Bioorganic Chemistry

Purpose of Course  showclose

Bioorganic chemistry studies the chemistry of organic biomolecules.  It is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry.  Please recall that organic chemistry investigates all molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen, and biochemistry focuses on the network of molecular pathways in the cell.  Bioorganic chemistry employs organic chemistry to explain how enzymes catalyze the reactions of metabolic pathways and why metabolites react the way they do.  Bioorganic chemistry aims to expand organic-chemical research on structures, synthesis, and kinetics in a biological direction.

This one-semester course will cover several advanced chemistry topics and will discuss the chemistry behind biological processes.  The course begins by introducing you to the mechanisms behind the most common biological chemical reactions (Unit 1).  You will then take a closer look at the metabolic processes of biomolecules.  You will apply your knowledge of the structural features of organic molecules to biomolecules (Unit 2).  The next four units will cover the chemistry of metabolic processes in the cell: lipid metabolism (Unit 3), carbohydrate metabolism (Unit 4), amino acid metabolism (Unit 5), and nucleotide metabolism (Unit 6).  This course will also discuss the medical significance of the relevant deficiencies of these pathways.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to CHEM204.  Below, please find general information on this course and its requirements. 
 
Course Designer: Marianna Pintér, PhD; Rachel Lerebours, PhD

Primary Resources:  This course is composed of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:
Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials.  Please pay special attention to Units 1 and 2, as these lay the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units.  You will also need to complete:
  • Subunit 1.1 Assessments
  • Subunit 1.5.4 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.1.1 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.1.2 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.2.1 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.4.1 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.4.2 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.5.1 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.5.2 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.6.1 Assessment
  • Subunit 2.6.3 Assessment
  • The Final Exam
Please note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the problem sets within the above-listed assessments.
 
In order to pass this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam.  Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
 
Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of approximately 142.5 hours to complete.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit and to then set goals for yourself.  For example, Unit 1 should take you approximately 25.75 hours to complete.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (estimated at 4.5 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (estimated at 3.75 hours) on Tuesday night; subunits 1.3 and 1.4 (estimated at 3 hours) on Wednesday night; etc.
 
Tips/Suggestions: As noted in the “Course Requirements,” there are prerequisites for this course.  It is essential to review CHEM103: Organic Chemistry I and CHEM104: Organic Chemistry II before you begin this course.  If you find the discussion of the clinical significance of metabolism fascinating in this course, you might consider taking BIO305: Genetics.
 
Please make sure to take comprehensive notes as you work through each resource.  These notes will serve as a useful review as you study for your Final Exam. 

Khan Academy  
This course features a number of Khan Academy™ videos. Khan Academy™ has a library of over 3,000 videos covering a range of topics (math, physics, chemistry, finance, history and more), plus over 300 practice exercises. All Khan Academy™ materials are available for free at www.khanacademy.org.

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Identify and characterize lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
  • Recognize chiral organic molecules, and explain their biological significance.
  • Explain the process of electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions, redox reactions, and enzyme catalyzed reactions.
  • Define the role of coenzymes and allosteric regulators in enzyme catalyzed reactions.
  • Compare and link terpenoid and steroid biosynthesis.
  • Compare and contrast the biosynthesis and the break down of biomolecules in the cell.
  • Predict the products of substitution, elimination, condensation, and redox reactions.
  • Design enzyme catalyzed reactions that lead to high-energy compound products.
  • Explain why certain lipids and amino acids are essential while others are not.
  • Determine the significance of fermentation during anaerobic metabolism.
  • Explain why certain metabolic pathways are called “cycles.”
  • Explain what happens if a eukaryotic cell lacks oxalic acid, ribulose bisphosphate, or ornithine.
  • Compare and contrast the Citric Acid Cycle and the Calvin Cycle.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt,.xls, etc.).

√    Be competent in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

√   Have completed the following courses: CHEM101: General Chemistry I, CHEM102: General Chemistry II, CHEM103: Organic Chemistry I, and CHEM104: Organic Chemistry II   

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Common Mechanisms in Bioorganic Chemistry  

    The reaction mechanism is the step-by-step sequence of events in a chemical reaction.  It includes breaking chemical bonds, producingtransition state intermediates, and making chemical bonds.  In this unit, you will start with an overview of the functional groups of organic molecules.  Next, you will study the mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, condensation, elimination, and redox reactions.  The goal is to highlight the fact that these reactions go forward only if the reactants meet specific structural requirements. 
               
