Negotiations and Conflict Management

Purpose of Course  showclose

Negotiation refers to the process of interacting in order to advance individual interests through joint action.  Contrary to what you might think, negotiations are not confined to the professional world; we often negotiate in our personal lives.  The principles that guide successful negotiations in world politics are equally important in the business world as well as our personal lives.  In fact, almost every transaction with another individual involves negotiation.  As you will learn in this course, negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management are complex processes.  Successful practitioners possess and apply a blend of perceptual, persuasive, analytical, and interpersonal skills that you will examine carefully in this course.

In the ever-changing environment of modern business, firms start and grow by virtue of successful negotiations and by developing long-term relationships among two, three, or more parties involved, either directly or indirectly, in various business processes.  By the same token, such relationships can break down due to ineffective negotiating behavior and conflict management approaches.  Such breakdowns can also occur because of misunderstandings and misperceptions of the other parties’ positions and interests.

This course will start with the conceptual framework of negotiations as it applies to all areas of negotiation in both the public and private sectors.  As the course progresses, you will focus on business negotiation skills and strategies designed to help you maintain healthy business relationships.  Specifically, you will learn about the concepts, processes, strategies, and ethical issues related to negotiation as well as appropriate conduct in multicultural business contexts.  You will also learn to better understand the theory, processes, and practices of negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management so that you can be a more effective negotiator in a wide variety of situations.  If you take advantage of the opportunities this course offers, you will be more comfortable and more productive managing negotiations as well as professional and personal relationships.

You will examine strategies that are effective as well as those that are not.  If a strategy works, you will determine how well it works and discuss alternatives to the less effective approaches.   You will also identify various patterns of negotiation and conflict resolution in different national and cultural contexts, and you will gain an understanding of the influence of national and cultural variations in the decision-making process.

By the end of this course, you will have developed an understanding of the principles, strategies, and tactics of effective negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management and enhanced your ability to assess the impact of interpersonal styles, personality, culture, and other variables that influence negotiation.

This course is designed to align with a Thomas Edison State College TECEP examination. Visit the TECEP website, and click on “Negotiations and Conflict Management (NEG-401-TE)” to download the content guide for the exam.  For more information about this partnership, and earning credit through Thomas Edison State College, go here.

Thomas Edison State College

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to BUS403 Negotiations.  Below, please find some general information on the course and its requirements.
 
Course Designer: Charles Jumper
 
Primary Resources: This course is comprised of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:
Requirements for Completion: To successfully complete this course, you must work through all resources for each unit in succession.  The concepts will increase in complexity as you progress through the course.  The course begins with a basic discussion of foundational negotiation concepts and culminates in a discussion of complex international and cross-cultural negotiations.  In addition to the resources in each unit, you should complete:
  • Subunit 6.3 Assignment
  • Final Exam
Note that you will only receive an official grade on your final exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the resources in each unit and the assignment listed above.
 
In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam.
Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
 
Time Commitment:   This course should take you approximately 80.5 hours to complete.  Pay close attention to the time advisory for each unit.  The time advisories show you the time that you should plan for the completion of each subunit.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.  For example, Unit 1 should take you 6.5 hours.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (a total of 2.75 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (a total of 3.75 hours) on Tuesday night; etc.  Please note that these completion times are estimates.  For example, you may choose to spend more time on a particular resource to follow a link within a reading that interests you, or you may view a resource more quickly because some of the material is familiar to you from other readings.
 
Tips/Suggestions: The instructions for each resource in this course provide you with a highlight of key concepts.  Take note that some of the resources are used for multiple units.  You should bookmark these resources in your web browser for easy, future reference.  Take comprehensive notes on the resources for this course; these notes will serve as a review as you prepare for your Final Exam.  In addition, a Glossary of Negotiation Terminology link is included below.  This glossary contains an alphabetized list of frequently used words and terms in negotiation and will be a convenient reference as you work through the course.  Click on the link and scroll down to the respective word or term for a brief definition.

