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Cultural Psychology

Purpose of Course  showclose

Cultural Psychology reviews the cultural, community, and ecological factors that play a role in how people perceive their environment.  It is the integration of the nature and nurture phenomenas, whereby an individual’s psyche is determined, or at least influenced, by both that individual’s culture and those other cultures to which the individual is exposed.  This may include many layers and levels, such as those discussed by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, including the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.

For example: On a small scale, it is easy to see how an individual living in New York City would encounter different psychosocial stressors than a person living on a farm in Iowa might.  On a much larger scale, a person living in the United States may differ greatly, in cultural terms, from an individual living in China.  It may be easy to tell that two cultures are different from one another, but identifying exactly what we mean—and all that is encompassed—when we speak about “culture” can be much more difficult.  Culture can include everything from ancient religion, gender constructs, race/ethnicity, and regional differences, to the effect of new technologies or artistic movements.  All of these aspects of culture can affect an individual’s psychology.

It is salient to note that culture differs from individual to individual, because two people growing up in the same type of environment may internalize situations and environmental factors differently based upon their own makeup and past experiences of which they use to filter the new experiences.

It is important to note that cultural psychology is a relatively new field of psychology and, as such, many questions in the field remain unanswered.  And since psychology has largely developed out of a Western philosophical tradition, the information in the field is mostly from a Western (Western European and North American) cultural standpoint.  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders had begun to address this through culture-bound syndromes, although many of the other disorders have yet to address some cultural differences in the means in which a person may present with them or other cultural considerations.  For example, hearing the voice of a person who has passed away may be considered a normal part of bereavement for some persons of Native American or Latino cultures, while other people may view it as abnormal and seek to label the patient/client as having depression with psychotic features or the like.

The goal of this course is to investigate the ways in which culture can affect aspects of that individual’s psychology.  We begin by reviewing the history and major theories of cultural psychology before moving on to a more in-depth examination of culture and its relationship to cognition, intelligence, emotion, motivation, and behavior.  We end the course with a discussion of how human development and psychological disorders are affected by culture.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to PSYCH403.  Below, please find some general information on the course and its requirements.

Course Designers: Nick Affrunti, Dr. Bender, and Krystle Hays-Hurd

Primary Resources: This course is composed of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:

  • iTunesU lectures from professors around the globe
  • YouTube videos

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit andall of its assigned materials.  You will also need to complete a final exam.  In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the final exam.  Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 71 hours to complete, not including the final examination.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  These should help you plan your time accordingly.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit and then set goals for yourself.  For example, Unit 1 should take you 11 hours.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (a total of 7 hours) on Monday and Tuesday nights, subunit 1.2 (a total of 1 hour) on Wednesday night, and subunit 1.3 (a total of 3 hours) on Thursday night, and so forth.

Tips/Suggestions: It is recommended that with each unit and subunit, you reflect on your own cultural values and beliefs, as well as utilize the knowledge you are gaining in this class in order to help you learn more about other cultures around you. 

Also, it is of utmost importance to ensure that you are aware that cultural concepts are generalized in many senses, but all humans are also shaped by their individual experiences, so these concepts are fluid and dynamic.  This course is applicable in all fields in order to broaden your basis of understanding regarding cultural constructs.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Identify current trends in contemporary cultural psychology and compare and contrast these concepts with historical and empirical psychological theory.
  • Compare and contrast variations in cognitive processes and expectations amongst cultures.
  • Describe the difference between measuring and quantifying intelligence within different cultural groups, including culturally normed assessment tools.
  • Explain the study of intercultural relations and communication.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of theories of cultural differences in affective expression, including both culture-specific and universal concepts.
  • List factors of motivation and cultural implications.
  • Identify the stages of human development, including racial and ethnicity-specific developmental theories with a focus on comparing and contrasting individualistic and collectivistic themes.
  • List the criteria for various psychological disorders, including cultural adaptations and culture-bound syndromes. 

