to this key theorist, click on the “Erik Erikson” link above, and read all sections of the webpage except “Erikson’s Theory of Personality.” Then, under that heading, click on “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development,” which more fully explicates Erikson’s theory and critiques of it. To help organize this information, you may wish to read this webpage and then leave it open as you listen to the lecture below. For now, focus on the first four stages of Erikson’s theory and the sections concerning the value and criticisms of the theory; the remaining stages will be a central focus in the units on adolescence and adulthood. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.3.1-3.3.3.5.

      Reading these resources should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of these articles here and here (HTML).

    • Lecture: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic2”

      Link: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, and then select “View in iTunes” for the lecture titled “Psychoanalytic 2.” Listen to this lecture in its entirety for an overview of Erikson’s theory of personality development in childhood. As you listen to the lecture, consider the ways in which Erikson’s theory differs from Freud’s theory. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.3.1-3.3.3.7.

      Watching this lecture should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3.3.1 Lifespan Approach to Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Erikson was the first major theorist to consider childhood development as simply the early part of a developmental process that spanned out entire lifetimes.

  • 3.3.3.2 Basic Trust versus Mistrust Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Infants are 100% dependent on their caregivers. They must learn very early in life to trust that their needs will be met, or their subsequent psychosocial will be affected negatively.

  • 3.3.3.3 Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. This stage is about developing a basic concept of self-control.

  • 3.3.3.4 Initiative versus Guilt Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Children start asserting their power and influence over their external world.

  • 3.3.3.5 Industry versus Inferiority Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. This is about developing a sense of one’s true self. Children at this stage are developing their self-esteem.

  • 3.3.3.6 Psychosocial Crises and Themes  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. These resources help describe how Erikson viewed the challenges of each psychosocial stage.

  • 3.3.3.7 The Importance of Social Context  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Erikson believed that development takes place within a social context and not in a vacuum.

  • 3.3.4 Object Relations Theory  
  • 3.3.4.1 Melanie Klein  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.4. In particular, review the section about Melanie Klein for an overview of a prominent object relations theorist and the basic ideas in her theory.

  • 3.3.4.2 Margaret Mahler  
  • 3.3.5 Attachment Theory  
  • 3.3.5.1 John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth  
  • 3.3.5.2 Ainsworth’s “Strange” Situation  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1.

    • Web Media: YouTube: “The Strange Situation – Mary Ainsworth”

      Link: YouTube: “The Strange Situation – Mary Ainsworth” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and watch the video for an overview of the presentation of secure, insecure-resistant, and insecure-avoidant attachment styles in the Strange Situation procedure. Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.5.2-3.3.5.5.

      Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage.

  • 3.3.5.3 Secure Attachment  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Pay close attention to what secure attachment “looks like” in this video clip.

  • 3.3.5.4 Insecure-Resistant Attachment  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Notice how distressed the child becomes when the parent leaves.

  • 3.3.5.5 Insecure-Avoidant Attachment  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. In the most extreme attachment situation, children decline attachment to parents or other caregivers.

  • 3.3.5.6 Disorganized Attachment  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Also sometimes referred to as disoriented attachment, children who exhibit this style of attachment produce mixed behaviors when parents reappear, such as approaching them with no emotion.

  • 3.3.5.7 Soothing and Tactile Stimulation  
  • 3.3.5.8 Attachment and Separation  
  • 3.3.5.9 Protest Stage  
  • 3.3.5.10 Despair Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.10. Read this webpage for a description of the despair stage of separation.

  • 3.3.5.11 Detachment Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.10. Read this webpage for a description of the detachment stage of separation.

  • 3.3.6 Parental Approaches: Implications for Children’s Social and Emotional Functioning  
  • 3.3.6.1 Baumrind's Parenting Styles  
  • 3.3.6.2 Authoritarian  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. It is widely understood that authoritarian parents tend to be very demanding. Be sure you understand their other important traits.

  • 3.3.6.3 Permissive  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Perhaps all children would prefer permissive parents. What are the “costs” of this parenting style?

  • 3.3.6.4 Authoritative  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Be sure you understand the differences between authoritarian and authoritative parents.