Link:  Negotiation Experts: Glossary of Negotiations Definitions
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Identify and explain the theory, processes, and practices of negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management.
  • Identify and explain the principles, strategies, and tactics of effective negotiation and professional relationship management.
  • Identify and assess the variables in negotiations.
  • Develop reliable planning techniques.
  • Identify and describe  negotiation theories, concepts and tactics to manage negotiations as well as professional relationships.
  • Assess the importance of various factors that impact negotiations, including specific issues in question, different stakeholder positions, interests, relationships, and group dynamics.
  • Develop and execute effective negotiation strategies and tactics for different scenarios.
  • Identify and employ effective communication, problem-solving, and influence techniques appropriate to a given situation.
  • Diagnose negotiation problems.
  • Describe new negotiation ideas and practices.
  • Explain how culture impacts negotiations.
  • Identify characteristics of culture or national identity that negotiators should become familiar with prior to engaging in cross-cultural or international negotiations.
  • Explain how Trompenaars’ and Hofstede’s theories of cultural dimensions can be applied to cross-cultural and international negotiations.
  • Describe the types of political and legal issues that might arise during the course of international negotiations.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Be competent in the English language.

√    Have completed all courses listed in “The Core Program” of the Business Administration discipline: BUS101/ENGL001: English Composition I through BUS105: Managerial Accounting.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: What Is Negotiation?  

    Negotiations (also referred to as “bargaining”) take place in a range of contexts.  While the objectives of this course focus on business negotiations, you will learn that negotiation principles apply to a vast and diverse range of personal, business, and public situations. You could find yourself negotiating a weekend curfew with your teenager or perhaps a new home purchase.  In business you might negotiate a purchasing contract with a supplier, a new project with employees, or a merger between two major corporations. In the public sector, you might find yourself in the middle of a negotiation on anything from a new school board policy, the content of a new bill with your Congressional representative, or an international trade agreement with China.  Regardless of the context, the basic principles of negotiation are the same.  Whether you are involved in a friendly exchange or a high-stakes conflict resolution, you are essentially in a two-way communication for the purpose of reaching an agreement.  The same skills that diplomats use to negotiate international peace agreements will help you become a more effective business negotiator.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 What Is Negotiation?  
  • 1.1.1 Overview of Negotiation  
    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Michelle Maiese’s “What Is Negotiation?”

      Link: Beyond Intractability:  Michelle Maiese’s “What Is Negotiation?” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read Maiese’s essay for an overview of negotiation.  Note the author’s discussion of the differences between competitive and cooperative approaches.

      This reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.2 Objectives and Disruptions in Negotiation  
  • 1.1.3 Negotiation Planning Elements  
    • Reading: SCOPEVision®’s “Negotiation”

      Link: SCOPEVision®’s “Negotiation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to obtain a summary of various elements to consider in evolving a negotiation strategy.  Read the entire article, and under the introduction, click on “one-page planning sheet” to obtain helpful planning tools to utilize in forming your negotiation strategy.  Additional readings and videos will be offered in subsequent units to reinforce your knowledge of this material.
       
      Reading and note-taking of this article should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of displayed on the webpage above.  These materials are copyright to SCOPEVision®, who grants permission to reproduce these materials for non-profit organizations.  The licensing agreement may be found here.

  • 1.2 Managing Conflict  
  • 1.2.1 Analyzing a Dispute  
  • 1.2.2 Improving Decision Making  
    • Reading: Harvard Business School: Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, and Max H. Bazerman’s “How Can Decision Making Be Improved?”

      Link: Harvard Business School: Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, and Max H. Bazerman’s “How Can Decision Making Be Improved?” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above.  Read introductory paragraph.  Then, click on the “Complete Text” link to access the Acrobat PDF version.  Read this 12-page article in which the researchers describe 2 systems of thinking which influence how we reach decisions.  The authors conclude that improved decision-making often occurs when we move from intuitive decision-making to more deliberative decision-making.  Moreover, the authors cite the findings of Bazerman, White, and Loewenstein, which suggest that in certain circumstances, joint versus separate decision making allows us to optimize our decision-making.  Subsequent units will include additional information on the complexity of decision making in the area of conflict and negotiation. 
       