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g. Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Have competency in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

√    Have completed the following courses listed in the Core Program of the Psychology Discipline: PSYCH101: Introduction to Psychology.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: The History and Theories of Cultural Psychology  

    Our first unit explores the history and prevailing theories of cultural psychology.  This unit serves as an introduction to the way cultural psychology has developed as a topic of study.  As mentioned in the course introduction, the history of cultural psychology is somewhat limited, partly because many major psychological findings have traditionally been considered true for all individuals, regardless of cultural background.  In this unit, we review some of the ways this belief has been shown to be false.  We also investigate several current theories pertaining to how psychology can be understood in cultural terms.  While these theories are not all-encompassing, they make important contributions to the field.  As such, it will be important to keep these theories in mind as we progress through the different units.  

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 The History of Cultural Psychology  
  • 1.1.1 The Nature vs. Nurture Debate: How Psychology Answered this Question  
  • 1.1.2 The 20th Century: Replacing Ethnocentrism with Appreciation  
  • 1.1.3 The Influence of Anthropology and Sociology  
    • Reading: DifferenceBetween.net’s “Anthropology vs Sociology”

      Link: DifferenceBetween.net’s “Anthropology vs Sociology” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Review the definitions, history, and focus of anthropology and sociology.  This will introduce you to the concepts and help you compare and contrast in order to distinguish them from one another and see the value in both of them.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.4 Social Psychology and the Study of Culture  
    • Lecture: iTunesU: Harrisburg Area Community College: Professor David Bailey’s “Social Psychology”

      Link: iTunesU: Harrisburg Area Community College: Professor David Bailey’s “Social Psychology” (iTunesU Audio)
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from the Harrisburg Area Community College.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “Social Psychology,” item number 19.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the lecture.  Please listen to the presented audio related to how culture and society can affect an individual person’s thoughts, perceptions, and feelings.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.5 Current Topics in Cultural Psychology Discussions  
  • 1.1.6 Integration of Culture and Psychology  
  • 1.1.7 Shared Elements: Shared Practices and Shared Meanings  
  • 1.1.8 Evolution and Culture  
  • 1.1.9 The Eco-cultural Approach: An Inability to Separate Person and Environment  
  • 1.1.10 Distinction Between Cultural Psychology and Sociology and Anthropology  
  • 1.1.11 Sociobiology: How Society Can Affect Biology  
    • Reading: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s “Sociobiology”

      Link: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s “Sociobiology” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read the information regarding sociobiology, a synthesis of sociology and biology and a review of how certain cultures survive in their environments, a term coined byE. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975).  You may also choose to read this original work for your reference by navigating to the PDF of the same name, although not required for the course.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2 Functions of Culture  
  • 1.2.1 The Adjustment Function  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath unit 1.2.  Focus specifically on how culture plays a role regarding social adjustment. 

  • 1.2.2 Ego-Defense  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath unit 1.2.  Focus specifically on how culture keeps our ego intact and may contribute to the shaping of our personalities.   

  • 1.2.3 The Pleasure Function and Value Expressive  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath unit 1.2.  Focus specifically on how culture helps us to create interpretations and perspectives based on our value systems. 

  • 1.2.5 Culture and Personality  
  • 1.3 Prevailing Theories of Cultural Psychology  
  • 1.3.1 Cultural Psychology and Ethnocentrism  
  • 1.3.2 Indigenous Theories of Psychology  
  • 1.3.3 Culture Mixes: Interconnected and Mixing Cultures  
    • Web Media: Vimeo: Multiracial Identity’s Documentary, “Multiracial Identity”

      Link: Vimeo: Multiracial Identity’s Documentary, “Multiracial Identity” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please watch this brief video to learn how race mixing/ multiracism and culture mixing/multiculturalism have significant social, religious, and personal implications, in the past and present, because of the change they represent to the status quo.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.3.4 Evolutionary Framework of Culture  
  • 1.3.5 Separating Understanding and Judging  
    • Reading: Diversity Training Today: Deborah Swallow’s “Understanding Cultural Differences”

