Principles of Management

Purpose of Course  showclose

Management refers to the organization and coordination of work to produce a desired result. A manager is a person who practices management by working with and through people in order to accomplish his or her organization’s goals. When you think of the term manager, you may be imagining your supervisor as he or she hires and terminates employees and makes major decisions above your authority. However, although you may not view yourself in this way, you yourself may also be a manager. In fact, many of us practice management skills in the workplace every day. You may have a team of employees that you manage, or lead a project that requires management strategy, or demonstrate leadership qualities among your peers. These are all scenarios that require you to apply the principles of management. In this course, you will learn to recognize the characteristics of proper management by identifying what successful managers do and how they do it. Understanding how managers work is just as beneficial for the subordinate employee as it is for the manager. This course is designed to teach you the fundamentals of management as they are practiced today.

Management began to materialize as a practice during the Industrial Revolution, as large corporations began to emerge in the late 19th century and developed and expanded into the early 20th century. Many large corporations during the early 1900s did not have any competition and thus dominated their industries. At the time, each employee was seen as a cog in a wheel – a useful yet expendable part of a business’s operation. But the development of the assembly line in the 1910s and 1920s and the attendant automation of production processes drove changes in management strategy and required businesses to rethink how they managed their resources (i.e. their people, finances, capital, and tangible assets). The fundamental concepts of modern management were famously explored by Frederick Winslow Taylor, an American engineer who wrote The Principles of Scientific Management. Published in 1911 and based on research conducted by Taylor, the book’s analysis aimed to couple the efficiency needs of a business with the specialized talents of its employees. Taylor’s conclusion was that employees are almost always driven by the desire to earn money. Because businesses at the time had very little production capacity, the principles of management aimed toward driving sales by enticing employees with more money for increased production. As such, modern management’s focus was on producing as much product as possible to meet consumer demand for goods and services.

By the late 20th century, automation, higher educational levels, and the push for speed had changed management practices, and businesses had by and large moved away from a top-down, centralized direction style and toward leaner organization with less regimentation. Nevertheless, Taylor’s theories and their lessons remain important as a foundation for understanding how to manage large projects that require a variety of skills and a large number of workers.

This course will illustrate the ways in which the practice of management evolves as firms grow in size. Historically, middle managers have served as so-called “gatekeepers” who collect, analyze, and pass information up and down the management chain within an organization. But two recent developments at the turn of the 21st century – namely, low-cost data manipulation in computers and the emergence of widespread, real-time communication (in the forms of inexpensive, long-distance global calling, email, text messaging, and social media) – have reduced the need for these middle-manager gatekeepers, and companies have eliminated thousands of such positions. The goal? To speed the flow of information and decision-making and reduce the number of layers that separate the customer from the leadership of an organization.

This course is based upon the idea that the essential purpose of a business is to produce products and services in order to meet the needs and wants of the marketplace. A manager marshals an organization’s resources (its people, finances, facilities, and equipment) toward this fundamental goal. In this course, you will explore the tasks that today’s managers perform and delve into the key knowledge areas that managers need to master in order to run successful and profitable businesses.

This course provides students the opportunity to earn actual college credit. It has been reviewed and recommended for 3 credit hours by The National College Credit Recommendation Service (NCCRS). While credit is not guaranteed at all schools, we have partnered with a number of schools who have expressed their willingness to accept transfer of credits earned through Saylor. You can read more about our NCCRS program here.

National College Credit Recommendation Service

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to BUS208: Principles of Management. Below, please find some general information about this course and its requirements.

Course Designers: Johnny Jackson, MBA, MHRM, Peter Lucash, Debbie Soden, and Melinda Salzer
 
Primary Resources: This course uses a range of different free, online educational materials, with primary use of the following online textbooks:
  • Exploring Business
  • Principles of Management
  • Organizational Behavior
Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Each unit provides strategic information that builds and supports your understanding of the principles of management. It is very important that you take thorough notes as you work through this course, and that you use these notes to support your critical analysis of the content you are reading or viewing. You also will need to complete:
  • The Unit Assessments
  • The BUS208 Discussion Forum Activities
  • The Final Exam
Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam. In order to pass this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
 
Time Commitment: This course should take you approximately 106 hours to complete. Each unit includes a time advisory that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each unit and subunit. These time advisories should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to you to take a look at these time advisories and determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you approximately 15 hours to complete. To make the process of completing Unit 1 manageable, you should block out time over the course of a specified period (e.g., a calendar week) and then schedule each day within that period for work on a specific subunit. For example, you may decide to complete Subunit 1.1 (a total of 5 hours) on Monday night, half of Subunit 1.2 (about 2.5 hours) on Tuesday night, the rest of Subunit 1.2 (another 2.25 hours) on Wednesday night, etc.
 
Tips and Suggestions: Be sure to take careful notes as you work through this course. You should keep your notes organized and properly labeled, as they will serve you well as you prepare to complete the Final Exam. Pay careful attention when watching the videos in the course, as these resources serve to reinforce the major concepts being presented; also note that information pulled from these videos will appear on your Final Exam. As with the reading assignments in this course, it will be useful for you to consult your notes on the videos as a form of review prior to attempting the Final Exam.

 
A version of this course is also available in iTunes U.
Preview the course in your browser or view our entire suite of iTunes U courses

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to:
  • explain the roles and responsibilities of managers;
  • discuss and analyze the purpose of management;
  • identify the significance of how historical theories have shaped management;
  • describe and assess the effect of globalization on operating, growing, and managing a business;
  • explain the importance of corporate culture in the business environment;
  • assess the impact of a culturally diverse workforce on businesses;
  • identify ethical practices in business;
  • apply the essential principles of quality leadership;
  • recognize and apply the skills necessary for carrying out effective management decision-making and strategic management planning;
  • discuss the importance of effectively managing teams in the workplace, and identify the roles teams play;
  • analyze the importance of an effective, qualified, and cohesive workforce;
  • examine the importance of effective teamwork as it relates to productivity;
  • assess the impacts of conflict in the workplace;
  • identify ways to attract, hire, and retain high-quality employees;
  • examine the importance of developing clearly identified goals and objectives;
  • distinguish ways in which organizational structure impacts strategy, performance, and operations;
  • analyze the significance of properly planning and executing change in an organization; and
  • determine ways in which technology can be used to advance an organization.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    have access to a computer;

√    have continuous broadband Internet access;

√    have the ability and permission to install plug-ins and/or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash);

√    have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√    have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√    be competent in the English language;

√    have read the Saylor Student Handbook; and

√    have completed BUS101.

Preliminary Information

  • Exploring Business

    You will be prompted to read sections of this textbook throughout this course. You may choose to download the text in full now and skip to the appropriate section as prompted by the instructions in the resource boxes within the course, or you may download specific sections of the text as they are assigned in the resource boxes.

    Reading: Exploring Business
     
    Link: Exploring Business (PDF)

    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 
     
    Principles of Management
     
    You will be prompted to read sections of this textbook throughout this course. You may choose to download the text in full now and skip to the appropriate section as prompted by the instructions in the resource boxes within the course, or you may download specific sections of the text as they are assigned in the resource boxes.

    Reading: Principles of Management
     
    Link: Principles of Management (PDF)

    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 
     
    Organizational Behavior
     
    You will be prompted to read sections of this textbook throughout this course. You may choose to download the text in full now and skip to the appropriate section as prompted by the instructions in the resource boxes within the course, or you may download specific sections of the text as they are assigned in the resource boxes.

    Reading: Organizational Behavior
     
    Link: Organizational Behavior (PDF)

    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: What Is Management?  

    In this introductory unit, you will begin your exploration of the practice of management. In human society there has always been a need for some degree of management in order to organize the efforts of individuals for the common (and individual) good. Even in very primitive times, gathering food, protecting against predators, and caring for the young required humans to coordinate and organize in order to achieve common goals.

    Put simply, the term management refers to the coordination of work activities through and with other people to accomplish the goals of an organization. In this unit, you will explore the various functions of management. Management involves not only coordination, but also planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Over the years, the common definition of management has become less specific, as managerial functions have come to include staffing, directing, and reporting. In modern companies, there are fewer layers of management, as today’s organizations rely instead on the delegation of responsibilities and authority in order to achieve goals. As a result, today’s managers now speak in terms of “leading” or “guiding” people, rather than giving instructions for every action.

    Management is both an art and a science, and ultimately you will need more than one course on management to fully develop your own management ability. Still, even if you have no aspirations to manage a team, you may need to lead projects, manage committees, and/or interact with managers. Understanding what makes a good manager is one of the biggest factors in the success of an organization and its employees.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 What Is Management?  
  • 1.1.1 Introduction and Doing Good as a Core Business Strategy  
  • 1.1.2 Who Are Managers?  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 1: Section 1.2”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 1: Section 1.2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which includes a discussion of the ten key roles that managers fulfill. It also establishes a framework for understanding the nature of the work that a manager regularly performs. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of this reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and answering the exercise questions should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Optional Mobile App: Joviant Technologies’s Mobile App: Principles of Management: “Section 1.1. Who Are Managers?”