  • 3.3.6.5 Uninvolved  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Is being an uninvolved parent necessarily a “bad” thing? Is it “abnormal?”

  • 3.3.7 Types and Stages of Play  
    • Reading: Early Childhood News: Dr. Jill Englebright Fox’s “Back to Basics: Play in Early Childhood”

      Link: Early Childhood News: Dr. Jill Englebright Fox’s “Back to Basics: Play in Early Childhood” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read the webpage in its entirety for an overview of play in early childhood. This topic will help you integrate what you have learned about physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. As you read this article, consider how progression through Erikson’s psychosexual stages of childhood interacts with the types of play and about how personal temperament and exposure to different parenting styles may impact children’s play.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour. 
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 4: Adolescent Development  

    Child development and adolescent development are not necessarily distinct from one another; many of the processes that begin to take place toward later childhood (especially in terms of cognitive and personality development) will continue throughout adolescence. This is important to keep in mind, as in this unit, we focus on developmental changes and issues that are especially important if not unique to adolescence. As is well-known, adolescent development is characterized by rapid physical changes, including inward and outward signs of puberty; it is also marked by significant changes in the physical structure of the brain. Also, despite the continuity from childhood in some aspects of cognitive development, there are also some rather sudden changes in this domain. For example, as we will consider in-depth in one subunit, these changes often give way to shifts in how individuals think about moral dilemmas.  

    It is important to note that while adolescent development does involve a number of changes, these changes typically follow a systematic, or orderly, pattern. We have become increasingly aware of these patterns thanks to the recent discoveries concerning the physical changes that occur during this time (i.e., puberty) and the different psychological changes that these bring about.

    As in the unit on child development, we focus in turn on development in the physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional domains. 

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Physical Development: The Changes of Puberty  
  • 4.1.1 Hormonal Changes: Increased Growth Hormone  
    • Reading: BBC’s Science: Human Body and Mind: “Puberty”

      Link: BBC’s Science: Human Body and Mind: “Puberty” (HTML and Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, you will see a number of options for pages with information about puberty on the right side of your screen. Read the pages listed under “Facts and Features” on the right side of the page from “Growth” to “Sex.” When you’ve finished the page on “Sex,” in the box on the right-hand side of that page, click on the “puberty demo” (under “Interactive body”) for an interactive demonstration of the changes that take place at puberty. Note that this covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.1.1-4.1.4.

      Reading and interacting with this resource should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.2 Height Changes and Weight Changes  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. This will provide a good overview of the gross physical changes associated with puberty.

  • 4.1.3 Production of Sex Hormones  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. You should obtain a good overview of the onset of the production of sex hormones during puberty.

  • 4.1.4 Ages of Normal Onset: Females versus Males  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. Be sure you understand that there are individual differences in the onset of puberty.

  • 4.1.5 The Timing of Puberty  
  • 4.1.5.1 Historical Shifts in the Timing of Puberty  
    • Reading: Wikipedia: “Puberty”

      Link: Wikipedia: “Puberty” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read all parts of section 5 of the article (“Variations”), which includes information on historical shifts toward earlier puberty and the various factors that may contribute to individual differences in the timing of puberty, as well as broader population shifts. Note that some of the specific details about factors influencing puberty are not fully empirically supported; however, this article is important because it highlights the broad array of factors that may contribute to pubertal timing.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 4.1.5.2 Early vs. Late Maturing Females  
  • 4.1.5.3 Early vs. Late Maturing Males  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the readings assigned beneath subunit 4.1.5.2.

  • 4.1.6 Brain Development  
  • 4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence: A Focus on Moral Understanding  
  • 4.2.1 Kohlberg’s Theory and Stages of Moral Development  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2.The first part of the lecture provides an overview of Kohlberg’s thinking.

  • 4.2.2 Preconventional Stage: Punishment versus Obedience and Instrumental Hedonism  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 5.6. These two substages are about first learning “the rules” and then starting to understand how the rules apply to “me.”