      Link: Diversity Training Today: Deborah Swallow’s “Understanding Cultural Differences” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please review the webpage in its entirety to gather knowledge related to communicating across cultures.  The concepts posed are those of awareness and acceptance of differences in order to diffuse judgments that may arise based on a lack of information about another culture leading to stereotypes and other maladaptive culture communications and interactions.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.3.6 Investigating Cultural-Historical Change  
  • Unit 2: Cognition  

    This unit focuses on how culture influences cognition (our thought processes).  While many of the processes of cognition are thought to be the same for all humans, there is some evidence that our experience with the environment can shape some of the ways we use cognition.  Each culture creates a certain set of expectations that we use to interpret and understand the stimuli with which we constantly deal.  Think, for example, about television.  We understand that the people on television are somewhere else and are broadcasted to our TV because we live in a culture in which most individuals use TV in their daily lives.  However, if your culture had never seen or used a TV before, you might not know what to think when seeing someone on a television.  While this example is somewhat simplistic, it relays one of the major messages of this unit: Our cognitive processes are, in fact, dependent on our cultural environment.  This unit also investigates the ways in which cognitive processes (like the perception of time and consciousness) can be affected by culture.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Sensation and Perception  
  • 2.1.1 The Perceptual Set  
  • 2.1.2 Factors Influencing Perception: Physical, Environmental, Genetic, Socialization, and Acculturation  
  • 2.1.3 Illusion Susceptibility  
  • 2.1.4 The Learned Tendency Hypothesis  
  • 2.1.5 The Use of Color Terms Across Cultures  
    • Reading: American Psychological Association: Rachel Adelson’s “Hues and Views”

      Link: American Psychological Association: Rachel Adelson’s “Hues and Views” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This article reveals the impact of language on the use of color terminology across cultures.  Please read it in its entirety and reflect on your own use of color terms in your own life, including your tendency to become more specific in the denotation of shades or generalize in color genres.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
       

  • 2.2 Time Appraisal  
  • 2.2.1 Monochronic Time  
  • 2.2.2 Linear and Clock Driven Systems  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 Focus specifically on the consideration of monochronic or polychronic cultures and if either appears to utilize and follow a linear time system. 

  • 2.2.3 A Closed System of Time  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 Focus specifically on if time is seen as fluid or closed in monochronic and polychronic systems. 

  • 2.2.4 Individualistic Cultures: Appointment and Schedule Oriented  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 Focus specifically on if time if followed in a regimented way or if it is more dynamic in both monochronic and polychronic cultures.  

  • 2.2.5 Polychronic Time  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 Focus specifically on the differences between monochronic and polychronic cultural communities.  

  • 2.2.6 Cyclical and Nature Driven System  
  • 2.2.7 Collectivist Cultures: People Oriented  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 and the web media in subunit 2.2.6.  Both of these resources cover information regarding collectivist and individualist cultures, including the differences between them, particularly as they relate to time and social interactions. 

  • 2.2.8 Interactions Between Monochronic and Polychronic Time Systems  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.2.1 and the web media in subunit 2.2.6.  Both of these resources provide information regarding the monochronic and polychronic time systems, including their primary traits and the core differences amongst them. 

  • 2.3 States of Consciousness: Dreams  
  • 2.3.1 Cultural Perspectives of Dreams  
  • 2.3.2 Material Societies: Monophasic  
  • 2.3.3 Activation Synthesis Theory  
  • 2.3.4 Spiritual Societies: Polyphasic  
  • 2.3.5 Different Meanings for Dreams Across Cultures: Christian, Native American, Chilean, Australian Aborigines, African Tribes  
  • 2.4 States of Consciousness: Trance and Meditation  
  • 2.4.1 What is a Trance?  
  • 2.4.2 Visionary vs. Possession  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1.  Please focus on the contrast among religion, mysticism, and occultism. 

  • 2.4.3 Inducing Trances: Music, Dance, Song, Drugs and Suggestion  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1. Pay particular attention to the section entitled “Methods of Altering Consciousness.”

  • 2.4.4 Meditation  
  • 2.4.5 Meditation vs. Prayer  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.4. Please review the differences between meditation and prayer as they are presented in this document in a compare and contrast format. 