      Link: Joviant Technologies’s Mobile App: Principles of Management: “Section 1.1. Who Are Managers?” (Mac iOS App)
       
      Instructions: If you choose to use this mobile app, you will first need to download it to your iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch. Since this app is only available for Mac iOS 3.2 devices and thus has associated costs, its use in this course is optional. No quiz or exam questions will be derived from material presented within this app, but it may be a useful supplementary resource for you. Once you have downloaded the app, open it and read Section 1.1, titled “Who Are Managers?” As you read, consider the different categories of managers and the nature of managerial work. By better understanding the role of management, you will gain additional insights into tactics for understanding and managing others.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.3 Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy: A Manager’s Guide  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 1: Section 1.3”

      Link: Principles of Management:“Chapter 1: Section 1.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which establishes the concept of leadership and makes a clear distinction between a manager and a leader. Review the concepts of leadership and strategy as well as the framework for implementing these concepts cohesively. As you read through the text, pay particular attention to the definitions for leadership, entrepreneurship, and strategy. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of this reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and answering the exercise questions should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

  • 1.1.4 Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling: The P-O-L-C Framework  
  • 1.1.5 Economic, Social, and Environmental Performance for Managers  
  • 1.1.6 Understanding the Performance of Individuals and Groups  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 1: Section 1.6”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 1: Section 1.6” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which explains how to distinguish between individual- and group-level performances. While there are indeed differences between the two, managers strive to make sure that individual and group-level performances are compatible. It may be helpful for you take notes that compare and contrast the distinctions between individual and group-level performances. Be sure to pay particular attention to the illustrative tables and graphs located throughout this reading. Also be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of the reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and answering the exercise questions should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.1.7 Your Principles of Management Survivor’s Guide  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 1: Section 1.7”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 1: Section 1.7” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, paying particular attention to the concept of a managerial tool guide. This guide seeks to help you understand your own learning style so that you may more fully respond to and manage the learning styles of others. This material also provides you with an opportunity to apply what you have learned in your analysis of the gauge-discover-reflect process of managing, which should help you 1) identify your knowledge and capabilities about something; 2) obtain enough information about it so you can establish effective goals and develop a plan to work toward achieving those goals; and 3) examine the difference between what has happened and what should have happened in a particular situation. Be sure to complete the exercise questions at the end of this reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and answering the exercise questions should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “What’s Your Learning Style?”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “What’s Your Learning Style?” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: Why is it important to understand your learning style? Why does a manager need to be aware of an employee’s learning style? What is your learning style preference? How can this information help you become a more effective learner?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 1.1.8 Management Principles throughout the Ages  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “History of Management”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “History of Management” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How is today’s work environment different from that of the past? How did the division of labor theory change an organization’s productivity? Do companies in the modern business world still embrace the classical approach, the qualitative approach, and the organizational behavior approach? If so, how?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 1.1.9 A Final Thought: An Alternative Perspective on What Management Is  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Is Management?”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Is Management?” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What does management mean to you? What are some key functions of managers? Does your current manager, or a manager you are familiar with, effectively perform these key management functions? If not, why? What is the difference between a manager and a leader?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 1.2 The Role of Managers: What Do Managers Do?  
  • 1.2.1 An Introduction to What Managers Do: The Four Functions  
  • 1.2.2 What Is the Management Planning Function?  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.2”

      Link: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces the process that an organization uses to create and implement strategic, tactical, and operational plans. Managers use these plans to provide a roadmap from which a company’s business develops. Pay careful attention to the discussion of how to conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis, as well as the discussion on mission statements and establishing goals and objectives. Also be sure to review the text’s treatment of contingency planning, a process that requires managers to identify an alternative route toward achieving a goal or objective. Finally, be sure to work through the exercises at the end of the reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and completing the assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.2.3 How To Organize People, Equipment, and Money  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.3”

      Link: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt and focus on the discussion of the top, middle, and first-line levels of management, which will provide you with a better understanding of the various ways to organize a business and its correlating activities. The organizational charts in this reading provide an excellent backdrop for you to better understand the flow, coordination, and reporting relationships of the managerial model. Be sure to review this section’s discussion of the authority of managers and the concept of delegation.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

  • 1.2.4 Managers Have To Possess Great Directing Skills  
  • 1.2.5 Effectively Controlling the Environment Is a Management Essential  
  • 1.2.6 Managers Need a Variety of Skills To Be Successful  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.6”

      Link: Exploring Business: “Chapter 6: Section 6.6” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which examines the core skills that are essential to a manager’s success. This reading also explores the process of solving problems in a business environment. An effective manager will face a variety of problems that require a decision. Some of a manager’s decisions will be more successful than others, but the steps outlined in this process will help you minimize the possibility of a bad decision. Be sure to complete the exercises at the end of the reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and completing the exercises should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Management Skills and Styles Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Management Skills and Styles Assessment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and think about your own management style. Has your company used any of the assessments discussed in this essay? If so, have you taken any of these assessments? Have you ever been responsible for evaluating the assessment of another worker? Do you feel that these assessments are accurate measures of an individual’s management skills and capabilities? Why or why not?
       
      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 1.2.7 The Role of Tomorrow’s Leaders  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Role of Tomorrow’s Leaders”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Role of Tomorrow’s Leaders” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What shifts in the modern business world have caused leadership roles to change? Can a focus on leading globally, building partnerships, being innovative, and collaborating enable leaders to be more effective? If so, how? As a leader, do you currently practice these four essential roles? Why or why not?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 1.2.8 Developing Influencing Skills  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Influencing Skills”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Influencing Skills” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about your own influencing skills. Consider the different types of approaches you may use to suit a particular situation or individual. Do you generally employ a push or a pull strategy? Are you flexible enough to vary your style, as needed?
       
      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Influencing Skills of President Obama”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Influencing Skills of President Obama” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the different techniques you use when you make a presentation or speech. As you prepare your presentations, do you consider the styles of other speakers? Which styles do you feel most suit your personality? After reading this essay, what steps will you take, if any, to revise your speaking style and employ different strategies when preparing your presentations?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 1.3 The Personal Side of Management  
  • 1.3.1 Identifying Your Personality and Values  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.2”

      Link: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which examines the dynamics of personality traits and will help you to develop an understanding of how they impact workplace behaviors. In order for a manager to properly implement the P-O-L-C framework, s/he must be able to provide value within her/his own task executions, set the pace and tone to be followed in the workplace, and build relationships that support the greatest return on investment for both the employer and the employee. 

      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

  • 1.3.2 Behavior = Values + Perception  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.3”

      Link: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which will help you develop an understanding of the personal biases that you use in order to support how you go about making decisions for yourself and others. Be sure to carefully consider the bridge between your personal biases and your personality, and how the combination of this information can be used to make you a better manager. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.3.3 Workplace Attitudes and Job Satisfaction  
  • 1.3.4 KSAO (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Other Characteristics) vs. Fit  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.5”

      Link: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.5” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses the concept of workplace “fit.” In today's business world, it is not enough to have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to execute the role and functions of a particular job – many organizations are relying more on fit. Fit refers to whether or not you have the personality and character dynamics to successfully integrate into the organization. In this section of the reading, you will explore how to identify several fit dynamics – e.g., person-job-position fit, person-organization fit, etc. You will also develop an understanding of how fit dynamics connect to and integrate with work behaviors. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 1.3.5 Influencing Workplace Behaviors  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.6”

      Link: Principles of Management: “Chapter 2: Section 2.6” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which examines the factors that have the strongest influence over workplace behaviors. In understanding these factors, a manager should be able to develop programs and a workplace environment that supports improved dynamics between the employer and the employees. Ultimately, knowing these patterns can help increase productivity within the workplace. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

  • 1.3.6 Developing Your Positive Attitude Skills  
  • 1.3.7 Workplace Personality Tests  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Big Five Personality Test”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Big Five Personality Test” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about what, if any, personality tests are conducted by your organization. Have you taken a personality test, or given one to others? Do you believe that the five personality traits discussed in this reading accurately portray human beings? Why or why not? As society advances and new technologies impact our lives, will our personalities adapt and change? What about the possibility of individuals displaying different personalities based on their form of interaction? For example, will introverts feel more comfortable expressing themselves in an online environment? What other personality characteristics will be impacted by the use of technology?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the Big Five Personality Test that you have just explored.What type of personality do you believe defines your individual preferences? Do you feel that your personality style has changed over time based on your experiences? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the personality test and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Unit 1 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 1 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 2: Historical Development and Globalization  

    The more complex an organization and its operations, the more active a role management plays. Successful management imposes a degree of order and discipline so that work can be accomplished expeditiously, no matter what the size of the organization, how many countries it operates in, or how much of its work is performed virtually.
      