      This reading and note- taking should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2.3 Coping with Conflict  
  • 1.2.3.1 Bully in the Workplace  
  • 1.2.3.2 Turn Conflicts into Opportunities  
    • Reading: Helpguide.org’s “Conflict Resolution Skills”

      Link Helpguide.org’s “Conflict Resolution Skills” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this article that explains how to build the skills that “can turn conflicts into opportunities” including how to understand conflict in a relationship, how to obtain successful conflict resolution, and offers helpful tips on “Quick Stress Relief.”
       
      This reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 1 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 1 Assessment”
       
      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Unit 2: Negotiation Strategies and Biases  

    According to the Stanford Graduate School of Business, “Successful bargaining means looking for positives in every possible circumstance.”  You cannot accomplish this without careful planning.  The product of the careful negotiation planning is your negotiation strategy.  The strategy you use in a negotiation is heavily reliant on the outcome that you desire.  An understanding of the principles, strategies, and tactics used by effective negotiators will help you become more confident in your ability to choose a negotiation strategy that will help you accomplish your goals.  Perhaps more important than planning an appropriate strategy is to become knowledgeable about what motivates us and our counterparts to make decisions.  In this unit, you will learn about various biases that affect our decision making and how to use this knowledge to overcome obstacles to clear, objective, and effective negotiations.  In subsequent units, you will learn how to apply these concepts to specific negotiation theories in order to add or create value for all participants to the negotiation.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Problem Solving  

    Note: See Das and Kumar’s “Interpartner Negotiations in Alliances: A Strategic Framework” under the Unit 2 introduction.   In particular, please focus on page 8.  This strategy is appropriate when concerns and relationships are important to both parties.  The authors cite examples of firms that have used this collaborative strategy successfully.

  • 2.2 Contending  

    Note: See Das and Kumar’s “Interpartner Negotiations in Alliances: A Strategic Framework” under the Unit 2 introduction.   In particular, please focus on page 9.  This strategy might be employed when one’s own outcomes are accompanied by a low concern for the other party’s outcomes and the firm has a strongly competitive, rigid, and short-term orientation.  Also, please see Tanya Glaser’s summary of “Strategic Choice in Negotiations” in subunit 2.1 above for supplemental information regarding the contending strategy.

  • 2.3 Yielding  

    Note: See Das and Kumar’s “Interpartner Negotiations in Alliances: A Strategic Framework” under the Unit 2 introduction.   In particular, please focus on page 10.  In this strategy, the firms reduce their demands or concede to what the opponent is expecting of them.  Also, please see Tanya Glaser’s summary of “Strategic Choice in Negotiations” in subunit 2.1 above for supplemental information regarding the yielding strategy.

  • 2.4 Compromising  

    Note: See Das and Kumar’s “Interpartner Negotiations in Alliances: A Strategic Framework” under the Unit 2 introduction.   In particular, please focus on page 10.  This strategy may be appropriate when used by parties who have a moderate concern for their own outcomes as well as for the other party’s outcomes.  Also, please see Tanya Glaser’s summary of “Strategic Choice in Negotiations” subunit 2.1 above for supplemental information regarding the compromising strategy.

  • 2.5 Building Relationships  
  • 2.6 Understanding Bias  
  • 2.6.1 Cognitive Biases  
  • 2.6.2 Social Perceptions Biases  
  • 2.6.3 Motivational Bias  
  • 2.6.4 Emotional Bias  
  • 2.6.5 The Endowment Effect  
  • 2.7 Shared Interests  
  • 2.7.1 Negotiation as Joint Problem Solving  
  • 2.7.2 Emotional Intelligence  
  • Unit 2 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Assessment”

      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Unit 3: Processes and Phases of Negotiation  

     As you have progressed through learning materials in Units 1 and 2, you have learned that regardless of the inevitability of conflict in your life, you can choose from an array of negotiation approaches to manage the conflict effectively.  In this unit, you are going to consider some basic principles from time-tested negotiation theory.  You will explore both competitive and collaborative negotiation strategies.  In addition, you will learn about four distinct phases in the negotiation process and how appropriate implementation of each phase will lead to effective negotiation.  By the end of this unit, you will see that you do not always have to settle for your piece of the pie.  Using a successful negotiation strategy can make the pie bigger for all concerned.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Distributive Negotiation  
    • Web Media: UTMcCooms School: Janet Dukerich’s “Lingo: Distributive Negotiation”