  • 2.4.6 Poloma Study: Number of Americans that Believe in Prayer  
  • Unit 3: Intelligence  

    Intelligence is a difficult concept to define, even within one culture.  In the West, the concept of “intelligence” started out as a general measure of knowledge and understanding, but it has come to mean everything from emotional acuity to academic potential and everything in between.  It has come to be thought of as essential to success.  However, this idea may not be shared by, or may be construed in a different manner within, other cultures.  The West has even developed tests (like IQ tests) that aim at measuring one’s intelligence.  However, because these tests are based on the Western idea of intelligence, they may fail to accurately measure intelligence in another culture. 

    In this unit, we will review the different ways intelligence has been defined, both as part of Western psychology and across different cultures.  We will also ask how, by changing how we understand intelligence, we must change how we measure and quantify it.  

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Models of Intelligence  
  • 3.1.1 Spearman’s G-Factor: Verbal, Quantitative and Spatial  
    • Reading: Bryn Mawr University’s “Understanding Intelligence”

      Link: Bryn Mawr University’s “Understanding Intelligence” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please navigate to the provided link and select author Xuan-Shi, Lim.  The listings provided are in alphabetical order.  Then click on the article title as shown above.  Please utilize this information to help you compare and contrast multiple intelligences as proposed by different well-known theoristsNote that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.1.2–3.1.3.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.2 Can We Have Multiple Intelligences?  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.1.1.  Please focus on the concept of multiple intelligence as posed by Gardner and the different ways that people learn and retain information—there is no universal means of information processing

  • 3.1.3 Sternberg’s Three Intelligences: Componential, Experiential, and Contextual  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.1.1. Please review Sternberg’s three intelligences that he posed in challenge to the psychometric approach to intelligence.

  • 3.2 Measuring Intelligence  
  • 3.2.1 The Traditional Tests: The Stanford-Binet Scale and Wechsler Scale  
  • 3.2.2 Does Speed Equal Intelligence?  
  • 3.2.3 Does Intelligence Change over Time?  
  • 3.2.4 Cultural Biases: Based on Dominant Culture  
  • 3.2.5 Possible Cultural Differences in Tests  
  • 3.3 Group Differences in Testing  
  • 3.3.1 Biological and Genetic Factors: Twin and Adoption Studies of Intelligence  
  • 3.3.2 Environmental Factors: Resources  
  • 3.3.3 The Influence of Nutrition on IQ  
  • 3.3.4 The Influence of Technology on IQ  
  • 3.3.5 Family Factors on IQ: SES, Parental Education, Birth Order, and Family Size  
  • 3.3.6 Nature vs. Nurture in IQ Testing: Snyderman & Rothman Experiment  
  • 3.4 Cultural Cognitive Styles  
  • 3.5 Reasoning  
  • 3.5.1 Types of Reasoning: Formal vs. Informal  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.5.  Please focus on formal reasoning, or logic, and informal reasoning, or intuition, to learn the material required for this subunit. 

  • 3.5.2 Different Cultural Norms in Reasoning  
  • Unit 4: Emotion  

    There are a number of different theories that aim to explain why and how we have emotions because it is impossible to prove whether they are right and wrong.  Even something as seemingly straightforward as the definition of an emotion is a source of disagreement.  Emotion is a particularly interesting topic because of its intensely personal nature; what makes one person mad will not necessarily make another person mad.  That is, emotions are highly subjective—both on a personal level and in terms of cultural norms as well.  Certain emotions are more likely to be felt, or expressed, in certain cultures as a result of set of stimuli.  This leads us to the question of whether an individual’s culture plays a role in determining a person’s emotional response.  There are two theoretical models that aim to answer this question: one argues that emotions are culture-specific and the other claims that there are universal emotions.  You will learn about them both here, recognizing that the debate as to which is correct continues to this day.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Innate Emotions  
    • Web Media: Walden University: Dr. Gordon Vessels’ “Emotion”