    In this unit, you will explore various theories of management throughout history, paying close attention to Frederick Winslow Taylor’s scientific management theory, which was widely practiced in the industrial age of the 20th century. You will also take stock of more contemporary, 21st-century approaches to management, which tend to be better suited to organizations in knowledge-based industries (as opposed to those in manufacturing). Finally, you will begin to examine management from a global perspective.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 A History of Management Theory  
  • 2.1.1 The P-O-L-C Framework  
  • 2.1.2 Understanding Early Management Principles  
  • 2.1.3 The Role of Social Networking in the 21st Century  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 3: Section 3.3”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 3: Section 3.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which explains why managers need to be able to identify social and political trends. These trends significantly shape how a manager performs his or her tasks and often dictate the foundational success of an organization. This reading also covers the evolution of social networking, from its origins as a way for college students to connect, to its present-day role as a viable, effective, and efficient way for corporations to utilize the viral nature of the Internet as a marketing tool. As you read, consider how social networking has blurred the lines between personal, professional, and business activities. Consider both the advantages and disadvantages for businesses using social networking.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Social Networking and the Workplace”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Social Networking and the Workplace” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the growing ways in which you use email as compared with your use of email two years ago, or even five years ago. How much has your usage of email increased? Do you now rely on this method of communication more than you did in the past? How involved are you in social media, on both a personal and a business level? In your own work, are you often encouraged to use social media as a way to expand business opportunities?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the social networking article that you just read.Is social networking, as a business activity, part of your workplace responsibilities? Do you feel that personal social networking activities are conducted too much during the workday, distracting employees from their duties? Why or why not? Share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the social networking article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 2.2 Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Historical and Contemporary Theories of Management” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about the differences between the early scientific and bureaucratic approaches to management. Viewing these ideas within their historical context, do you think the two theories could have co-existed, or was it only possible for a company to use one or the other? As you read about the advancement of management theories, consider the approaches used in your own organization, or another contemporary organization. Can you see business areas in which some of the older theories are being implemented? If so, do they mesh well with some of the more modern approaches being used?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The History of Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor: The Father of Modern Management”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The History of Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor: The Father of Modern Management” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about what you have learned in this course regarding personality types. What traits do you see in Taylor as a person that resulted in the development of his theories? Where did Taylor’s ability to develop management theories fit in with his ability to come up with innovative inventions? Recognizing the fact that Taylor’s theories may have been misunderstood or misapplied, do you see any modern applications and uses for his methods? Are any of these methods being used in your own organization, or another contemporary organization you can think of?

      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: David Logan’s “Tribal Leadership”

      Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: David Logan’s “Tribal Leadership” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this lecture by business consultant David Logan, who explains how and why we work well in so-called “tribes.” Be sure to take careful notes as you watch this talk.
       
      Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to TED and David Logan, and the original version can be found here.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on some of the theories of management that you have just explored.Consider the management theories that are in operation in your own workplace. Do you believe that these principles are being effectively implemented? What other practices do you feel might be better suited to your work environment? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking the on link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on these theories and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 2.3 Scientific Management Theory  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Scientific Management Theory and The Ford Motor Company”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Scientific Management Theory and The Ford Motor Company” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the Ford Motor Company’s manufacturing processes prior to Henry Ford’s implementation of the assembly line. Think about what might have occurred had Ford not hired Frederick Winslow Taylor to evaluate Ford’s manufacturing methods. How did Ford’s strategy of lowering automobile pricing – so that his own employees could afford to buy one of his cars – change the automobile industry, consumer behaviors, and the future of urban and suburban environments?
       
      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 2.4 A Modern Look at Management  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Mintzberg and Managing”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Mintzberg and Managing” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider Henry Mintzberg’s view of technology and email. Do you agree that these phenomena have a negative impact on a manager’s effectiveness? What about Mintzberg’s view that aiming for a specific goal can ultimately be detrimental to an organization’s success? Also consider Mintzberg’s view on creating sense of community within an organization. Does such a community exist in your own organization, or another contemporary organization you can think of?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Managing: Pure, If Not Simple”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Managing: Pure, If Not Simple” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about Henry Mintzberg’s view that management is a result of an individual’s experience and the situation in which that person finds himself or herself. Do you agree with this view? Do you, or those around you, manage based on this approach, or do you/they use a more scientific and structured method? In your experience, which approach has proven to be more effective? How do Mintzberg’s management approaches complement or contrast with other theories discussed in you previous readings in this course?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Optional Mobile App: Six Voices’s The New Art of Managing People

      Link: Six Voices’s The New Art of Managing People (iOS App)
       
      Instructions: If choosing to use this app, you will first need to download it to your iPad or iPhone. Since this app is only available for iOS devices its use in this course is optional. No quiz or exam questions will be derived from material within, but it is still a useful supplementary resource. Once downloaded, open the app and swipe through to read all 58 cards. These flashcards provide a useful and digestible overview of some current terms and tactics in management technique.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5 The Global Environment  
  • 2.5.1 Business Is Going Global, and Management Has To Change  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 3: Introduction and Section 3.1”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 3: Introduction and Section 3.1” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses why countries and corporations, both large and small, engage in international trade. With globalization in mind, pay particular attention to the different models and incentives for international trade and business cooperation that are discussed in this reading. Trade deficits and surpluses affect many aspects of our day-to-day lives. Think about how some of these determinants might impact the business market in your own country.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 2.5.2 Getting Involved in International Business  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 3: Section 3.2”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 3: Section 3.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses the various challenges and opportunities encountered by companies as they engage in international business. When a company enters the global market, the application of management principles intensifies as the demands of stakeholders begin to take shape. This reading provides a road map to how companies expand internationally, emphasizing the importance of international licensing agreements and franchising opportunities. Pay close attention to how companies outsource manufacturing to other countries with lower costs of labor in order to maximize profits. And keep in mind that both domestic and international manufacturing options have advantages and disadvantages in regards to environmental conditions, skilled labor, financial incentives, and cultural differences.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 2.5.3 The Environment of Global Business: Cultural, Economic, and Legal  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 3: Section 3.3”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 3: Section 3.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which describes how to identify legal, political, cultural, and economic differences between two different countries. These are considered to be invaluable skills in the international business environment. Consider how business professionals utilize this information in order to increase organizational success. The concepts of language, time, and communication are also discussed in this reading, providing you with a basis for understanding how to improve your business environment while managing employees, resources, and capital. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 2.5.4 Managing and Controlling Global Business  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 3: Section 3.4”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 3: Section 3.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which describes the ways in which governments and international bodies promote and regulate trade. You should be able to identify and discuss the various tools and policies that governments typically utilize to encourage economic growth. This information can be used by managers and leaders to make strategic decisions, including deciding if and when a business should expand on a global scale.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 2.5.5 Managing through Trade Barriers  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 3: Section 3.5”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 3: Section 3.5” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which provides insight on the various ways to minimize and/or remove trade barriers, a process that directly supports the concept of free trade among designated nations. One example of this idea is NAFTA - or the North American Free Trade Agreement - an agreement among the United States, Mexico, and Canada. This reading also introduces you to initiatives that countries and international organizations are taking to bridge the gap between developing and developed economies, allowing rapid growth in emerging markets and encouraging competition on a global scale.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 2.5.6 Global Enterprise Management  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Global Enterprise Management”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Global Enterprise Management” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How has the spread of globalization provided growth opportunities for businesses? On the flip side, how has globalization challenged businesses? Does the company you work for, or one you are familiar with, implement the three management strategies mentioned in the reading? If yes, how so? If not, do you think these strategies could help the company excel as a global enterprise?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Globalization and the Coca-Cola Company”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Globalization and The Coca-Cola Company” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is globalization to Coca-Cola’s success? How did Coca-Cola begin its globalization journey? What specific practices supported Coca-Cola’s goal to be the best beverage company in the world? How did Coca-Cola’s global marketing strategies, product differentiation, and technology efforts support the company’s desire to grow globally?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 2.5.7 Global Management on a Local Level  
  • Unit 2 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 2 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 3: Organizational Culture, Diversity, and Ethics  

    In this unit, you will look at organizational culture and how it provides a company with its own workplace climate and personality. Organizational culture includes attitudes, values, and work styles which, when managed properly, can lead to a highly productive workforce.
     
    A diverse workforce brings together people from different backgrounds. Each individual brings his or her own experiences and expertise to the table. The blending of these backgrounds can enhance productivity by allowing for the free flow of new ideas and creativity. This unit will explore the importance of a diverse workforce, and how managers can make the most of their employees’ individual knowledge and approaches in order to reach corporate goals.
     
    Management sets the tone not only for a corporate climate; it also sets the standard for personal behavior. In this unit you will also learn about the importance of ethics – that is, “doing what is right” or “doing the right thing.” In light of recent major business scandals borne out of unethical behavior, almost all business schools have devoted aspects of their curricula to the study of ethics. In order to understand how to apply ethics to different circumstances, you must understand how ethics can vary based on differences in society, culture, and politics. There are a number of different philosophies purporting to explain how to apply ethics to decision-making, but none of them are absolute. However, understanding these various philosophies can help you reach workplace decisions that are more ethically grounded.
     
    This unit will conclude with an exploration of business ethics in the modern-day workplace environment. An organization and its managers have duties – including legal and ethical responsibilities – that they must uphold as part of their service to their stakeholders, including investors, vendors, employees, and the communities in which the organization operates. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Corporate Culture  
  • 3.1.1 Work Culture Case Studies  
  • 3.1.2 Why Managers Need To Understand Organizational Culture  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 8: Section 8.2”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 8: Section 8.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses assumptions, values, and artifacts as they apply to organizational culture. You will learn how to identify elements of organizational culture, as well as develop an understanding of why it has become such an important aspect of a manager’s success. This reading also includes a discussion of the multiple layers of organizational culture that exist, and how you can better understand and interpret each one. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 3.1.3 How Managers Can Measure and Identify Organizational Culture  
  • 3.1.4 How Managers Form and Maintain Organizational Cultures  
  • 3.1.5 Managers Have To Be Aware of Organizational Cultural Changes  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 8: Section 8.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 8: Section 8.5” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces a six-step process that managers can use to support and implement cultural change. As an organization grows and develops, so does its culture. A manager must be prepared to assist in adjusting organizational culture as needed. Pay careful attention to this model for change, especially under the headings in the text titled “Creating a Sense of Urgency” and “Role-Modeling.”
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Optional Mobile App: Joviant Technologies’s Principles of Management: “8.4. Creating Culture Change”

      Link: Joviant Technologies’s Principles of Management: “8.4. Creating Culture Change” (iOS App)
       