    Understanding the mechanisms of these reactions is necessary, because they reveal how enzymes speed up similar reactions.  Knowledge of reaction mechanisms also provides a basis for the design of pharmaceutical compounds, which manipulate the yield of reactions, and has implications in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Functional Groups in Biological Chemistry  
    • Reading: The Third Millennium Online: James Richard Fromm’s “The Concept of Functional Groups”

      Link: The Third Millennium Online: James Richard Fromm’s “The Concept of Functional Groups” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage, starting at the beginning and continuing until the end of the disulfide group section.  This section summarizes the basic structural characteristics of the functional groups. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines, mercaptans, and esters are the most commonly discussed bioorganic molecules in this course.  While all sugars have hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups, some of them are aldehydes (reducing sugars) and others are ketones.  Amino acids have both amino and carboxylic functional groups; glycerol and fatty acids in fats and phospholipids, as well as the monomers of DNA and RNA, are joined with ester bonds.  The amino acid cysteine has a thiol group, which is essential for the stabilization of protein structures with disulfide bridges.  Functional groups play an essential role in the active sites of enzymes as well (e.g.the thiol group in the active site of thiol proteases and asparagine in carboxypeptidase). 
       
      Reading and note taking will take approximately 2 hours to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Classification by Functional Group”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Classification by Functional Group” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “Classification by Functional Group” section on this webpage.  It summarizes the reactivity of the functional groups in table format.  You may want to return to this table when learning about specific examples of these reactions in later units of this course.  
       
      This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Carnegie Mellon University’s “Modern Biology / Biochemistry Flash Tutorials”

      Link: Carnegie Mellon University’s “Modern Biology / Biochemistry Flash Tutorials” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above to access thisfunctional group tutorial.  You will find a table on this page with the name and the structural formula of non-polar and polar functional groups in the “Functional Groups” column.  The “Properties” column provides you with several options to choose from.  When you click on an option, the corresponding examples in the “Functional Group” column will be highlighted (e.g. clicking on “non-polar” highlights the methyl and the phenyl groups in the table).  Additionally, if you click on one of the properties, the last column will change from “Examples” to “About non-polar,” and you can read a brief description of the non-polar functional groups.  Please take your time to carefully study the correlations between the properties, functional groups, and definitions in this tutorial.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Identifying Functional Groups”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Identifying Functional Groups” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, readthe instructions at the top of the webpage, and complete the assessment to check how well you recognize functional groups.  You can check whether your responses are correct or incorrect by clicking on the “Check Answer” button.  Please complete the entire quiz before you hit the “View Answers” button to see the complete answer key.  This is the first part of the functional groups problem set. 
       
      This assessment should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2 Acids, Bases, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles  
  • 1.2.1 Acidity and Basicity  
  • 1.2.2 Nucleophilicity and Basicity  
  • 1.3 Mechanisms: Electrophilic Addition Reactions  
    • Reading: Chemguide: Jim Clark’s “Electrophilic Addition”

      Link: Chemguide: Jim Clark’s “Electrophilic Addition” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this webpage for a general overview of electrophilic addition.  
       
      Reading and taking notes will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.4 Mechanisms: Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions  
  • 1.5 Mechanisms: Nucleophilic Carbonyl Addition Reactions  
  • 1.5.1 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions  
    • Reading: Chemguide: Jim Clark’s “The Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones”

      Link: Chemguide: Jim Clark’s “The Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this webpage for a general overview of electrophilic addition.  The first part of this website shows generalized chemical equations of the reduction of aldehydes and ketones.  In these equations, the reducing hydrogen is marked as [H].  Please note that the reducing hydrogen is delivered as part of another molecule; this is symbolized by the square brackets.  The second part of this website describes the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition; this includes "The simplified mechanisms," the "The mechanism for reduction of ethanal," and the "The mechanism for the reduction of propanone" sections.  Please make sure that you understand how the electrons are moving during the nucleophilic addition.  Next, test your knowledge: on a separate sheet of paper, write down the mechanism without looking at the website.  Finally, compare your work to the website; you are done if the movement of the electrons is correct.  
       