      Link: Walden University: Dr. Gordon Vessels’ “Emotion” (PowerPoint)
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link and navigate to line item “Contemporary Issues in Psychology 6—Walden” and the corresponding PowerPoint presentation entitled “Emotion” and click “slide show” to download the file. You may also choose to gain additional background in this domain and review the lecture notes that accompanythis title by clicking “Yes” under the corresponding lecture link.  Please review the PowerPoint presentation regarding the development and measurement of emotional responses.  Note that this presentation covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.1.3–4.1.6.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.1.1 The Traditional Theory of Emotions  
  • 4.1.2 Six Innate Emotions: Happiness, Anger, Disgust, Sadness, Fear, and Surprise  
  • 4.1.3 Plutchik’s (2002) Eight Innate Emotions: Joy, Sadness, Acceptance, Disgust, Fear, Anger, Surprise and Anticipation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1.  Please review Plutchik’s theories of the eight innate emotions as presented by the author. 

  • 4.1.4 Plutchik Based his Model on Opposite Spectrums  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1.  Please review how Plutchik developed his model of emotional development. 

  • 4.1.5 Evolutionary Base to Models  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1.  Please focus on the biological basis of emotions. 

  • 4.1.6 Plutchik’s Emotion Pairs: The Creation of Feelings  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1.  Please pay particular attention to the pairs of emotions that Plutchik discussed in his theory and how this creates the phenomenon of feelings. 

  • 4.2 Theories of Emotion  
  • 4.2.1 James-Lange Two-Stage Process  
    • Reading: AllPsych Online’s “Emotion Theories”

      Link: AllPsych Online’s “Emotion Theories” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please review the differing theories of emotion, and decide for yourself which you most identify with based on your own background, perception, and knowledge.  Please read and compare and contrast the different theories of emotion.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.2.2–4.2.4.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.2 Physiological Arousal Leads to Innate Emotions  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.1.  Please focus on how many of the theories rely on physiological arousal as the basis for inward and outward experiences of emotions. 

  • 4.2.3 James-Lange: Emotions as Universal Processes  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.1.  Please pay particular attention to the James-Lange theory of emotions

  • 4.2.4 Schacter & Singer’s Two-Factor Theory  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.1.  Please pay particular attention to Schacter and Singer’s theory of emotions.

  • 4.3 The Case for Universal Emotions  
  • 4.3.1 Evolutionary Theory  
  • 4.3.2 Emotions as Signals: Decoding Emotions for Survival  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.1.  Please focus on the biological and physiological purpose and goal of emotional output.

  • 4.3.3 Ekman Review: Distinguishing Emotional Facial Expressions from Different Cultures  
  • 4.4 The Case for Culture-Specific Emotions  
  • 4.4.1 Izard’s (1969, 1971) Cultural Studies  
  • Unit 5: Motivation and Behavior  

    Human motivation has long been considered the result of evolutionary processes.  In other words, we tend to be motivated by things that help us survive (food, sex, water) and things that are associated with these essentials (money that can be used to buy food, and so on).  However, motivation is not quite so simple.  We now have a number of theories that attempt to accurately describe why certain states may motivate some people but not others.  This idea can be extrapolated at the level of culture and society as well.  For example, the state of hunger might cause us to be highly motivated by food.  However, hunger itself may be under strict cultural control.  In fact, most aspects of our eating habits are linked in some way to culture.  As such, motivators are also, in some way, linked to our culture.  This unit touches on the universal theories of motivation and examines how certain approaches to culture can better determine what will be a motivating factor versus what will not.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Theories of Motivation  
  • 5.1.1 Social Darwinism and Natural Selection  
  • 5.1.2 Drive-Reduction Hypothesis  
  • 5.1.3 Homeostasis as a Goal  
  • 5.1.4 Physiological and Psychological Deprivation  
  • 5.1.5 Psychoanalytic and Unconscious Desires  
  • 5.1.6 Instincts: Eros (Love) and Thanatos (Death)  
    • Reading: Tony White’s “Eros and Thanatos”