      Instructions: Open the app and read section 8.4, “Creating Culture Change.” Implementing cultural change is one of the most challenging assignments a manager might face. Many managers fail at it, but those who succeed may be assisted by the six steps detailed in this resource, including how to create a sense of urgency, change the reward system, and devise new symbols.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.6 Check Yourself: Do I Fit In?  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 8: Section 8.6”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 8: Section 8.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which further elaborates on the idea of employee fit. Usually, when a company makes a decision to employ someone, it should be understood that the hiring managers have taken the time to assess the candidate’s ability to fit within the structure of the organization. This reading provides insight that will assist you in making similar decisions about an organization you may be joining. You should focus on how to proactively assess an organization’s environment in order to determine whether or not your skills, personality, and character dynamic fit well into the structure of the organization. This reading will cover the key factors that you should consider prior to joining a new organization. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 3.1.7 Building Organizational Culture in a New Business Venture  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Company Culture”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Company Culture” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is a company’s culture to its bottom line? How do the eight guiding principles mentioned in this reading foster a positive company culture? Does the company you work for, or one you are familiar with, have a positive company culture? If yes, how so? If not, how do you think implementing these eight principles could help change the culture for the better?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the article about company culture that you have just read.Consider a company you have worked for, or one that you are familiar with, in which the culture was a positive one. What were the aspects of this culture that made your experience positive? On the flip side, have you ever experienced a negative company culture? How did you deal with this negative environment? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on this article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 3.2 Diversity  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Skills for Change - Diversity at Work”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Skills for Change - Diversity at Work” (PDF)
                 
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How important is it for an organization to incorporate diversity into every facet of its business? Why have many businesses chosen to adopt only a couple practices in support of diversity and change? What do all five examples of diversity champions have in common? How do you think their outstanding diversity efforts have contributed to their success?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 3.2.1 Managing a Diverse Workforce  
  • 3.2.2 Generational Diversity  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Generational Diversity”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Generational Diversity” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: How prevalent is generational diversity in today’s organizations? What are some of the differences between each generation group? How important is it for a person to know his or her own generational tendencies as well as the generational tendencies of coworkers? What generation group do you belong to, and what generational tendencies do you notice in your own behavior? How do these tendencies affect your interactions with others?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the article about generational diversity that you have just read.What, if any, impact does generational diversity have on your own workplace? Are younger, more technologically comfortable employees tolerant of older employees who may not possess as many technological skills? Have you observed the reactions of older employees to new technology, and if so, how did these employees deal with those changes? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on this article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 3.3 Business and Managerial Ethics 101  
  • 3.3.1 Defining Business Ethics  
  • 3.3.2 An Individual Approach to Ethics for Managers  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 2: Section 2.2”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 2: Section 2.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which describes a variety of ethical approaches that managers can utilize in the workplace. In this reading, you will learn the necessary steps that a manager must use when making an ethical decision, as well as how to solve a particular ethical dilemma or ethical lapse. Be sure to carefully review all the information presented in this section, especially the “Key Takeaways” presented at the end of the reading.

      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 3.3.3 Identifying Ethical Issues  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 2: Section 2.3”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 2: Section 2.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which describes how ethical issues affect managerial decisions. Many business scandals revolve around individuals in powerful management positions who have made decisions laced with unethical behavior. In this section of the reading, you will learn how to analyze ethical behavior in order to appropriately address potential concerns as they may arise. Focus in particular on concepts such as integrity and bribery, which help provide an ethical framework on which to base your managerial decisions.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Communication: “Chapter 2: Section 2.2” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Top 12 Business Ethics Issues”

      Link: Organizational Communication“Chapter 2: Section 2.2” (PDF) and The Saylor Foundation’s “Top 12 Business Ethics Issues” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read the textbook excerpt and then review The Saylor Foundation’s table on business ethics issues. After thoroughly studying these two resources, consider the following questions: Of the twelve ethical lapses mentioned in the article and table, which one is the most frequently broken in your own workplace? What actions might an organization take to fix these unethical behaviors? Do you think unethical behaviors are becoming more common in the workplace? If so, why?

      Reading this article, reviewing the table, and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: The textbook selection above was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. In addition, the chart above is adapted in part from the previously mentioned textbook selection, as well as survey data from the 2007, 2008, and 2009 Deloitte Ethics & Workplace surveys, published by Deloitte LLP and available online at http://www.deloitte.com.

  • 3.3.4 Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility  
  • 3.3.5 What Is Environmentalism?  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 2: Section 2.6”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 2: Section 2.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which highlights various ways in which companies have adopted green environmental manufacturing processes. Managers are often responsible for working alongside engineers and scientists in order to establish and implement improvements that lead to a more environmentally friendly mode of output. New movements toward sustainability and clean energy have pushed corporations and small businesses to minimize the negative effects of production on their surrounding environments.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 3.3.6 Responsibilities to Stakeholders  
  • 3.3.7 Making CSR Work for All Stakeholders  
  • 3.3.8 Ethical Issues and Considerations  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 2: Section 2.4”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 2: Section 2.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which describes how unique business cultures help to shape the professional lives of managers and employees. Codes of conduct and verbalized expectations are of tremendous importance in the 21st century, as they help raise awareness about the issues and business practices that are of greatest concern to an organization. In this section of the reading, you will learn how companies use a variety of means in order to promote ethical leadership. You will also see how a clear and concise code of conduct can act as a significant asset to an organization.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Values-Based Leadership”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Values-Based Leadership” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What is values-based leadership? How is values-based leadership different from other leadership styles? Do you know any values-based leaders? If so, do they apply the key values-based leadership qualities noted in this article? In what ways do these leaders apply these qualities?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Web Media: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: Carly Fiorina’s “Ethics in a Corporate Life” and “Gauging Ethics in an Organization”

      Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: Carly Fiorina’s “Ethics in a Corporate Life” (YouTube) and “Gauging Ethics in an Organization” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch these two short videos featuring Carly Fiorina, the former CEO of Hewlett-Packard (HP). Fiorina introduces some important points to consider when approaching company ethics, including the long-term advantages gained by a company that emphasizes ethically based work.
       
      Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Carly Fiorina and Stanford University, and the original versions of these videos can be found here and here.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Ethics and Business Success”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Ethics and Business Success” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and think about examples of ethical companies you are familiar with. How do these companies compare with the companies discussed in this reading? If you work for a company with strong ethics and values, how do you feel about working for this organization? Does your company have a code of conduct or code of ethics? Next, think about how you feel when you purchase products or services from companies with good ethical reputations. Also consider companies you are aware of that have exhibited poor ethical behavior; as a consumer, how do you feel about purchasing products or services from those organizations?
       
      Reading this resource and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “War against Corruption”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “War against Corruption” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and answer the following questions: Does corruption exist in society today? If so, where? How widespread a problem do you consider corruption to be? Does the organization you work for, or one you are familiar with, implement any of the anti-corruption actions noted in this article? How can you make a difference in the war against corruption?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes. 

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Business and Human Rights”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Business and Human Rights” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider how international laws and US courts provide jurisdictions over human rights violations. What position do you think the US Supreme Court should take on this issue? How can international entities, such as the United Nations Global Compact and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, continue to have a positive impact on corporate global human rights policies?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Unit 3 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 3 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 4: Unit 4: Leadership and Teams  

    Throughout this course, we define managers as people who work with and through other people to accomplish the goals of an organization. One important managerial function we have not yet touched upon is motivation, or the ability to persuade and inspire others to commit to an organization and its goals. A good leader must be a good manager if he or she wishes to get a lot accomplished. In order to get work done, managers must often foster collaboration between employees so that individuals with different skills from different parts of a company can successfully contribute to projects. The concept of collaboration has evolved into the practice of creating teams comprising specific individuals with complementary skills who gather around a common purpose. This purpose might include accomplishing a specific task, addressing a particular problem, revising an internal company process, etc. 

    The term teamis used so frequently today that the meaning of this concept is often diluted. Still, contemporary companies and organizations rely on the efforts of different kinds of teams, and many times an organization will pull together teams with members scattered over multiple geographic locations - including, even, multiple countries - in an effort to bring together the skills and competencies needed to address a significant task.

    One of the key roles of any manager is to establish the goals and purposes of a team and to select appropriate team members. From there, the team will - more or less independently - work to accomplish its purpose under the supervision of a leader, who must organize and manage the team effectively.

    What does a successful team look like? Would you be surprised to know that the best teams actually experience conflicts? In fact, conflict can be a productive force capable of generating new ideas and multiple options for consideration. The key is to avoid letting professional conflict spill over into personal relationships, a task that is difficult to achieve without careful study and practice. In this unit, you will look at the different stages of group development in order to learn how to create a successful team and avoid the common pitfalls of working with a team. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Leadership  
  • 4.1.1 Management vs. Leadership  
  • 4.1.2 Leaders and Leadership  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Leaders Must Drive Change”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Leaders Must Drive Change” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider whether or not you agree with Mr. Immelt’s argument that leadership may have no shelf life. Do you feel that it is necessary for GE, or any large organization, to continually change its leadership strategies? Are some strategies universal and time-tested? Do you think that any of the 10 qualities of leadership stand out more than others? Or, should they all be given equal weight? Why or why not?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 4.1.3 Common Failures in Leadership  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Most Common Failures in Leadership”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Most Common Failures in Leadership” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider Warren Bennis’s ongoing references to William Shakespeare. Do you agree with Bennis’s premise that people purposefully choose to avoid negative comments? Or, is our aversion to negativity an unconscious act? What do you think of Bennis’s theory that we do what we believe we should without considering whether or not we are moving toward what we desire?