  • 4.2.3 Conventional Stage: Approve Orientation and Law and Order Orientation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2. Pay particular attention to the concept of the “good boy/girl” and the development of a concept of the role of rules in the context of society as a whole.

  • 4.2.4 Postconventional Stage: Social Contract Morality and Individual Conscious/Principles  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2. These are Kohlberg’s highest levels of moral development.

  • 4.2.5 Gilligan’s Response to Kohlberg  
  • 4.2.6 Ethics of Care  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.5. Focus in particular on the section called, “The Care/Justice Dichotomy.”

  • 4.2.7 Do Women’s Moral Judgments Differ from Those of Men?  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.5. Exploring this question is the underlying issue of the article. Read the entire webpage for a good understanding of this important issue.

  • 4.3 Personality and Socio-Emotional Development  
  • 4.3.1 Ego-Centrism: Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable  
    • Reading: Wikipedia: “Egocentrism” and “Personal Fable”

      Link: Wikipedia: “Egocentrism” and “Personal Fable” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the first link above, then scroll down to and read the section “In Adolescence” for an overview of egocentrism in adolescence. Also click on the link above or within the Egocentrism article to learn more about the personal fables that adolescents create. You may recognize the term egocentrism from your readings on Piaget. Pay attention to the ways in which these constructs initially stemmed from Piagetian theory.

      Studying these two articles should take approximately 1 hour. 
       
      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of these articles here and here (HTML).

  • 4.3.2 Erikson’s Adolescent Stage and Marcia’s Extensions  
  • 4.3.2.1 Identity versus Role Confusion  
  • 4.3.2.2 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development  
  • 4.3.2.2.1 Identity Diffusion  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity diffusion, which is when a person has neither committed nor is exploring with respect to identity formation.

  • 4.3.2.2.2 Identity Foreclosure  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity foreclosure, which is when a person has committed without exploration.

  • 4.3.2.2.3 Identity Moratorium  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity moratorium, which is when a person is in exploration but has not committed.

  • 4.3.2.2.4 Identity Achievement  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity achievement, which is when a person has both explored and committed.

  • 4.3.3 Self-Esteem in Adolescence  
  • 4.3.4 Peer Relations in Adolescence  
  • 4.3.4.1 Adolescent Friendship  
  • 4.3.4.2 Sexuality in Adolescence  
  • 4.3.4.3 Moving from Same Sex Friendships to Opposite Sex Friendships  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.4.2. This is a milestone in adolescent development. Be sure you have a good understanding of the important factors in this transition.

  • 4.3.4.4 From Friendship to Dating  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.4.2. Life becomes more interesting – and challenging – as the stakes of friendship get higher.

  • 4.3.4.5 Sexual Assault and Dating Violence  
  • 4.3.4.6 Kinsey’s Sexual Behavior Research  
  • 4.3.5 Family Relations  
  • 4.3.6 Juvenile Delinquency  
  • 4.3.7 Illicit Substances  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.6. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

  • Unit 5: Adult Development  

    In the previous unit, we talked about how we develop as adolescents. This unit will look at the development that takes place during true adulthood. You should note that while various stages of development are aligned with certain ages, these age distinctions are just guidelines; some may suggest that adolescence ends (and adulthood begins) at 18 years, but there is no scientific evidence to substantiate this distinction. This notion becomes important when taking a look at adult development, because different developmental patterns can begin at different times for different adults. While early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood are roughly considered 18 to 40 years, 40 to 65 years, and 65 years-plus, for the purposes of this unit, we will largely leave age distinctions alone and focus instead on the developmental patterns themselves. While adulthood clearly comprises the largest portion of our lives, it may be the least-studied of the developmental stages.

    This unit will help you recognize how individuals are constantly changing and adapting based on earlier development. As in previous units, you will begin by exploring physical development, continue with cognitive development, and conclude with consideration of key issues in personality and socio-emotional development. As you progress through the unit, ask yourself this: What sorts of connections can I identify between development in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood?