      Link: Tony White’s “Eros and Thanatos” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: This link will take you to a magazine index.  Please locate and select the above title to open the intended article.  Please review this document to learn of Freud’s psychodynamic theory of opposites.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.7 Personality: ID, Ego, Superego  
    • Reading: iTunes Podcast: Dr. Linton Hutchinson’s “The Id, Ego, and Superego”

      Link: iTunes Podcast: Dr. Linton Hutchinson’s “The Id, Ego, and Superego” (iTunesU Audio)
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Dr. Linton Hutchinson.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “The Id, Ego, and Superego,” item number 6.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear. Please click this to start the lecture.  Please listen to this entire podcast in order to learn about the basic personality constructs as posed by Sigmund Freud.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.8 Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  
  • 5.1.9 Self-Actualization  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 5.1.8.  Please pay particular attention to the notion of self-actualization in the video.

  • 5.2 Sex Across Cultures  
    • Web Media: iTunesU: Yale University: Professor Paul Bloom’s “What Motivates Us: Sex”

      Link:YouTube: Yale University: Professor Paul Bloom’s “What Motivates Us: Sex” (YouTube)
       
      Also available in:
      Adobe Flash, Mp3, or QuickTime
      iTunes
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Open Yale Courses.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “What Motivates Us: Sex,” item number 14. Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the lecture.  Please listen to this lecture to learn about sex as a means of human motivation, a critical part of human instinct, and how it appears across cultures.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.1 Basic Cultural Views on Sex  
    • Reading: Psicothema: Silvia Ubillos, Darios Paez, and Jose Luis Gonzalez’s “Culture and Sexual Behavior”

      Link: Psicothema: Silvia Ubillos, Darios Paez, and Jose Luis Gonzalez’s “Culture and Sexual Behavior” (HTML or PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link.  Once there, please select the title of the article as denoted above.  Please read the article in its entirety to learn about some of the basic views on sex and sexuality in the 25 countries that are studied by the researchers, including sexual permissiveness, sexual frequency, and extramarital affairs, and the factors in each culture that may impact each of these notions.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • 5.3 Sex Similarities and Differences Across Cultures  
  • 5.3.1 Divorce: Adultery and Sterility  
    • Reading: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center’s “Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture”

      Link: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center’s “Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This document reviews the marriage and divorce patterns in various cultures, including the process of mate selection, courting, and other related areas.  Please read the introductory paragraph that is viewable when you first navigate to the website.  From there, please click on each listed cultural group (African Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, etc.) and read the content as described in each category. Note that this subunit covers the material you need to know for subunits in 5.3.2–5.3.7.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.2 Mate Selection and Reproduction  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay attention to the process of mate selections amongst various cultures. 

  • 5.3.3 Courting/Flirting Patterns Similar in Different Cultures  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to the process of courting in different cultures.

  • 5.3.4 Physical Attraction  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to the patterns of physical attraction in various cultures. 

  • 5.3.5 Selection Characteristics: Kindness, Intelligent, Exciting, Healthy, Religious  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to selection characteristics as utilized in different cultures, reviewing both the similarities and differences. 

  • 5.3.6 Differences in Kissing and Touching Among Cultures  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to information regarding affection as displayed in different cultures.  

  • 5.3.7 Accepting Marital Infidelity  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please focus on infidelities and how they are perceived across various cultures.  

  • 5.4 Food Preference  
    • Reading: Marriage and Family Encyclopedia’s “Food and Culture”

      Link: Marriage and Family Encyclopedia’s “Food and Culture” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this article to learn the role that food plays in culture—often an indicator of differences in accessibility of various food options.  Food also plays a role in shared meaning within a culture, and rituals around food may be transmitted through generations.  Consider your own cultural food practices while reading through this document.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.4.1 Religious Rules Concerning Food: Muslims and Jews  
  • Unit 6: Human Development  