      Watching this lecture and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour.

  • 4.1.4 Management’s Power and Influence  
    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Case Study”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Case Study” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces you to the concepts of power and politics as they are considered within the business world. This reading will closely examine Steve Jobs, the former CEO of Apple Inc., and the ways in which he used a variety of power strategies to achieve business success. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.1”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.1” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which addresses the meaning of power. Power ultimately can be considered to be one’s ability to influence others, a skill that all managers need to possess, regardless of their level of management within an organization. This reading also discusses the negative and positive consequences of power as it is used by managers.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.2”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses and defines different types of power. As you are learning about these different types of power, keep in mind that all managers have a dominant style of power – that is, a style they are most comfortable with. But if a manager relies only on utilizing one type of power, he or she may find him- or herself in situations in which his or her management loses some of its effectiveness. A good manager has to develop an understanding of all types of power, and then use this understanding to shape how he or she will respond within any given situation.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.3”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how to interpret, manage, and prioritize organizational politics. As you will see, lack of opportunity often leads to feelings of contempt and jealousy in the workplace. One example provided in this reading is the absence of upward mobility within a given company. If employees believe there is an absence of these opportunities, they in turn may perceive the organization as being overly political. This reading offers you strategies to help minimize the politics within your organization and promote a more harmonious environment.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.4”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.4” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which emphasizes the benefits of working towards improving internal and external social networking. In today's management environment, no one should overlook or underestimate the power of social networking. As you read, focus on the discussion of social networking as it applies to management, as well as the reading’s analysis of social networking’s influence on an organization’s ability to remain relevant within the marketplace.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.5”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.5” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which examines how ethics and culture impact power. Having power without the ability to exercise some level of control will inevitably lead to a variety of ethical challenges. This potential for the misuse of power increases significantly when a company makes the decision to conduct business globally. Regardless of the setting and field in which a business operates, an organization should consider how power is harnessed and applied, and how it can be used to minimize or eliminate cultural or ethical challenges.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 13: Section 13.6 and Section 13.7”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 13: Section 13.6 and Section 13.7” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which reviews the tools necessary to create a thriving work environment. Earlier in this course, you were introduced to the concept of social networking and its impact on an organization’s ability to remain competitive and relevant. As you read this section’s real-life application of social networking, keep in mind that before you can actually apply any of these concepts in an organizational setting, you have to first understand how these concepts impact you individually. Too often individuals mismanage themselves and prematurely claim to possess the tools needed to properly manage strategic business environments. Throughout your studies in this course, you should be applying important concepts to your own business studies and analyzing how you can use this information to achieve individual success in management.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and completing the exercises should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 4.2 Teams  
  • 4.2.1 Case Study: General Electric Allows Teamwork To Take Flight  
  • 4.2.2 Managing Group Dynamics  
  • 4.2.3 Identifying the Characteristics of a Team  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 13: Section 13.3”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 13: Section 13.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which identifies the main characteristics of a team. Note that a group and a team are not always one and the same. This reading discusses the foundational distinctions that differentiate the two. Make sure you fully understand these differences before you move on to the next reading.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Boundless: “Groups, Teams, and Teamwork”

      Link: Boundless: “Groups, Teams, and Teamwork” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above and read the collection of articles under Section 6.1 (“Defining Teams and Teamwork”). Start with the sub-section titled “Defining a Team” and read through the sub-section titled “Differences between Groups and Teams.” You can navigate to the next sub-section by using the “Defining Teams and Teamwork” navigation bar on the left-hand side of each sub-section webpage. This resource describes the components of teams and groups, along with the pros and cons of effective teamwork.
       
      Reading this webpage should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless, and the original version can be found here

  • 4.2.4 How Do Managers Organize Effective Teams?  
  • 4.2.5 Managing the Barriers to Effective Teams  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 13: Section 13.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 13: Section 13.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which examines some of the common challenges that managers typically face when presiding over workplace teams. After reading this section, consider the following question: How have some of these concepts been applied to some of your own workplace situations? If you have never participated in a team, look at some of the case studies presented in this course with the goal of applying the specific insights presented in this reading. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 4.2.6 The Areas of Team Development  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Are the Areas of Team Development?”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Are the Areas of Team Development?” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider Dr. Lafair’s process for team formation. Think about whether or not this process can be consistently successful. Might there be situations in which team development might not ever get to the perform stage? Might there be situations in which a team might be consistently successful, yet not reach the transforming stage? What situations might render the transforming stage ineffective?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes. 

  • 4.3 Team Management  
  • 4.3.1 Leading a Diverse Team  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Leading Diverse Teams”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Leading Diverse Teams” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: Why are diverse teams so common in the modern business world? What are the differences between diverse and homogeneous teams? What are some of the challenges, advantages, and pitfalls of diverse teams? Why are Dr. Maznevski’s three stages to implementing a high-performing team essential to a team’s performance?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 4.3.2 Major Pointers for Building Teams  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Team-Building”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Team-Building” (PDF)

      Instructions: As you read this article, consider the following questions: Why do organizations need teamwork? Why do employees need teamwork? What is team-building , and when should teams engage in team-building activities? What characteristics are present in high-performing teams, and what characteristics are present in dysfunctional teams? How can team-building exercises help these two types of teams?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 4.3.3 Controlling Your Inner Circle  
  • 4.3.4 Team-building  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Building a Winning Team”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Building a Winning Team” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: Why is team-building important to an organization? How can team-building activities improve team performance? Do you currently work in a team environment? If so, does your team implement any of the steps noted in the reading to build a winning team? How does this process affect the team’s performance?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the article you have just read about building a winning team.What roles have you played as part of a team in your own work environment? Do you prefer to work alone or with others, based on your past experiences with teamwork? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 4.3.5 Managing Team Conflict  
  • 4.3.6 All Managers Delegate  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Effective Delegation”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Effective Delegation” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: Why is delegation an important management skill? Why do managers hesitate to delegate? How can planning help managers improve delegation results? In your current job, do you delegate as often as you should? If not, why?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Unit 4 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 4 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 5: Managing Employees: Motivation, Empowerment, and Conflict Resolution  

    One of your most important functions as a manager is motivating your employees to do their best while attempting to meet corporate goals. When employees are motivated, they will seek out ways to improve their work production and maximize their performance. By giving employees the freedom to act on their own knowledge and skills, you will encourage them to ultimately be more productive for the company by fully utilizing their skill sets and, in the process, growing as professionals.

    Every work environment encompasses a wide variety of personalities and professional styles. As a result, conflicts are sure to arise. Effective managers know how to address a conflict when it arises and how to frequently work in concert with others to ensure a speedy resolution. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Motivation  
  • 5.1.1 Case Study: Zappos Creates a Motivating Place To Work  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 14: Introduction and Section 14.1”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 14: Introduction and Section 14.1” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which provides an excellent glimpse into the concept of motivation by examining the company Zappos and the methods Zappos uses to identify and motivate effective contributors to the company’s organizational success. Once an employee’s initial training is complete, Zappos offers that employee a significant financial payment to quit his or her new job. That's right - after training is complete, Zappos will pay an employee to leave the company if he or she so chooses. By implementing this unusual practice, Zappos attempts to create a strategic motivational environment in which all the people who work for the company have a strong desire to be there.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Delivering Happiness”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Delivering Happiness” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What makes you, as an employee, truly happy? Does money alone provide you happiness at work? How might applying Tony Hsieh’s four components to building happiness at work affect your own work happiness? Does the organization you currently work for, or one you are familiar with, incorporate Hsieh’s four components? If yes, how so? If not, how could you consider implementing these components in your own organization?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes. 

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the article that you just read on workplace happiness.Consider the following questions: Are you happy at your job? If not, what is preventing you from finding work that is more satisfying? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free Saylor Foundation School account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 5.1.2 Need-Based Theories of Motivation in Management  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 14: Section 14.2”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 14: Section 14.2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses several theories that will broaden your understanding of motivation as a management concept. While there are indeed some similarities among these theories, each will have distinct characteristics that will allow you to better understand this valuable management tool. Be sure that you pay careful attention to each of these theories on motivation and that you are able to distinguish each from the others in terms of application. Each of these theories of motivation has a foundation in the identification of an individual need or desire that may be a perceived or a real deficiency.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 5.1.3 Process-Based Theories of Motivation in Management  
  • 5.1.4 How To Develop Your Personal Motivation Skill Set  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 14: Section 14.4”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 14: Section 14.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces you to the process of giving and seeking feedback. The effects of feedback are especially apparent when a manager completes a performance appraisal of an employee, or when a member of an organization completes a self-appraisal. This reading also provides you with guidelines for giving feedback to employees, as well as seeking feedback from your own managers.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 5.2 Empowerment  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Empowerment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Empowerment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What is empowerment? Why is empowerment important to organizations and to employees? How can an organization’s culture encourage or discourage employee empowerment? Do you feel empowered in your own work environment? Why or why not?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Benefits of Empowering Employees”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Benefits of Empowering Employees” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: What are some of the benefits associated with empowering employees? How important is employee empowerment to improving an organization’s productivity? Does the company you currently work for, or one you are familiar with, empower employees? If so, how does this philosophy benefit the organization?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 5.3 Conflict Resolution  
    • Optional Mobile App: Glen Fletcher’s Conflict Resolution

