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General Chemistry II

Purpose of Course  showclose

In this second semester course, we will cover a wide-ranging field of topics, learning everything from the equation that made Einstein famous to why you can’t replace a dead car battery with a household battery. In General Chemistry I (CHEM101), we studied the basic tools you need to explore different fields in chemistry, such as stoichiometry and thermodynamics.  This second-semester course will cover several of the tools needed to study chemistry at a more advanced level.  We will identify the factors that affect the speed of a reaction, learn how an atom bomb works on a chemical level, and discover how chemistry powers a light bulb.  Topics in advanced organic and inorganic chemistry courses will build upon what you learn in this class.  We will end with discussion of organic chemistry, a topic that is as important to biology as it is to chemistry.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt,.xls, etc.).

√    Be competent in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

Unit Outline show close


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  • Unit 1: Rates of Reaction  

    As you learned last semester, Gibbs free energy will tell us whether a reaction will occur spontaneously.  It won’t, however, tell us how long the reaction will take from start to finish.  In this first unit, we will learn the factors that determine the speed of a reaction.  We will also learn about rate constants and how they affect speed.  Finally, we will learn how to use experimental rates to figure out rate law and rate order, which together link the rate constant to the concentration of reactants to determine speed.

  • 1.1 Collision Theory  
  • 1.2 Five Factors of Rate Reaction  
  • 1.2.1 Nature of Reactants  
  • 1.2.2 Concentration  
  • 1.2.3 Temperature  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below sub-subunit 1.2.2.

  • 1.2.4 Catalyst and Activation Energy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below sub-subunit 1.2.2.  While all catalysts increase the reaction rate, it is important to note that some catalysts are actually consumed over the course of a reaction, though they are in the end produced again (along with the products).  Because catalysts therefore appear in both the reactants and the products, we remove them from the final balanced equation.  This may give you the impression that they do not participate in the reaction—but they actually do.  Keep this concept in mind as you take a look at equations!

  • 1.3 Rate Law  
  • 1.3.1 Determining Reaction Rates  
  • 1.3.2 Rate Law and Order of a Reaction  
  • 1.4 Reaction Mechanisms  

    Note: Though every reaction contains fast and slow steps (parts), keep in mind that only the slow step(s) determines the rate.  If you have more than one slow step, add them together to obtain the rate law.  Sometimes the rate law will not include all reactants. The reactants that are not included in the rate law are zero-order!

  • 1.5 Experimental Rate Law  
    • Reading: Purdue University Chemistry: William R. Robinson’s notes on Experimental Rate Law

      Link: Purdue University Chemistry: William R. Robinson’s notes on Reaction Experimental Rate Law (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Rate Laws from Rate Versus Concentration Datato gain a general understanding of determining reaction rate and order when provided with experimental data.  This section provides several examples to illustrate these concepts.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Purdue University Chemistry: William R. Robinson’s notes on Integrated Rate Law

      Link: Purdue University Chemistry: William R. Robinson’s notes on Reaction Integrated Rate Law (HTML)

      Note: In order to calculate rate law from experimental data, use your deductive reasoning.  Once you have looked at the data and isolated one reactant while keeping the others the same, see how changes in the concentration of that single reactant affect rate law.  You will quickly yield the rate law for that reactant (keep in mind that you may have a zero-order reactant).  

      Instructions: Please read this section beginning to gain a general understanding of how to determine reaction rates when graphs of concentration versus time are provided.  Please note that concentration is on the y-axis and time is on the x-axis.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 2: Solutions and Chemical Equilibrium  

    We are now approaching the topic that most people think of when they hear the word “chemistry,” where we pour one clear solution into another clear solution to produce a purple solution, or add a pink solution to an orange solution to make a clear solution.  Though these transformations may seem like a magic trick, they actually depend on the properties of solution chemistry, solubility, and chemical equilibrium—all of which will be discussed in this unit.