    Human development was once considered a completely universal process for all humans.  Psychologists like Erikson and Piaget defined the step-by-step stages that they believed all individuals go through as they develop.  While these theories remain important to the field of psychology, they take the issue of environmental interaction too lightly.  While most biological and physical growth is somewhat universal, many aspects of how we develop are more accurately explained by the culture and society in which we develop.  Consider, for example, the fact that these theories are based on the idea of self-sufficiency (or individualism), which is highly regarded in our culture.  However, many cultures are less individualistic and may think that individualism is a sign of poor (rather than satisfactory or average) development.  These observations do not necessarily discredit the stage theories of Erikson and Piaget, but they do raise questions about their applicability to all cultures.  Further, while many psychologists would argue that development is indeed stage-based, there are some examples that seem to suggest otherwise.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Early Development: Conception and Pregnancy  
  • 6.1.1 Fertilization  
  • 6.1.2 Gestation  
  • 6.1.3 The Embryonic Period: Organogenesis, Nutrition, Terotgens  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the video assigned beneath subunit 6.1.1.  Please pay particular attention to the embryonic period and the effects of teratogens from the environment and other elements that can impact fetal development. 

  • 6.1.4 Birth  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the video assigned beneath subunit 6.1.1.  Please pay attention to the birthing process. 

  • 6.2 Temperament  
  • 6.2.1 Thomas and Chess: Temperament Styles  
  • 6.2.2 Easy, Difficult, Slow-To-Warm Up  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.2.1.  Please focus on the easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up children in Thomas and Chess’ temperament styles. 

  • 6.2.3 Cross-Cultural Temperament Research  
  • 6.3 Attachment  
  • 6.3.1 Bowlby: Evolutionary Attachment  
  • 6.3.2 Proximity  
  • 6.3.3 Attachment Across Cultures  
    • Reading: Attachment across Cultures’ “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment”

      Link: Attachment across Cultures’ “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click the link provided.  Navigate to item three, “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment.”  Read the general overview, as well as the brief information regarding each of the countries in which studies have been conducted: Africa, Germany, Japan, China, and Israel. What differences do you notice between each of these countries and their attachment styles?
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.4 Exploration and Proximity  
  • 6.3.5 Attachment Types: Secure, Insecure, Ambivalent, and Avoidant  
  • 6.3.6 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation  
  • 6.3.7 The Strange Situation Across Cultures  
  • 6.3.8 No Avoidant Type in Mali, Japan  
  • 6.4 Cognitive Development  
  • 6.4.1 Piaget’s Development  
    • Web Media: Virtual Psychology’s “Piaget’s Cognitive Development”

      Link: Virtual Psychology’s “Piaget’s Cognitive Development” (PowerPoint)
       
      Instructions: Please navigate to the “search results.”  The first item will correspond to the title above.  Please download and view this PowerPoint presentation to learn the stages of cognitive development as proposed by theorist Jean Piaget and their implications and utility.  Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunit 6.4.2.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.4.2 Stages: Sensorimotor (0-2 years old), Preoperational (2-7 years old), Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) and Formal Operational (11 years old and older)  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.4.1.  Please pay particular attention to the stages of development and what is achieved during each chronological and developmental phase, according to theorist Jean Piaget. 

  • 6.5 Moral Reasoning  
  • 6.5.1 Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning  
  • 6.5.2 Stages of Morality  
  • 6.5.3 Preconventional: Avoid Punishment and Gain Rewards  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.4 and 6.5.5. 

  • 6.5.4 Conventional: Approval of Group and Legalized Morality  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.3 and 6.5.5. 

  • 6.5.5 Post Conventional: Individual Rights, Circumstances, and Universal Ethical Principles  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.3 and 6.5.4.

  • 6.5.6 Gilligan’s Rebuttal: Male vs. Female Morality  
  • 6.5.7 Are there Universal Ethical Principles Across Cultures?  
  • 6.6 Psychosocial Development  
  • 6.6.1 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  
    • Web Media: iTunesU: Missouri State University: Professor Todd Daniels’ “Erik Erikson on Development”

      Link: iTunesU: Missouri State University: Professor Todd Daniels’ “Erik Erikson on Development” (iTunesU Audio)
       
      Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Missouri State University.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “Erik Erickson on Development,” item number 31.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the lecture.  Please view this web media to review psychosocial development as proposed by Erik Erikson, a psychodynamic theorist who branched off from Freud.  Note that this podcast covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.6.2–6.6.8.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.6.2 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.3 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage  