      Link: Glen Fletcher’s Conflict Resolution (iOS App)
       
      Instructions: If choosing to use this app, you will first need to download it to your iPad or iPhone. Since this app is only available for iOS devices and has associated costs, its use in this course is optional. No quiz or exam questions will be derived from material within, but it is still a useful supplementary resource. Once downloaded, open the app and read all the material within the “Background” section covering aspects of conflicts, and “The Influence Model” section prescribing key tactics for conflict resolution. Once you have read those, test what you have learned by going through the questions in the “Training Ground” section.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3.1 Case Study: PointCast  
    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 10: Case Study”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 10: Case Study” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses negotiation failure through the example of a situation that occurred at the now-defunct PointCast Internet company. Workplace conflict stems from a multitude of sources; on occasion issues will arise after a manager mishandles resources or makes poor decisions that have a negative impact on an individual, a department, or even the entire company.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 5.3.2 Management’s Conflict Essentials  
    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 10: Section 1”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 10: Section 1” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses several different types of conflict and how they should be framed within a workplace context. Note especially the idea that not all conflict is bad; in fact, some types of conflict can actually help bring about organizational change, which may in turn lead to improved working conditions and productivity. A healthy debate about conflict can often shed light on how to address several issues at once.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 5.3.3 Identifying the Causes and Outcomes Associated with Conflict  
  • 5.3.4 Implementing Conflict Management  
    • Reading: Organizational Behavior: “Chapter 10: Section 3”

      Link: Organizational Behavior“Chapter 10: Section 3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses some of the foundational ways in which you can address conflict. This reading will also help you to identify the specific styles of conflict management, in particular the strategies that best fit your leadership style. These styles fall on a continuum that observes levels of cooperation and levels of competitiveness. Note in particular the idea that sometimes there is actually a deficiency of conflict in a workplace environment, and how such a deficiency can negatively affect productivity.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 5.3.5 Management Must Understand Negotiations  
  • 5.3.6 Conflict Resolution  
  • 5.3.7 Bringing It All Together: A Final Thought on Personality, Behaviors, Biases, Empowerment, and Improving Productivity  
    • Reading: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: Carol Bartz’s “The Personal Side of Management”

      Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: Carol Bartz’s “The Personal Side of Management” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this video, which features Carol Bartz, the former CEO of Yahoo! and Autodesk. In this brief video, Bartz discusses how managers should actively make an effort to find enjoyment in leading others, especially since they (like everyone else) spend most of their waking hours at work. As you listen to this presentation, be mindful that as a manager, your job includes having compassion for others. Carol Bartz provides a sound example of this tip, which you should use as a jumping-off point to analyze your own personal approach to management.
       
      Watching this video and reflecting on your own approach to management should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Carol Bartz and Stanford University, and the original version can be found here.

  • Unit 5 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 5 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 6: Human Resource Management  

    “Business – real business – isn’t about money. It’s about people. You have to know and understand people.”
              – André Meyer
     
    The late André Meyer was a financier who collaborated with corporations in countries around the world. He served as an advisor to leaders of state and worked as the head of the investment-banking firm Lazard Frères. Despite the fact that his career was entirely focused on raising capital and profits, Meyer saw people – including the employees of a company – as the most important aspect of business success. Meyer’s belief still resonates in today’s business world. Indeed, knowing how to implement effective and strategic human resource management is a crucial skill for any manager.
     
    Human resource management (HRM) exists in many forms. We often think about Human Resources as the company department that handles paychecks and benefits, or the office an employee visits when he or she encounters a problem such as harassment or discrimination. However, HRM oversees many more responsibilities than these traditional tasks. Perhaps the most important change in the practice of HRM has occurred within the recruiting of top-quality employees for a firm. Historically, HR staff, rather than company managers, have recruited and sifted through applications to find candidates to interview for positions at a company. But HR department staff often lack the knowledge necessary to effectively screen for many newer, more technical positions – a situation in which a manager’s expertise and input greatly benefit the hiring process.
     
    In the 21st century, as companies work harder to attract and recruit talent, modern HRM is developing a more strategic nature. For example, a top HR executive today will most likely report directly to the CEO and play an integral role in executing a company’s strategy. To stay competitive, today’s managers must also work in conjunction with HR to be able to quickly and reliably identify the skill sets and personal characteristics that are needed to increase productivity in a company’s present and future workforce. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Recruitment and Selection  
  • 6.1.1 Where Are the Right People?  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Hire the Right People”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Hire the Right People” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the performance culture in your own organization, or an organization you are familiar with. Are employees in this organization made to feel that they are part of a team? Are high-achieving employees treated differently from employees who display average performance? Is there an appropriate level of pressure placed on employees to perform well? Does the corporate culture recognize that accomplishments take time to achieve, or does it encourage workplace shortcuts as the norm?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: ManagementShellHarbour: “Recruitment Strategies”

      Link: ManagementShellHarbour: “Recruitment Strategies” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook chapter, which includes detailed information on recruitment strategies and how to manage the recruiting process. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the recruitment process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization seeking employees.
       
      Reading this chapter and completing the accompanying worksheets should take approximately 2 hours.
       
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to ManagementShellHarbour, and the original version can be found here.

    • Reading: ManagementShellHarbour: “Pre-Selection Strategies”

      Link: ManagementShellHarbour: “Pre-Selection Strategies” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook chapter, which discusses how companies choose the criteria from which they will select employees, including pre-selection strategies and how candidates are evaluated. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the pre-selection process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization seeking employees.
       
      Reading this chapter and completing the accompanying worksheets should take approximately 2 hours.
       
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to ManagementShellHarbour, and the original version can be found here.

    • Reading: ManagementShellHarbour: “Strategies for Interviews and Post-Selection

      Link: ManagementShellHarbour: “Strategies for Interviews and Post-Selection” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook chapter, which focuses on the last phase of the employee selection process, including the interview process, selection strategies, and making an offer. Be sure to complete all the activity worksheets within the text. These exercises will help you delve into the selection process from the perspective of an individual seeking employment as well as from the perspective of an organization choosing employees and making job offers.
       
      Reading this chapter and completing the accompanying worksheets should take approximately 2 hours.
       
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. It is attributed to ManagementShellHarbour, and the original version can be found here.

    • Optional Mobile App: Joviant Technologies’s Principles of Management: “16.2 The War for Talent”

      Link: Joviant Technologies’s Principles of Management: “16.2 The War for Talent” (iOS App)
       
      Instructions: Open the app and read section 16.2, “The War for Talent.” There can be fierce competition between organizations to obtain the most capable employees. Topics covered in this section include how to attract and retain talent, and techniques for managing star employees.   
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1.2 Recruiting and Keeping Quality Employees  
    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Introduction and Section 7.1”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Introduction and Section 7.1” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces you to strategies for employee recruitment, motivation, and retention. In today's world of doing more with less, managers at all levels of an organization have the responsibility of knowing how to successfully implement foundational human resource concepts. This reading discusses the discipline of human resource management and illustrates how managers develop and potentially implement plans associated with human resources.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Section 7.2”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Section 7.2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces you to three major concepts as they are applied within the framework of human resources: diversity; training and development; and new employee orientation. Globalization in the 20th and 21st centuries has produced a multicultural and varied workforce. Age, gender, ethnicity, religion, and other factors have created a broad workforce landscape. It is very important to understand these elements, as no manager can achieve organizational success without fully utilizing employee capital. As you read, be sure to pay close attention to the sections of the text that discuss the mutual benefits of formal and informal on-the-job training.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Reflect on the article you have just read about training and the development of employees.Often, employees feel that job training is ineffective or unnecessary. What experiences have you had with employee training that were beneficial, or, in contrast of little value? Share your thoughts on this question in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free Saylor Foundation School account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Section 7.3”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Section 7.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which provides additional examples of employee motivation techniques. Earlier in this course, you were introduced to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This reading will provide you with an expanded illustration of how Abraham Maslow’s motivational theory can be applied in the workplace. Pay particular attention to the visual diagrams presented in this section; these will aid your expanded analysis of motivation techniques. Also pay attention to this section’s in-depth discussion of different motivational theories.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Section 7.4”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Section 7.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how compensation and benefits help create a satisfying workplace environment for employees. This reading also provides you with an in-depth discussion about the ways in which companies help their employees strike a balance between their jobs and their personal lives. Because every employee requires a different level of work-life balance, companies must be creative in how they determine their work-life policies.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Section 7.5”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Section 7.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which covers the topic of performance appraisals. Conducting employee performance reviews is a key part of a manager’s job. The feedback a manager gives about an employee’s work may or may not align with the organization’s expectations for that employee; thus, a manager’s input is highly influential in directing the course of an employee’s career at a company. This reading discusses how a manager can correct poor performance as well as how a manager can work to retain valuable employees.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

    • Reading: Exploring Business: “Chapter 7: Section 7.6”

      Link: Exploring Business“Chapter 7: Section 7.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses labor unions. In some workplace environments, a manager may have to work with a labor union. This reading will introduce you to the foundational principles that a manager should understand when dealing with unions and union activities. As you read, focus in particular on the sections of the text that explain collective bargaining, negotiation breakdowns, and the future of unions in the United States, particularly in light of the decline in overall union membership.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee. 

    • Reading: The Open University's Human Resources: “Recruitment and Selection”

      Link: The Open University's Human Resources“Recruitment and Selection” (HTML) 
       
      Instructions: Read Section 2, “Recruitment and Selection,” which explains various ways to recruit and select high-quality employees.
       
      Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK License. It is attributed to The Open University, and the original version can be found here.

  • 6.1.3 Not All Interviews Are Equal  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Interviewing at Google”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Interviewing at Google” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider your own past interviewing experiences. How do they compare with this depiction of the interview process at Google? Which process do you prefer? Would you want to work at Google, given what you have read in this essay?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes. 

  • 6.2 Strategic Human Resource Management (HRM)  
  • 6.2.1 Case Study: Kronos Uses Science to Find the Ideal Employee  
  • 6.2.2 Changing the Role of Human Resources as Applied within Management Principles  
  • 6.2.3 Talent Management  
  • 6.2.4 Developing Effective Selection and Placement Strategies  
  • 6.2.5 How Management Uses Pay Structure and Pay for Performance  
  • 6.2.6 How Management Works To Develop a High-Performance Work System  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 16: Section 16.6”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 16: Section 16.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how to harness technology in order to improve performance. By creating workplace systems that increase the likelihood of great performance, companies are able to optimize and streamline many of their services. This reading also provides information on how to create and support succession plans – which, put simply, are career tracks and advancement protocols that incentivize an organization’s human capital.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 6.2.7 Tying It All Together  
  • 6.2.8 Being Strategic within an Organization  
  • 6.2.9 Managers Should Understand Personnel Planning  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Talent Hunt: Getting the People You Need When You Need Them”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Talent Hunt: Getting the People You Need When You Need Them” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the idea that employees should be viewed in the same way that companies view supply-chain management principles. Do you think it is inevitable that employees will move from one company to another throughout their careers? Should companies cultivate more of their employees with the hope that good talent will stay with and will benefit the organization? If a company views employees as commodities, will such a view discourage workers from commitment and dedication to the organization?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Unit 6 Assessment  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 6 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 6 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 6 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 7: Planning and Strategy Formulation  

    Managers plan and coordinate the work of others so that an organization can achieve its goals. In their planning function, managers identify needed resources (e.g. people, finances, equipment, etc.) and organize them so that employees can accomplish activities and meet set objectives.
     
    In addition to setting company-wide strategy and long-term goals, managers also create interim, short-term goals as a means of focusing the activities of an organization and providing direction to employees.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Planning and Strategy  
  • 7.1.1 Case Study: Flat World Knowledge Transforms the Textbook Industry  
  • 7.1.2 Management Strategy Frameworks  
  • 7.1.3 Intended and Realized Strategies of Managers  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 5: Section 5.3”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 5: Section 5.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which focuses on the essence of how strategy is made. Keep in mind that there is a difference between what a manager plans to happen and what actually unfolds – hence, the identification and analysis of intended versus realized strategies. This reading emphasizes the fact that a manager should know the best way to make a strategy. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.1.4 Managers Have To Make Choices, Make Trade-Offs, and Have Discipline  
  • 7.2 Setting and Achieving Goals and Objectives  
  • 7.2.1 Case Study: Nucor Aligns Company Goals with Employee Goals  
  • 7.2.2 How Should Managers Define Goals and Objectives?  
  • 7.2.3 Managers Must Understand the Measurement of Goals and Objectives  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 6: Section 6.3”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 6: Section 6.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which introduces a variety of measurement tools that can be used to establish and manage goals and objectives. It is a manager's job to keep track of project performance and to identify areas of opportunity. A manager uses a management measurement tool to readily identify these areas and to provide a means by which he or she can develop appropriate strategic responses to changing goals and objectives.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.4 How To Identify Successful Goals and Objectives  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 6: Section 6.4”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 6: Section 6.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which explains the process of setting attainable goals and objectives. This reading also will help you identify the tools necessary to troubleshoot issues in the goal-setting process. Any time a manager makes a decision, there is the possibility of an ethical, economic, or moral challenge to that decision. Knowing how to troubleshoot will help a manager to better address such challenges.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.5 Managers Use Goals and Objectives for Employee Performance Evaluations  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 6: Section 6.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 6: Section 6.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how a manager can use goals and objectives to better analyze employee performance. Knowing these strategies will help you to better identify the areas in which an employee needs to improve. As you have learned from your work in this course, it is a manager's job to maximize the use of resources. Knowing how to align human capital performance with organizational goals and objectives will help you to support the improvement of workplace relationships and productivity.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.6 Connecting Goals and Objectives with Corporate Social Responsibility  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 6: Section 6.6”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 6: Section 6.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how to use goals and objectives in support of organizational strategies as they relate to social responsibility and environmental issues. Organizations make use of the balanced scorecard approach, which incorporates both financial and non-financial indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of an organization’s corporate social responsibility activities.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.7 Defining Your Own Goals and Objectives Makes You a Better Manager  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 6: Section 6.7”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 6: Section 6.7” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses the balanced scorecard method. This method helps to link a company’s vision, mission, and strategy with the goals and objectives that its individual employees seek to achieve. Explore the exercises found at the end of this reading to help you develop your own balanced scorecard.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt and attempting the exercises should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.8 An Overview of Goal-Setting Strategies  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Setting and Achieving Powerful Goals”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Setting and Achieving Powerful Goals” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about your past goal-setting activities. Have you used an effective process for setting your goals? Have you shared your goals with others to help keep you accountable? Have you kept your desired goals, or have you lowered your standards as some level of success was achieved? After completing this reading, will you take some time to re-evaluate the ways in which you go about setting your goals? If so, how?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

    • Reading: Scott Span’s “Goal Setting for Leaders: Why Bother?”

      Link: Scott Span’s “Goal Setting for Leaders: Why Bother?” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this article, which offers a clear and concise outline of how to begin the goal-setting process and how to ensure goal alignment.
       
      Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Scott Span, and the original version can be found here.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Reflect on the article that you have just read about setting and achieving goals.What steps do you take to ensure that you set goals and take action to achieve those goals? What do you do when you find that you have gone off track? Then, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a (free) Saylor Foundation School account, if you have not already done so. Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on this article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 7.3 How Do Managers Develop Strategy?  
  • 7.3.1 The Components of a Business Strategy  
    • Reading: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: Ian Heller’s “The Five Components of a Business Strategy”

      Link: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation Channel: lan Heller’s “The Five Components of a Business Strategy” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this short video, which features Ian Heller of Real Results Marketing, a consulting firm. This video sets the stage for all of the concepts that you will encounter in Subunit 7.3 of this course.
       
      Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource has been reposted with the kind permission of Ian Heller and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Strategy Formulation”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Strategy Formulation” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and, if applicable, think about one of your own past experiences with strategic planning. Were you aware of your specific role in helping the organization achieve its goals? Did the organization implement its plan effectively? Was the company flexible enough to adapt to marketplace changes as they occurred? Did the organization take appropriate measures to monitor the plan and evaluate its success or failure in achieving its stated goals?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 7.3.2 Strategy Is Essential for Management Success  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 5: Section 5.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 5: Section 5.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which further explores the importance of well-thought-out managerial strategies. In this reading, you will learn how to evaluate resources, potential capabilities, and core competencies, and then use them to support the development and implementation of strategy. This reading focuses in particular on how you can identify what your company does better than its competition, and how you can use this insight to your advantage when developing a business strategy. As a manager, you will need to understand your company's best assets and use them to meet the needs of the business. Pay particular attention to the reading’s discussion of the VRIO (valuable, rare, inimitable, organization) framework for internal analysis. This tool will help you to determine whether a company has identified its true core competencies.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 5: Section 5.6”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 5: Section 5.6” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which covers the external environmental forces that impact the strategy and success of an organization. It is important for you to note that as a manager, you likely will be unable to control many influential elements that are external to your organization. Therefore, you must gather as much information as possible in any relevant situation in order to meet challenges that may arise from you external environment. Keep in mind that not all external factors have a negative impact; some may actually present opportunities.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 5: Section 5.7”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 5: Section 5.7” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses how to identify whether or not a manager has presented a well-crafted and concise strategy. Pay special attention to the strategy diamond presented in the text; it is a strong visual resource for determining the characteristics of a solid strategy.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

    • Reading: The Community Tool Box: Jenette Nagy and Stephen B. Fawcett’s “Developing Successful Strategies: Planning To Win”

      Link: The Community Tool Box: Jenette Nagy and Stephen B. Fawcett’s “Developing Successful Strategies: Planning To Win” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read this article, which describes how organizations can develop effective strategies that enable them to achieve their goals. This article provides an excellent example of how a fictional community coalition might develop strategies to meet its goal of reducing teen pregnancy.
       
      Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Jenette Nagy and Stephen B. Fawcett, and the original version can be found here.

  • 7.3.3 Discussing the Five Competitive Forces of Strategy  
  • Unit 7 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 7 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 8: Decision-Making  

    The essential function of a manager is to make decisions. Decision-making is about making choices between or among alternatives in order to advance toward a goal or objective. In our personal lives, decision-making can involve determining many things, such as where we live, what foods we eat, and who our friends are. In business, decision-making can revolve around the products and services that a company offers, the markets it serves, the people it hires, and so on.
     
    In this unit, we will look at the decision-making process, paying close attention to some of the latest research on what is commonly referred to as “the art of choosing.” You will learn how decision-making involves elements of both logic and emotion; after all, we are all human, and emotion often affects how we choose. 