      Link: UTMcCooms School: Janet Dukerich’s “Lingo: Distributive Negotiation” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this brief video (1:30 minutes) in which Professor Dukerich gives a brief overview of the meaning of distributive negotiation and illustrates how we “cut the pie” by using an example of the purchase of a car.  It may help to view this video more than once.  You should dedicate approximately 15 minutes or less to watching this video and taking notes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Distributive Bargaining”

      Link: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Distributive Bargaining” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read Spangler’s overview of distributive bargaining, also called positional or “win–lose” bargaining.  As you progress through this course, you will learn that choosing to use distributive bargaining strategies or integrative bargaining (as discussed in subunit 3.2) will depend on many factors.  In fact, sometimes a situation may call for choosing not to participate in a negotiation, because the preferred outcome might be achieved by simply delegating or walking away.  Please click on any embedded links of interest to you to read about related content.
       
      You should spend approximately 30 minutes reading this resource and exploring any associated content through embedded links.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.1 Positional Bargaining  
  • 3.1.2 Game Theory  
  • 3.1.3 Zero Sum Games  
  • 3.1.4 Positive Sum Games  
    • Web Media: President Bill Clinton’s “Non-Zero Sum Solutions”

      Link: YouTube: President Bill Clinton’s “Non-Zero Sum Solutions” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this 8-minute video with an excellent description of positive sum solutions in the context of international relations.  Viewing this video and taking notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.1.5 Negative Sum Games  
  • 3.2 Integrative Negotiation  
  • 3.2.1 Principled Bargaining  
  • 3.2.2 Emotional Intelligence  
  • 3.3 Phases of Negotiation  
  • 3.3.1 Pre-Negotiation  
  • 3.3.2 Setting Goals  
  • 3.3.3 Looking Ahead to Negotiation  
    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Recognizing and Avoiding Negotiation Mistakes”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Recognizing and Avoiding Negotiation Mistakes” (PDF)
       
      Instructions:  Please click on the link above to download the file, and read the entire text.  When you are done, ask yourself whether you have missed opportunities for effective outcomes by omitting this pre-negotiation planning.  You are not alone!  Expert negotiators have bypassed some of these questions to their detriment.  These basic principles will assist you to achieve your desired outcomes from future negotiations. 
       
      This reading should take 15 minutes to complete.

  • 3.3.4 Follow-up  
  • Unit 3 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment”
       
      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Unit 4: Managing Different Types of Business Negotiations  

    In this unit, you will learn about factors that are important for negotiating in an organizational context.  Business negotiations can include negotiating your salary, ironing out contracts with your company’s suppliers, settling contract issues with a labor union, or negotiating a merger.  You will consider how to negotiate as the underdog in business-to-business transactions.  Transformational negotiations can go beyond providing a win–win solution to a problem; they can help you build alliances.  By the end of this unit, you will no longer look across the negotiation table and see an adversary; rather, you will learn to regard your counterpart as a partner engaged in a collaborative effort in building a long-term strategic alliance.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Multi-Party Business Negotiations  
  • 4.2 Negotiating Mergers and Acquisitions  
    • Reading: The Free Dictionary’s “Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)”

      Link:  The Free Dictionary’s “Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read this legal definition of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) that offers an overview of M&A, how they are regulated, social benefits derived, as well as competitive concerns raised.  This reading relates to topics covered in sub-subunits 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 and should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.1 Investment Thesis  
    • Reading: Harvard Business School: David Harding and Sam Rovit’s “Writing a Credible Investment Thesis”

      Link: Harvard Business School: David Harding and Sam Rovit’s “Writing a Credible Investment Thesis” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: If you have not already done so, make sure to read the Free Dictionary’s “Mergers and Acquisitions” in subunit 4.2 for a definition of mergers and acquisitions.  This will help set up your understanding of readings in other subunits in Unit 4.