    This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.4 Initiative vs. Guilt Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.5 Industry vs. Inferiority Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.6 Identity vs. Role Confusion Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.7 Generativity vs. Stagnation Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.8 Integrity vs. Despair Stage  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

  • 6.6.9 Western/Christina Bias  
  • 6.6.10 Value of Independence in Adolescence  
  • 6.6.11 Some Cultures Require Role/Identity from Birth  
  • Unit 7: Psychological Disorders  

    This final unit examines the impact that specific cultures have on psychological disorders.  There are a number of ways in which psychological disorders, their diagnoses, and their treatment are culture specific.  Our culture sees psychological disorders as a legitimate health concern.  In other cultures, however, mental health is not viewed in the same way.  Culture-specific beliefs about religious possession or evil spirits remain common.  Meanwhile, some cultures believe that shamans, medicine men, and other spiritual guides have meaningful prophetic visions.  While no one is discounting these visions, it is interesting to note that our culture might view these visions as a symptom of schizophrenia, a powerful mental disorder.  In addition, psychological disorders like depression and anorexia are fairly uncommon elsewhere, but they are prevalent in our culture.

    Even cultures that accept psychological disorders may treat those disorders in different ways.  In our culture, therapy and pharmacological intervention are most common, but in other cultures, religious direction or some other form of intervention may be sought.  These are just a few examples of how psychological disorders are indeed a cultural construct.  It is important to note that this concept in no way reduces the gravity of psychological disorders in our culture; disorders and their effects are quite serious and should be treated as such.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 DSM-IV Axis Outline  
  • 7.1.1 Axis I: Psychiatric and Developmental Disorders  

    Note:This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the psychiatric and developmental disorders. 

  • 7.1.2 Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the personality disorders and mental retardation. 

  • 7.1.3 Axis III: Physical Disorders and Medical Conditions  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the physical disorders and medical conditions.  

  • 7.1.4 Axis IV: Psychosocial Stressors  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the psychosocial stressors.  

  • 7.1.5 Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the global assessment of functioning scale.  

  • 7.2 Models of Psychopathology  
  • 7.2.1 Bio-Psycho-Social Model  
  • 7.2.2 Interacting Biology, Psychological, and Social Aspects  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit7.2.1.  Please review how the biological, psychological, and social aspects interact in cultural psychology and society.

  • 7.2.3 Psychoanalytic and Behavioral Models  
    • Reading: Psych Central: John M. Grohol’s “Types of Therapies”

      Link: Psych Central: John M. Grohol’s “Types of Therapies” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please review the document in its entirety to learn about types of therapies and treatment interventions.  Please pay close attention to the psychoanalytic and behavioral models.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.3 Psychological Disorders Across Cultures  
  • 7.3.1 Anxiety: Worry, Fear and Apprehension  
  • 7.3.2 Cultural Specific Symptoms  
    • Reading: Palomar College’s “Culture-Specific Mental Disorders”

      Link: Palomar College’s “Culture-Specific Mental Disorders” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: This link will take you to a page entitled “Culture Specific Diseases.”  Please scroll down to move from the physical disorders to the mental disorders as denoted by the title above.  Please review this document to learn of mental disorders that may be culture specific, many of which are also called culture-bound syndromes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 7.3.3 Social Phobia and Offensiveness in Japanese Culture  
  • 7.3.4 Depressed Mood: Dysphoria, Anxiety, Tension, and Low Energy  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.3.1.  Please compare and contrast the information denoted for anxious mood and depressed mood.

  • 7.3.5 Cultural Specific Symptoms: Guilt, Headaches, Weakness, Problems of the “Heart”  
  • 7.3.6 Schizophrenia: Biological and Environmental Causes  
  • 7.4 Culture-Bound Syndromes  
  • 7.4.1 Twenty-Five Culture-Bound Syndromes  
  • 7.5 Treatments  
  • 7.5.1 Indigenous Healing Practices  
  • 7.5.4 Religion and Spirituality: Japanese Naikan Therapy  
  • Final Exam  

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