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Physical Development: Effects of Aging  
  • 5.1.1 Physical Changes in Early Adulthood  
  • 5.1.2 Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.1.1. Note that most of the physical changes that occur in this stage are relatively subtle, except perhaps menopause. Focus in particular on the description of the physical process of menopause and the discussion of how it is viewed in different cultures and its evolutionary benefits.

  • 5.1.3 Physical Changes in Late Adulthood  
  • 5.1.4 Dementia  
    • Reading: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Mental Health: “Dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease”

      Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Mental Health: “Dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease” (HTML)

      Instructions: While dementia is not solely a disease of late adulthood, it is increasingly of concern then. Click on the link above and read this webpage in full. After reading this page, you should be able to define “dementia” and give a few examples of different forms of it. You should also glean a general understanding of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia.

      Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.5 The Personal and Societal Effects of Aging  
  • 5.1.5.1 An Aging Population  
    • Reading: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “The State of Aging and Health in America Report”

      Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “The State of Aging and Health in America Report” (PDF)

      Instruction: Click on the link above; then under the section at the top entitled “The State of Aging and Health in America Report,” click on “2007” to access the 2007 version of the report. Scroll through the report to the section, “An Introduction to the Health of Older Americans” (pages 10-15 of the PDF or 2-7 of the report itself). Read this section to gain insight into the rapidly aging U.S. population and the challenges this presents for individuals and their caregivers.

      Reading and analyzing this resource should take approximately 45 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.5.2 Ageism  
    • Reading: Connexions: Ruth Dunn’s Minority Studies: A Brief Sociological Text: “Part IV: Aging” and Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Challenges Facing the Elderly”

      Link: Connexions: Ruth Dunn’s Minority Studies: A Brief Sociological Text: “Part IV: Aging” and Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Challenges Facing the Elderly” (HTML, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: One of the many consequences of physical aging are the changes in how individuals are perceived by others they know personally as well as by society at large. After clicking on the first link above, scroll down to and read the section entitled “Societal Attitudes Toward Aging.” Then, click on the second link to read more about ageism and other difficulties frequently faced by older individuals. Additionally, complete the multiple-choice quiz and short answer exercises at the end of the page. You may also download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. Note that these readings also cover the material you need to know for subunits 5.1.4.6 and 5.1.4.7.

      Reading and interacting with these resources should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0).

  • 5.1.5.3 Poverty in Late Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and activities assigned beneath subunit 5.1.5.2. Focus on the first main section of the reading, “Challenges Facing the Elderly.”

  • 5.1.5.4 Elder Abuse  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and activities assigned beneath subunit 5.1.5.2. Focus on the section entitled, “Mistreatment and Abuse,” in the reading, “Challenges Facing the Elderly.”

  • 5.2 Cognitive Development: Effects of Aging  
  • 5.2.1 Aging and Memory  
  • 5.2.2 Aging and Intelligence  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.2.1.

  • 5.3 Personality and Social Development in Adulthood  
  • 5.3.1 Erikson’s Stages of Adulthood  
  • 5.3.1.1 Intimacy versus Isolation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1. This stage concerns the common drive during early adulthood to forge a lasting partnership with another individual.

  • 5.3.1.2 Generativity vs. Stagnation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1. This stage is about middle adulthood and involves trying to “leave one’s mark” on the world, often by having children.

  • 5.3.1.3 Integrity versus Despair  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1. During the last decades of life, adults reflect on their accomplishments or lack thereof.

  • 5.3.2 Levinson’s Lifespan Changes: Early versus Middle versus Late Adulthood Stages  
    • Reading: Dr. Russell A. Dewey’s Psychology: An Introduction: “Stages of Life”

      Link: Dr. Russell A. Dewey’s Psychology: An Introduction: “Stages of Life” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for an overview of Levinson’s stages. Note the comparison to Erikson’s stages near the end of the page. Also note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 5.3.2.1-5.3.2.3.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.2.1 Early Adult Transition and Early Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.2. Levinson viewed early adulthood as the most productive time of life. Do you agree?

  • 5.3.2.2 Midlife Transition and Middle Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.2. According to Levinson, this is the phase in which many people experience their “midlife crisis.” 