      This resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.5.2 Alcohol Formation  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Aldehydes & Ketones”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Aldehydes & Ketones” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “A. Hydration and Hemiacetal Formation” section on this page.  Make sure to select "Click Here" in the "Stable Hydrates and Hemiacetals" box, and study these example reactions.  Note that hemiacetals and acetals form when simple sugars undergo a spontaneous rearrangement in an aqueous solution.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.5.3 Imine (Schiff Base) Formation  
  • 1.5.4 Acetal Formation  
  • 1.5.5 Conjugate (1, 4) Nucleophilic Additions  
  • 1.6 Mechanisms: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “1. Acyl Group Substitution”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “1. Acyl Group Substitution” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Acyl Group Substitution” section on this webpage.  Select the “Click Here” link to access the “Mechanism of Ester Cleavage” page, and study the mechanism of ester hydrolysis.  Note that ester cleavage is the first step of fat catabolism in the cell.  
       
      Studying this resource and note taking should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.7 Mechanisms: Carbonyl Condensation Reactions  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Reactions at the ?-Carbon”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Reactions at the α-Carbon” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “2. Claisen Condensation,” and study this particular section on this webpage.  Press the grey “Structural Analysis” button to highlight the nucleophilic donor and electrophilic acceptor in this reaction.  Click on the “Reaction Mechanism” button to display the breaking and forming of chemical bonds.  Fatty acid synthesis by fatty acid synthase is an example of Claisen condensation.
       
      Studying this resource and note taking should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Claisen Condensation”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Claisen Condensation” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above to access the assessment, and read the instructions at the top of the webpage.  On this webpage, you will find five examples of Claisen products.  The exercise asks you to identify the enolate donor and carbonyl acceptor of these products from a list.  Click on “Check Answers” after you match all products with their enolate donor and carbonyl acceptor.  The “View Answers” button lets you see the correct answers.  
       
      This assessment will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.8 Mechanisms: Elimination Reactions  
    • Reading: Purdue University’s Organic Reactions

      Link: Purdue University’s “Organic Reactions” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, select “Elimination Reactions” in the box at the top of the webpage, and study this entire section.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.9 Oxidations and Reductions  
  • Unit 2: Biomolecules  

    Biomolecules are organic molecules synthesized in living organisms.  All biomolecules are organic, meaning that they are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.  Some biomolecules contain other atoms as well (e.g.  phosphorus and/or sulfur).  Biomolecules vary in size.  Some are large polymeric molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, while others are small, such as metabolites, lipids, and the monomers of the polymers.
               
    In Organic Chemistry, you learned about organic compounds; this unit will focus on carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids that occur in the cell.  In Organic Chemistry, you also learned about stereoisomerism; this unit will focus on stereoisomers that are produced by the cell, including chiral molecules and cis-trans isomers.  You may recall that some reactions involving organic compounds produce specific stereoisomers.  The stereoselectivity of reactions in the cell is more pronounced, because enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions are chiral themselves.  Only one enzyme enantiomer exists in the cell and has biological activity.  Life on Earth is chiral.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Chirality and Biological Chemistry  
  • 2.1.1 Enantiomers  
    • Lecture: Khan Academy's "Introduction to Chirality"

      Link: Khan Academy's "Introduction to Chirality" (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and take notes as you watch the video (7 minutes).  Listen the presentation carefully two or three times as needed until you are able to explain what chirality is and also how to recognize a chiral molecule.  Note that chirality rests on the presence of at least one carbon atom, which binds to four different functional groups.
       
      Viewing this lecture several times and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

    • Lecture: Khan Academy's "Chiral Examples 1" and "Chiral Examples 2"

      Link: Khan Academy's "Chiral Examples 1" and "Chiral Examples 2" (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the links above, and take notes as you watch the videos (12 minutes and 11 minutes respectively).  Listen to the presentation carefully two or three times as needed, and practice how to recognize a chiral molecule by working through the examples provided in the video lectures.
       
      Viewing these lectures several times and pausing to practice the identification of chiral molecules should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: These videos are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  They are attributed to the Khan Academy.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Optical or Chiral”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Optical or Chiral” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper,answer all of the quiz questions in the “Chiral or Optical Isomers” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers.  Note that chiral compounds are also called “optical isomers” or “optically active” substances, because the isomers have the ability to rotate the plane of the polarized light.  Optical activity is measured with polarimeter, and some microscopes are equipped with polarimeter.  
       