      Read this article, which describes how effective organizations outline clear and concrete goals before beginning a negotiation.  This reading and note-taking should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.2 Preparing to Negotiate  
    • Web Media: Bain & Company: Geoffrey Cullinan’s “Making Tough Calls on Deals”

      Link: Bain & Company: Geoffrey Cullinan’s “Making Tough Calls on Deals” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to view Cullinan’s overview of factors to consider when preparing to negotiate an acquisition.  To start the presentation, select topic #1, “Making Tough Calls on Deals.”  Please note that this resource requires a new version of Macromedia Flash Player, which may be downloaded here.   Viewing this presentation should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.3 Sales Negotiations  
  • 4.3.1 Reciprocation  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading “The Principle of Reciprocation” in Part I of the reading.

  • 4.3.2 Commitment and Consistency  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  Make sure to focus on the text below the heading “Principle of Commitment and Consistency” in Part I of the reading.

  • 4.3.3 Social Proof  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, read the section “Principle of Social Proof” at the beginning of Part II of the reading.

  • 4.3.4 Liking  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  Make sure to focus on the text below the heading “Principles of Liking” in Part II of the reading.

  • 4.3.5 Authority  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading “Authority” in Part III of the reading.

  • 4.3.6 Scarcity  

    Note: This topic applies to one of Cialdini’s six principles of negotiation outlined in the Negotiation Expert’s reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  Make sure to focus on the text below the heading “Scarcity” in Part III of the reading.

  • 4.4 Negotiating with Suppliers  
  • 4.5 Labor Negotiations  
  • 4.6 Gender in Business Negotiation  
  • 4.7 Negotiating for Yourself  
  • 4.7.1 Initial Position  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.7.  In particular, focus on the text on pages 1-3, starting below the heading “Obtaining Initial Positions” to learn how to position yourself more effectively for negotiation.

  • 4.7.2 Salary Negotiation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.7.  Make sure to focus on the text below “Negotiating Pay Increases” on pages 4 and 5 to learn how to negotiate for a raise.

  • 4.8 Principals and Agents in Negotiation  
    • Reading: The Negotiation Experts’ “Principal and Agents in Negotiation”

      Link: The Negotiation Experts’ “Principal and Agents in Negotiation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions:  Click on the link above, and read about factors to consider when you select an agent to represent you in a negotiation.  Click on any embedded links of interest to learn more about associated content.  Many times it is not to our advantage to negotiate for ourselves.  For example, we may require expertise related to the purchase or the sale of a home to try to optimize our negotiation.  In this article, you will learn that the dynamics of principal to agent or agent to agent can be fraught with problems due to communication difficulties, conflicts of interest, etc.  The article offers possible remedies for these kinds of problems.
       
      This article should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.9 Moves and Turns in Negotiation  
    • Reading: Harvard Business School’s Working Knowledge: Deborah M. Kolb’s “Keeping Your Cool in Negotiations”

      Link:  Harvard Business School’s Working Knowledge:  Deborah M. Kolb’s “Keeping Your Cool in Negotiations” (HTML)
       
      Instructions:  Please click on the link above, and read this entire article.  In this article, Kolb describes the “moves” negotiators make which have the effect of putting the other party on the defensive, e.g., challenging our competence, demeaning ideas, making threats, etc.  To counteract these moves, Kolb teaches us how to recognize these moves for what they are and how to reframe them, or “turn” the move to let your opponent know that “you don’t accept his positioning of you.”

      This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 4 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 4 Assessment”
       
      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Unit 5: Conflict Resolution  

    Perhaps you feel that conflict is an inevitable part of life.  If you agree, you are not alone.  Have you have ever driven a car in rush hour traffic?  Have you ever been faced with an angry customer (or been that angry customer)?  Are your coworkers or employees less than perfect 100 percent of the time?  Any of these scenarios can result in conflict.  Unless it is managed properly, conflict can damage an organization and destroy interpersonal relationships.