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 A Framework for Decision-Making  
  • 8.1.1 Case Study: B. Ebbers Creates Biased Decision-Making at WorldCom  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 11: Introduction and Section 11.1”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 11: Introduction and Section 11.1” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which includes a case study featuring the story of Bernard Ebbers. As the CEO and top manager of a Fortune 500 company called WorldCom, Mr. Ebbers was frequently identified as a difficult man to work for – to the extent that managers working for him often avoided telling him vital information that might have shaped how he made executive decisions. Further adding to the severity of this systemic communication breakdown, Mr. Ebbers was extremely resistant to change – a quality that produces failures in management. Use this case as a foundational analysis of all the information presented in Unit 8 of this course. In addition, you may want to review this case again after completing this unit’s readings in order to consider how the outcomes at WorldCom might have been prevented.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 8.1.2 The Foundation of Management Decision-Making  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 11: Section 11.2”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 11: Section 11.2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which offers a definition of decision-making as well as a list of ethical questions you should ask yourself when making a critical decision. This reading also provides you with detailed discussions of different types of decisions, when to employ various approaches in decision-making, and how to determine which decision-making process is the appropriate one for any given situation.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 1 hour.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 8.1.3 Decision-Making and Management Challenges  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 11: Section 11.3”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 11: Section 11.3” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which addresses some of the obstacles that you may encounter during the decision-making process. Whenever a manager has to make a decision, he or she will encounter challenges. Such obstacles often arise from the biases of other people and can negatively impact the decision-making process. This reading discusses some commonly expressed biases and how to avoid letting them undermine your decision-making process.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 8.1.4 Groupthink in the Decision-Making Process  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 11: Section 11.4”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 11: Section 11.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which explores the effects of groupthink on the decision-making process. This reading includes a compare-and-contrast outline for individual decision-making and group decision-making. Pay careful attention to the pros and cons of each and as well as the techniques associated with each. Finally, make sure you fully understand why groupthink is not a healthy habit for a manager or an organization.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 8.1.5 Developing Your Own Management Decision-Making Skills  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 11: Section 11.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 11: Section 11.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which suggests some techniques for customizing and maximizing your own managerial decision-making skills. You will be taught how to preemptively imagine and even avoid a particular issue altogether – a technique known as the “premortem process.” The goal behind learning such a process is to minimize or even prevent bad decision-making. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 8.1.6 Framing a Decision  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Framing a Decision”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Framing a Decision” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and think about the ways in which you make decisions. Do you frame the decision first? What are the benefits of this framing process? How can you apply some of these ideas to decisions that you may be in the process of making?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 8.2 Making Choices  
  • 8.2.1 The Decision-Making Process  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Making Great Decisions”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Making Great Decisions” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and think about the questions that you typically ask yourself when making decisions. When you make a decision, do you believe that there is always just one route to your desired outcome? Using this reading as a guide, prepare a productivity table for some of the tasks that are currently on your to-do list. Are the items that come up as priorities the same items that you truly believe to be priorities?
       
      Reading this article, answering the questions above, and creating the productivity table should take approximately 1 hour.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Reflect on the article that you have just read about making decisions.Do you feel confident in your own decision-making skills? Are you able to make a decision and then stay the course and see your actions through to completion? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free Saylor Foundation School account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on the article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 8.2.2 Decision-Making Techniques  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “How To Make Better Decisions”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “How To Make Better Decisions” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the types of decisions you have made in the past. Can you determine, in retrospect, which types of decisions they were? Take a decision that you are currently considering and write a plan about how to resolve it. Does your decision-making plan match the steps outlined in this reading? If not, how can your plan be adjusted to accommodate the 10 steps so that you can ensure your decision-making process will be effective?
       
      Reading this article, answering the questions above, writing a plan, and evaluating this process should take approximately 1 hour.

  • 8.2.3 The Challenges of Decision-Making  
  • 8.2.4 Backwards Decision-Making  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Decision-Making”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Decision-Making” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the areas within your own organization where the majority of decisions are made. Consider the following questions: Are the decision-making topics in your organization (or one you are familiar with) the same as those addressed in the McKinsey survey? Do decisions typically meet expectations within your organization? Do you find that decisions made within your organization are more effective when the process includes employees who are carrying out the implementation of decisions?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • 8.2.5 Complex Decision-Making  
  • Unit 8 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 8 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 8 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 8 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Unit 9: Organization Structure, Change, and the Future of Management  

    For a company to be effective and profitable, a strong organizational structure must be in place. This structure provides a framework from which all goals are set and helps individuals and departments know where they fit within the company’s organization. 
     
    One of management’s most important responsibilities is to ensure a strong organizational structure. In this unit, you will explore in more detail the various aspects of organizational structure, including what happens when a structure changes. Such change can occur due to new developments in the marketplace, competitive factors, and/or the development of new theories of management.

    Time Advisory   show close
    Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 Organizational Structure and Management Principles  
  • 9.1.1 Case Study: Toyota Struggles with Organizational Structure  
  • 9.1.2 Coordinating Individuals Is a Big Part of Organizational Structure  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 7: Section 7.2”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 7: Section 7.2” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses the difference between centralization and decentralization (regarding who will make strategic and core decisions), as well as how to apply this information within the structure of an organization. This reading also covers the topics of organizational hierarchy, departmentalization, and formalization – components that make up the structure of an organization.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 9.1.3 Contemporary Organizational Structures: Responding to Business Trends  
  • 9.2 Managing Organizational Structure and Change  
  • 9.2.1 Change Management and Resistance to Change  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 7: Section 7.4”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 7: Section 7.4” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses why people are so often resistant to change and how external forces impact the implementation of change within the workplace. This reading also covers some of the possible reactions to change, providing you with an understanding of how your employees may respond as you implement change within the work environment. 
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 9.2.2 Plan for Change or Expect To Fail - Changing Effectively  
    • Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 7: Section 7.5”

      Link: Principles of Management“Chapter 7: Section 7.5” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt, which discusses the dynamics associated with Kurt Lewin's three-stage model for change management. This reading also introduces you to insight support, or how you can you get people to accept a continuous process of improvement (change). Remember that change is necessary to maintain a competitive advantage in a marketplace.
       
      Reading this textbook excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution, as requested by the work's original creator or licensee.

  • 9.3 Management in the Future  
    • Optional Mobile App: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management’s MIT Sloan Management Review

      Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management’s MIT Sloan Management Review (iOS App)

      Instructions: If choosing to use this app, you will first need to download it to your iPad or iPhone. Since this app is only available for iOS devices its use in this course is optional. No quiz or exam questions will be derived from material within, but it is a fine example of the management support materials out there. Please also note that while the initial download is free, if you wish to do more than preview the articles, you will have to buy a subscription. Sample article topics include Cultivating Innovation, Reinventing Employee Orientation, and The Myth about Viral Marketing. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.3.1 The Future of Management  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Future of Management”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Future of Management” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and think about the management processes currently in place at your own organization (or one you are familiar with). Are there any innovative methods of management at work, or are older, more traditional models in place? How do you feel about gamification in the workplace? Can it be productive, or is it merely a fad? Do you agree that following the best practices of other organizations is no longer a valid management strategy?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BUS208 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Reflect on the article that you have just read about the future of management.Is there a balance of management styles being used in your workplace? Are older methods being implemented, or are newer methods being embraced? Share your thoughts on these questions in the course discussion forum by clicking on the link above and creating a free Saylor Foundation School account (if you have not already done so). Read the responses that other students have posted and post your own comments on the forum. Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to connect with your peers and to receive meaningful feedback of your own.
       
      Reflecting on this article and participating in the forum discussion should take approximately 30 minutes.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Management in the Future: The Same as the Past?”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Management in the Future: The Same as the Past?” (PDF)

      Instructions: Read this article and then think about previous readings in this course that have noted that revising traditional management processes is essential to an organization’s success. Does that notion contradict the information in this reading? Can traditional and innovative models of management truly coexist? Are you more comfortable with traditional models, or are you open to newer approaches?

      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • 9.3.2 The Future of Work  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Future of Work”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s "The Future of Work" (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Read this article and consider the following questions: Do you see any signs among today’s businesses that support Dr. Malone’s prediction of organizations moving toward models that encourage more employee freedom and organizational decentralization? If yes, what are some examples of these signs? Has today’s ease of communication allowed your current organization, or one that you are familiar with, to grow globally? Do you believe that employees’ current behavior patterns support the future organizational model shift? If so, why? Have you started to see evidence of the three new decentralized organizational structures being implemented within specific organizations? If yes, what are some examples?
       
      Reading this article and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Unit 9 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 9 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 9 Assessment” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to access a quiz testing your knowledge of concepts presented in Unit 9 of this course. Once your score has been calculated, review your class notes and resource materials to better understand any questions you may have gotten wrong.
       
      You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this assessment. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking on the link above.
       
      Completing this assessment and reviewing any incorrect answers should take approximately 45 minutes.

  • Final Exam  
  • NCCRS Credit Recommended Exam  
    • Optional Final Exam: The Saylor Foundation's “BUS208 Final Exam”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BUS208 Final Exam" (HTML)

      Instructions: The above linked exam has been specially created as part of our National College Credit Recommendation Service (NCCRS) review program.  Successfully passing this exam will make students eligible to receive a transcript with 3 hours of recommended college credit.

      Please note that because this exam has the possibility to be a credit-bearing exam, it must be administered in a proctored environment, and is therefore password protected.  Further information about Saylor's NCCRS program and the options and requirements for proctoring, can be found here.  Please make sure to read this page carefully before attempting this exam.

      If you choose to take this exam, you may want to first take the regular, certificate-bearing BUS208 Final Exam as a practice test, which you can find above.