  • 5.3.2.3 Late Adulthood Transition and Late Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.2. A major aspect of the transition is retirement, which may be especially challenging for men and women whose lives were strongly built around their careers.

  • 5.3.2.4 Midlife Crises  
    • Reading: Wikipedia: “Midlife Crisis”

      Link: Wikipedia: “Midlife Crisis (PDF)

      Instructions: While Daniel Levinson’s research on life stages suggested that a majority of men experience midlife crises, follow-up research involving more diverse participants suggested that this is not the case. Click on the link above and read the page in its entirety for a detailed exploration of the concept of “midlife crisis” and relevant research findings.

      Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML). You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 5.3.3 Adult Attachment  
  • 5.3.3.1 Adult Attachment Theory  
    • Reading: The University of Illinois: R. Chris Fraley’s “A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research”

      Link: The University of Illinois: R. Chris Fraley’s “A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and review this webpage in its entirety. First, skim the sections “Background: Bowlby’s Attachment Theory” and “Infant Attachment Patterns” for review of concepts examined earlier in this course. Then closely read the rest of the article for an understanding of attachment theory applied to adult relationships. How does attachment theory differ when it is applied to infants and small children, versus adolescents, versus adults? Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 5.3.3.1 and 5.3.3.2.

      Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.3.2 Styles of Adult Attachment  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.2.1. Focus especially on the interesting discussion of the differences and similarities in adult and childhood attachment.

  • 5.3.4 Marriage and Divorce  
  • 5.3.4.1 Marriage and Conflict  
  • 5.3.4.2 Conflict Following Divorce  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. This reading should give you a good understanding of the factors that are most important with respect to postdivorce conflict.

  • 5.3.4.3 Effects on Parenting  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. Parenting through and after divorce is extremely challenging.You should achieve a good understanding of what circumstances affect post-divorce parenting.

  • 5.3.4.4 Effects on Children  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. Although this is just a summary of a huge area of study, this should provide a good overview of how children can be affected by divorce.

  • 5.3.4.5 Custodial Fathers versus Custodial Mothers  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. What are the important differences between maternal and paternal child custody, if any?

  • 5.3.4.6 Trends in Divorce – Past versus Recent  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. You should try to achieve a good understanding of how divorce has changed and is changing.

  • 5.3.4.7 Remarriage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.4.1. How common is remarriage, and what personal factors contribute to whether one tends to remarry after divorce? How does remarriage of their parents tend to impact children, both when they are young and when they grow up and contemplate marriage for themselves?

  • 5.3.5 Gay and Lesbian Parents  
  • 5.3.6 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging  
    • Reading: Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Theoretical Perspectives on Aging”

      Link: Connexions: OpenStax College’s “Theoretical Perspectives on Aging” (HTML, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: As you conclude your study of adult development, how do you feel overall about the prospect of aging and how it will affect your everyday life? Theorists have forwarded a multitude of perspectives concerning the typical experiences and social role of individuals in late adulthood. After clicking on the link above, read the webpage in full and complete the multiple-choice quiz and short answer exercises at the end of the page to ensure that you can distinguish among the theoretical perspectives and to help you fully reflect on the contents of the reading. Note especially, within the symbolic interactionist perspective, the theory of selective optimization with compensation – and its origination with Paul Baltes – the father of the lifespan perspective whom you read about in detail in the first unit of this course. You may download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. 

      Reading this resource and completing the quiz should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0).

  • Unit 6: The End of Life: Death and Grieving  

    A course on lifespan development would be incomplete without considering how humans perceive and cope with the end of life. Reflect for a minute on your earliest memories of dealing with the death of a family member, friend, or even a beloved pet. What did you think it meant when you heard that this person or animal had died? Did you understand that death is permanent and universal? What emotions did you experience and how did you express your grief? Now think about how your understanding of and feelings about death have changed as you have progressed through childhood to your current stage of life. As this unit will illustrate, there are many commonalities in how individuals perceive death at particular stages of the lifespan and in how people cope with the process of dying or with the loss of loved ones. But, as with development in any domain, there is also much individual variation in perceptions and feelings regarding death, reflective of variation in personality traits as well as in individual and cultural influences.
     