  • 2.1 Chemical Equilibrium  
  • 2.1.1 Le Chatelier’s Principle  
  • 2.1.2 Reaction Quotient and Equilibrium Constant  

    Note: When reaction quotient Q is equal to K, we have equilibrium.  If Q is less than K, the reaction favors products.  The contrary is true when Q is greater than K.

  • 2.2 Solubility  
  • 2.2.1 Solutes and Solvents  

    Note: Remember to distinguish molarity from molality!  Solution chemistry nearly always uses molarity (measured in liters), while colligative properties will always use molality (measured in kilograms).  

  • 2.2.2 Concentration Units  
    • Reading: Fordham Prep: Gregory L. Curran’s notes on Molarity

      Link: Fordham Prep: Gregory L. Curran’s notes on Molarity (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Molarityto gain a general understanding of how to calculate the molarity of a solution.  Note that molarity is the most common concentration unit used in solution chemistry.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Clackamas Community College: Eden Francis’ notes on Molarity

      Link: Clackamas Community College: Eden Francis’ notes on Molarity (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how this concentration unit can be used in stoichiometric calculations.  
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Molality

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Molality (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how to calculate the molality of a solution.  Note that molality and molarity are different and are not to be confused.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Weight Percentage

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Weight Percentage (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how to calculate the mass percent of solute in a solution.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3 Periodic Rules of Solubility  

    Note: There are certain rules of solubility that you must commit to memory.  For example, you should memorize the fact that all nitrates and potassium compounds are soluble.  You should also know the insoluble products (like lead sulfate, calcium carbonate, and silver iodide) that most commonly show up in chemistry problems.  Remember those period rules!

    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Solubiliy Rules

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Solubility Rules (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Rules for Learning the Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Waterto gain a general understanding of the extent of solubility of compounds in water.  These solubility rules must be memorized.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.4 Solubility Equilibria (Ksp) and the Common Ion Effect  

    Note: Remember that the common ion is usually very soluble as part of one compound but insoluble as part of another.  This means that the common ion can never be an ion that is always soluble.

  • 2.3 Colligative Properties  
  • 2.3.1 Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation  
  • 2.3.2 Raoult’s Law  
    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Raoult’s Law

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Raoult’s Law (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how to calculate vapor pressure of solutions.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.3 Osmotic Pressure  

    Note: Colligative properties do not depend on the specific properties of the solute molecules in a given solution, but solely on the number of solute molecules that are in it.   This is one of the few rules in chemistry NOT determined by the specific characteristics of a solution!

    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Osmotic Pressure

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Osmotic Pressure (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section to learn how to calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution using the van’t Hoff equation.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Unit 3: Acids and Bases  

    You probably know that when you add vinegar to baking soda, you create a wonderful foaming substance.  Some of you might have performed this experiment in elementary school, when creating a “volcano” effect, but we will now approach it as an example of an acid-base reaction.  In this unit, you will learn that acid-base chemistry is highly important, as the level of acidity or basicity in a given solution will affect the outcome of a reaction just as much as its concentration or temperature.  (It also gives us wonderful flashy explosions!)

  • 3.1 Definitions of Acid and Base  
  • 3.1.1 Arrhenius  
  • 3.1.2 Bronsted-Lowry  
  • 3.1.3 Lewis  
  • 3.1.4 Amphoterism  

    Note: Water is the classic example of an amphoteric.  This characteristic in part explains why water essential to life.

  • 3.2 Water Dissociation Constant, pH, and pOH  
  • 3.2.1 Calculating pH and pOH  

    Note: pH + pOH = 14, when the solution is under standard conditions. (Remember what standard conditions are?  Think back to CHEM101!)