    In this unit, you will learn how conflict can be a positive influence if it is managed properly.  In fact, conflict that is effectively resolved can help personal and professional relationships grow and strengthen.   You will explore some alternatives to the potential lose–lose outcome of conflict.  By the end of this unit, you will be familiar with ways to diagnose conflict and apply new strategies to solving the problems associated with conflict.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Intra-Organizational Conflict  
  • 5.1.1 Causes of Organizational Conflict  
  • 5.2.1 Mediation  
    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Christopher Honeyman and Nita Yawanarajah’s “Mediation”

      Link: Beyond Intractability: Christopher Honeyman and Nita Yawanarajah’s “Mediation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read the entire article for an explanation of when mediation is used and how it works.  Click on any embedded hyperlinks of interest to explore related content.  Allow approximately 1 hour to complete this reading.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission’s “10 Reasons to Mediate”

      Link: U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission’s “10 Reasons to Mediate” (Mp3)
       
      Instructions: Watch this video, explaining how mediation can serve as an alternative for organizations facing the potential for investigation and litigation associated with charges of discrimination.  Click on the link above and follow the directions to download this video.  Viewing this video should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.1.1 Problem-Solving Mediation  
    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Problem-Solving Mediation”

      Link: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Problem-Solving Mediation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read Spangler’s summary of a form of mediation that seeks to solve a problem by obtaining the optimal win–win settlement.  Click on any embedded hyperlinks of interest to explore related content.  This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.1.2 Transformative Mediation  
    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Transformative Mediation”

      Link: Beyond Intractability: Brad Spangler’s “Transformative Mediation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read Spangler’s summary of an alternative orientation to mediation that focuses on empowering the parties to grow beyond the limits of the dispute.  Click on any embedded hyperlinks of interest to explore related content.  This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.2 Arbitration  
    • Reading: Beyond Intractability: Christina Leb’s “Arbitration”

      Link: Beyond Intractability: Christina Leb’s “Arbitration” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read Leb’s essay for an explanation of arbitration as an alternative to litigation in dispute resolution.  The author notes that arbitration is more common in commercial disputes rather than disputes between states.  Click on any embedded hyperlinks of interest to explore related content.  This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.2.1 How to File an Arbitration Action  
    • Reading: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s “Arbitration”

      Link: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s “Arbitration” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Read the SEC’s description of types of arbitration, how to file an arbitration action, and how to locate an attorney.  This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.2.2 Enforcing an Arbitration Award  
  • Unit 5 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment”
       
      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Unit 6: International and Cross Cultural Negotiation  

    Negotiating across national and cultural boundaries raises additional challenges for participants.  All of us are a product of the culture and geographical areas in which we were raised and now live.  Culture creates biases in our perceptions, motivations, interests, and strategies, which may give rise to a host of conflicts in the negotiating process.  Aspects of culture that may affect negotiations include such things as language, dialect, societal norms, business etiquette, religion, values, cuisine, hygiene, comfort, and personal preferences.  International negotiations are also often impacted by historical events, nationalism, legal restrictions, tariffs, geographic distance, topographic conditions, multilateral alliances, and political conflicts.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Cross-Cultural Communications in International Business Negotiations  
    • Reading: Andrew Boughton’s “Cultural Impact on Negotiation”

      Link: Andrew Boughton’s “Cultural Impact on Negotiation” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to the linked page and read the article, which will give you an overview of how culture can impact negotiations.  Specifically, in this excerpt, Boughton cites conclusions of a three-decade systematic study of international negotiating relating to differences in language, non-verbal behaviors, values, thinking, and decision-making processes.  This reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 6.1.1 Cross-Cultural Negotiation  
  • 6.1.2 Global Negotiations and Non-Verbal Behaviors  
  • 6.2 The Application of Cultural Dimension Theories to International Business Negotiations  
  • 6.2.1 Fons Tropenaars’ Theory of Cultural Dimensions  
    • Reading: Reading: Global Project Management: Jean Binder’s “Trompenaars’ Dimensions”

      Link: Global Project Management: Jean Binder’s “Trompenaars’ Dimensions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please read this article, which will introduce you to Dr. Tropenaars’ theory of cultural dimensions— one of the most respected in cross-cultural communications. Reading and taking notes on this resource should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: THT Consulting’s “Dr. Fons Tropenaars on Culture”