    This unit begins with a broad consideration of the meaning of death and of developmental trends in our understanding of death from childhood through adulthood. Next, the unit examines common feelings about and ways of coping with dying, with special attention to the theory of Kübler-Ross and criticisms of that theory and to issues especially relevant in the last weeks and days of life. The unit concludes with a look at contemporary research on the grieving process.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Defining Death  
    • Reading: PsyPlexus: Mental Health Reviews: Aditi Singh, Digvijay Singh, and S. H. Nizamie’s “Death and Dying”

      Link: PsyPlexus: Mental Health Reviews: Aditi Singh, Digvijay Singh, and S. H. Nizamie’s “Death and Dying” (HTML)

      Instructions: How do you personally define death as a biological, personal, and cultural occurrence? After clicking on the link above, read the review in its entirety. At the bottom of the first page, click on “View Page 2” to access the second and final page of the article. Note that this article also covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.2.1, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.4.1, 6.5.1, and 6.5.2.1-6.5.2.3.

      Reading and analyzing this article should take approximately 2 hours.

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by PsyPlexus under a Creative Commons Attriubution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 1.0 Generic License (CC BY-NC-SA 1.0).

  • 6.2 How Understanding of Death Changes across the Lifespan  
  • 6.2.1 Cognitive Understanding of Death in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood  

    Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1.

  • 6.2.2 Discussing Death with Children and Adolescents  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.2.1. Use this reading to help you think about how to apply your knowledge of children’s understanding of death to most sensitively help children deal with the loss of family members and friends.

  • 6.3 Death Anxiety  
  • 6.3.1 Personal Factors Associated with Death Anxiety  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. Focus on the section of this reading entitled, “Death Anxiety and Its Correlates”.

  • 6.3.2 Theories of Death Anxiety  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. Focus on Freud’s concept of the death instinct as well as the terror and meaning management theories.

  • 6.4 Kübler-Ross’s Theory of Dying  
    • Reading: Connexions: OpenStax College’s: “The Process of Aging”

      Link: Connexions: OpenStax College’s: “The Process of Aging” (HTML, PDF, or ePub)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, please scroll down to and read in its entirety the section entitled “Death and Dying” for a general overview on research and critical issues in the study of death and dying, or thanatology. Also, scroll down further to the “Short Answer” section of the page and complete Exercise 1. Note that this reading also covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.4.1 and 6.5.2.4. You may download the PDF or ePub version of this text by clicking on the appropriate link under “Download” at the bottom of the webpage. 

      Reading this resource and completing the quicz should take approximately 30 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed by Rice University under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 3.0).

  • 6.4.1 Stages of Kübler-Ross’s Theory: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the readings assigned beneath subunits 6.1 and 6.4. Focus on the general behaviors and feelings that characterize individuals in each of these hypothesized stages of experience when facing death.

  • 6.4.2 Criticisms of Kübler-Ross’s Theory  
  • 6.5 Imminent Death  
  • 6.5.1 Physical Processes  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. What happens physically in the final days, hours, and minutes of life? 

  • 6.5.2 Coping with Dying  
  • 6.5.2.1 Roles of Religion and Spirituality  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. How can religion or a broader sense of spirituality help those who know they are dying?

  • 6.5.2.2 Psychotherapy  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. Psychotherapy may also help many terminally ill patients.

  • 6.5.2.3 Palliative Care  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.1. What exactly is palliative care?

  • 6.5.2.4 Dying with Dignity  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.4. What does it mean to “die with dignity” and why has this issue caused controversy? 

  • 6.6 Contemporary Research on Grief  
    • Web Media: Groks Science Radio Show and Podcast: “Good Grief”

      Link: Groks Science Radio Show and Podcast: “Good Grief” (mp3)

      Instructions: After clicking on the link above, select “Listen to Episode” to hear an interview with Columbia University Prof. George Bonanno concerning his and others’ research on the experience of grief.

      Listening to this lecture should take approximately 30 minutes. 

      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).

  • Final Exam  

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