    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Calculating pH and pOH

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Calculating pH and pOH (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section, beginning with the title Defining and Using pH and pOH, to gain a general understanding of how to calculate the pH and pOH of acidic and basic solutions.  This section provides several example problems. Please take the time to memorize the equations and work through the problems.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3 Strength of Acids and Bases  
  • 3.4 Buffer Systems  
  • 3.4.1 Titration  
  • 3.4.2 Henderson-Hasselbach (H-H) Equation  

    Note: The H-H equation is essentially a combination of pH and pKa equations from strong and weak acids.  Be sure to remember which conjugate base pair is on the top part of the fraction and which is on the bottom.

  • 3.4.3 Polyprotic Acids  
  • Unit 4: Electrochemistry  

    You may think that electricity and chemistry have little to do with another.  However, electrochemistry enables us to use batteries—from the AA ones you have in your remote to the lead acid versions that start our cars.   In this unit, we will learn that electrochemistry offers us more than just batteries, however; many electrochemical concepts—from free energy to electron movement—apply to acid-base chemistry as well.  For the purposes of simplification, you might think of acid-base chemistry as “proton chemistry” and electrochemistry as “electron chemistry.”

  • 4.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions  
  • 4.1.1 Electrons in Redox Reactions  

    Note: To remember oxidation and reduction, use the mnemonic device “OIL RIG,” where OIL means Oxidation Is Losing (electrons) and RIG means Reduction Is Gaining (electrons).

  • 4.1.2 Half-Reactions  
  • 4.1.3 Reducing and Oxidizing Agents  

    Note: Reducing agents are themselves oxidized, and oxidizing agents are themselves reduced.  The names are therefore misleading and counterintuitive; be sure to keep them straight!

  • 4.2 Reduction Potentials  
  • 4.2.1 Standard Reduction Potentials  
    • Reading: Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation: Standard Reduction Potentials

      Link: Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation: Standard Reduction Potentials (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Electrochemical and Electrolytic Cells: Standard Reduction Potentialsto gain a general understanding of how standard cell potentials are generally calculated.  This section also provides several example problems involving standard cell potentials.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.3 Electrochemical Cell Potentials  

    Note: The term “standard” refers to “standard conditions,” which include 1 atm of air pressure and 1 molar concentration.

  • 4.3.1 Electrochemical Cells  
  • 4.3.1.1 Galvanic Cell  
  • 4.3.1.2 Electrolytic Cell  
  • 4.4 Faraday’s Constant and Electroplating  

    Note: Although it may appear complex, electroplating is really just an electrolytic cell in disguise.  Once you understand how an electrolytic cell works, you can use the equation that solves for the mole of electrons transferred along with Faraday’s constant to figure out how much metal is plated.  

  • 4.5 Nernst Equation and Gibbs Free Energy  
  • Unit 5: Nuclear Chemistry  

    How do we know that dinosaurs are really millions of years old, or that a particular area or object is radioactive and therefore dangerous to human beings?  Why is radioactivity dangerous?  What is radioactivity, exactly?  This unit will answer these questions by focusing on the chemistry of the nucleus, and explaining how the nucleus’ inherent instability has led us to know about radioactive dating, Geiger counters, and even atomic fission.

  • 5.1 Radioactivity  
  • 5.1.1 Half-life  
    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Half-life

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Half-life (HTML)
       
      Instructions: “Half –life” refers to the time it takes for molecules to decay.  Please read this section to gain a general understanding of how to calculate half life in exponential decay reactions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.2 Radioactive Dating  
    • Reading: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Radioactive Dating

      Link: Aus-e-Tute’s notes on Radioactive Dating (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Uses of Radioisotopes: Carbon-14 Dating to gain a general understanding of how nuclear decay of elements can be used to date substances.  This method of dating is used to date fossils and other carbon-based substances.    

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2 Radioactive Decay  
  • 5.2.1 Alpha Decay  
  • 5.2.2 Beta Decay  
  • 5.2.3 Gamma Decay  
  • 5.3 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy  

    Note: Binding energy is summed by Albert Einstein’s famous equation “E = mc2.”  The idea that energy and mass could be interchangeable led to the invention of the atomic bomb, the most feared weapon in the history of man.