      Link:THT Consulting’s “Dr. Fons Tropenaars on Culture” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above, and view the video (5  minutes) in which Dr. Tropenaars explains how cultural dimensions impact cross-cultural communications and negotiations.  Viewing the video and taking notes should last less than 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2.2 Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Theory  
    • Reading: Geert Hofstede’s “Culture”

      Link: Geert Hofstede’s “Culture” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the  webpage linked above, and read the article, which gives an overview of Hofstede’s findings on how various prominent levels of culture impacts international business transactions.  This reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Geert Hofstede’s “Dimensions of National Cultures”

      Link: Geert Hofstede’s “Dimensions of National Cultures” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the  webpage linked above, and read the article in which Hofstede explains the five dimensions of culture and how each impacts international business transactions and cross-cultural communications.  Allow approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete this reading.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3 Regional and Country-Specific Case Studies on International Negotiations  
    • Activity: ITIM International’s “Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions”

      Link: ITIM International’s “Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above.   Using the toggle boxes at the top of the page, input your home country where it says, “Home Culture.”  For comparison, input a country or region that corresponds to the subject in sub-subunits 6.3.1 through 6.3.5.  Read the resulting “5D Model of Professor Geert Hofstede” for a better understanding of the cultural differences between your own culture and that of other countries.  This will give you a good idea of how Hofstede’s principles are applied in the international business setting.

      This reading and exercise should take approximately 2 hours to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.1 Russia  
    • Web Media: Cook’s “Russia Culture and Business Etiquette”

      Link: Richard Cook’s “Russia Culture and Business Etiquette” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the linked page and view the video (7  minutes), which gives an overview of culture and business etiquette issues one should be familiar with prior to engaging in negotiations in Russia.  Viewing this video and taking notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.2 The Arab World  
  • 6.3.3 Latin America  
    • Web Media: TerryCollege: Dr. John Ross’ “Doing Business in Latin America”

      Link: TerryCollege: Dr. John Ross’ “Doing Business in Latin America” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above,  and view the video (72  minutes), which gives an overview of culture and business etiquette issues one should be familiar with prior to engaging in negotiations in Mexico, Central America, and South America.  You should dedicate approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to viewing this lecture.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.4 China  
  • 6.3.5 India  
  • 6.4 Political and Legal Issues in International Negotiations  
  • 6.4.1 Common Legal Issues That Arise in International Negotiations  
  • 6.4.2 Foreign Currency Issues in International Negotiations  
    • Reading: Negotiation Experts’ “Foreign Currency Agreement”

      Link:  Negotiation Experts’ “Foreign Currency Agreement” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above, and read the case study, which describes the currency fluctuation issues present in an international business transaction.  This reading should be completed in approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.4.3 International Trade Negotiations  
  • 6.4.4 The Impact of Regulations of the World Trade Organization on International Negotiations  
  • 6.5 Bargaining Ethics  
  • Unit 6 Assessment  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 6 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 6 Assessment”
       
      Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will test your understanding of the material in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit.”

      Note: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.

  • Final Exam  
    • Final Exam: The Saylor Foundation's BUS403 Final Exam

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "BUS403 Final Exam"

      Instructions: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam.  If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link. 

      Note: This exam has been designed as a practice exam for the credit bearing Thomas Edison State College Negotiations and Conflict Management NEG-401-TE TECEP exam. You can register for that exam here. Please note that unlike The Saylor Foundation practice exam for this course, which is free, the TECEP exam will cost $102.00. Passing that exam will earn students 3 hours of college credit, which can be applied to a Thomas Edison State College degree program, or potentially transfered to another college.

      If you choose to take the TECEP exam, upon completion you will be prompted to take a short survey. We encourage that you take the time to fill this out, as it will allow you to tell Thomas Edison State College that you used Saylor materials to prepare for their exam. This information can be useful in encouraging the development of additional TECEP exams and credit opportunities aligned to Saylor courses.

      To read more about the partnership between The Saylor Foundation and Thomas Edison State College, and to learn more about credit transfer opportunities and procedures for this course, go here.