  • 5.4 Mass Defect  
  • 5.5 Nuclear Fusion and Fission  
  • Unit 6: Organic Chemistry  

    Although we have devoted an entire separate course (CHEM103: Organic Chemistry) in the chemistry discipline to the subject of organic chemistry, some of its simplest and most fundamental topics will be introduced in this course as well.  If you plan to continue studying chemistry, biology, or even physics, a basic understanding of organic chemistry is essential.  Organic chemistry combines knowledge from all three fields; the lessons you learn in this course directly apply to the way our bodies function and are therefore crucial to your career as a biologist.

  • 6.1 Properties of Carbon  

    Note: Organic chemistry is perhaps more aptly described as “carbon chemistry,” since all organic properties deal with carbon.  You should pay special attention to the unique properties of this element and appreciate that when we say living things are carbon-based life forms, we really mean it!

  • 6.2 Major Functional Groups  
  • 6.2.1 Hydrocarbons  

    Note: Coal, natural gas, and petroleum are all forms of hydrocarbons.  They are the main source of fuel in the modern world.  Understanding the energy contained in these carbon-to-carbon bonds is the key to understanding why they are so important to our society.  

  • 6.2.2 Alcohols  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Alcohols

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Alcohols (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Alcohol Nomenclatureto gain a general understanding of the IUPAC rules to naming alcohols.  This section contains several links to practice problems with solutions that you may find useful.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2.3 Organic Acids  

    Note: Most organic acids are not strong acids.  As such, most of them have pKa values instead of direct pH values.  Organic acids can also act as a great buffer system depending on their conjugate bases; they in part explain how our bodies adjust to changes in pH.

    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Carboxylic Acids

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Carboxylic Acids (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Carboxylic Acidsto gain a general understanding of the IUPAC rules to naming carboxylic acids.  This section contains several links to practice problems that you may find useful.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2.4 Amines  

    Note: Amines contain nitrogen, a vital element in our bodies.  Remember the Atkins diet, which suggests that eating more protein and less carbohydrates will lead to rapid weight loss?  The diet is based upon the idea that eating more protein means ingesting more amines, and our bodies process amines differently than they do carbohydrates.

    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Amines

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Amines (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Aminesto gain a general understanding of the IUPAC rules to naming amines.  This section contains several links to practice problems with solutions that you may find useful.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2.5 Aldehydes and Ketones  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Aldehydes and ketones

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s notes on Aldehydes and Ketones (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Aldehydes and Ketonesto gain a general understanding of the IUPAC rules to naming aldehydes and ketones.  This section contains several links to practice problems with solutions that you may find useful.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3 Common Organic Reactions  
  • 6.3.1 Addition, Elimination, and Substitution  
    • Reading: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Reactions”

      Link: UC Davis: ChemWiki’s “Reactions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions:  Please follow the links on this page to learn about three major classes of organic reactions.  They include electrophilic addition reactions, elimination reactions (E1 and E2), and nucleophilic substitution reactions (SN1 and SN2).  This material should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  UC Davis ChemWiki by University of Califonia, Davis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.  You can download a PDF version by clicking “Make PDF” at the top of the page.

  • 6.3.2 Oxidation-Reduction  

    Note: In this context, oxidation does not mean “losing electrons” so much as “gaining oxygen atoms” (although the molecule undergoing oxidation in organic chemistry will lose electrons in the process).  Meanwhile, “reduction” in organic chemistry refers to the gaining of hydrogen atoms (note that the molecule will gain electrons in the process as well).

    • Reading: Towson University: Liina Ladon’s notes on Oxidation-Reduction

      Link: Towson University: Liina Ladon’s notes on Oxidation-Reduction (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this section beginning with the title Organic Redox Reactionsto gain a general understanding of how oxidation reduction reactions are applied to organic compounds.  This link contains sections on how to determine oxidation states for organic compounds as well as rules for balancing equations of organic compounds.  This link also provides several example problems.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Final Exam  

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