      This assessment will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.2 Diastereomers, Epimers, and Meso Compounds  
  • 2.1.3 Prochirality  
  • 2.2 Biomolecules: Lipids  
  • 2.2.1 Triacylglycerols, Waxes, and Phospholipids  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Fatty Acids,” “3. Fats and Oils,” “4. Waxes,” and “5. Phospholipids” sections on this webpage.  Click on the link to “Unusual Fatty Acids” in section “1. Fatty Acids.”  Also, select any embedded hyperlinks to examine lipid models.  Note that fatty acids may have double bonds.  The vast majority of naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are cis isomers; trans-fats are byproducts of industrial vegetable oil solidifying methods.  Trans-fat consumption coincides with an increased rate of cardiovascular disease.  

      Studying this resource and taking notes will take approximately 1 hour 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Fatty Acids”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Fatty Acids” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper, answer all quiz questions in the “Fatty Acids” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers.  
       
      This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.2 Other Lipids: Terpenoids, Steroids, and Prostaglandins  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Lipids” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “Prostaglandins Thromboxanes & Leukotrienes,” “Terpenes,” and “Steroids,” and study these sections in their entirety.  Select the embedded “Click Here” links to examine lipid models.  Also, click on the grey “Toggle Structures” button to reveal the structural formulas of additional lipids.  Note that the arachidonic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid; it is an essential fatty acid, which is the precursor of prostaglandin and leukotriene production.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Prostaglandins”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Prostaglandins” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above,and on a separate piece of paper, answer all of the quiz questions in the “Prostaglandins” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers. 
       
      This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Steroids”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Steroids” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and on a separate piece of paper,answer all of the quiz questions in the “Prostaglandins” column of the table.  Then, click on the drop-down menu next to each question to check your answers. 
       
      This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates  
  • 2.3.1 Carbohydrate Stereochemistry  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Glucose” and “3. Ketoses” sections on this webpage.  Please note the number of optical hexose isomers, including diastereomers.  Make sure to click on any embedded links to read about associated content.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Carbohydrate Quiz”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Carbohydrate Quiz” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please note that this assessment is optional.  Please click on the link above to access the assessment, and read the instructions at the top of the webpage.  Please click on a "Graphic" link in the "Static Graphic Image" column; this will show you the structural formula of a carbohydrate compound.  Your task is to recognize the compound.  After you have identified the compound, check your answer.  The right answers are in the "Compound" column of the table: click on the drop-down menu labeled "Answer" to reveal the correct answer to the quiz question.  Next, determine if  the structural formula is an alpha or a beta epimer.  In the "Alpha or Beta" column of the table, click on the drop down menu labeled "Answer" to reveal the correct answer to the quiz question.
       
      This assessment will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.2 Monosaccharide Anomers  
    • Reading: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates”

      Link: Michigan State University: William Reusch’s Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “4. Anomeric Forms of Glucose,” “5. Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides,” and “6. Glycosides,” and study these sections on this webpage.  Note that the cyclic anomers are hemiacetals.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.3 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides  
  • 2.3.4 Sugar Derivatives  
  • 2.4 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins  
  • 2.4.1 Amino Acids  
  • 2.4.2 Peptides and Proteins  
    • Reading: John W. Kimball's Biology Pages: “Proteins”

      Link: John W. Kimball's Biology Pages: “Proteins” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage.  Next, follow the links at the bottom of this page to learn “How Proteins Get Their Shape,” “Primary Structure,” “Secondary Structure,” “Tertiary Structure,” and “Quaternary Structure.”  Please take advantage of the many embedded links on this page.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Proteins - Introduction”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Proteins – Introduction” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete the two quiz sections in the “Proteins – Introduction” column.  Please write you’re your answers, and explain your response.  Finally, select the “Answer” drop down menu to view the correct answer.
       
      This assessment will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Assessment: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Amino Acid Peptide Bonds”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Amino Acid Peptide Bonds” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and complete all quiz questions in the “Amino Acid Peptide Bonds” column.  Please write down the complete reaction or the reaction product as required before checking the correct response.  You can check whether your responses are correct by clicking on the “Answer Graphic” link.  
       
      This resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids  
  • 2.5.1 DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid  
  • 2.5.2 RNA: Ribonucleic Acid  
  • 2.6 Biomolecules: Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Coupled Reactions  
  • 2.6.1 Enzymes  
  • 2.6.2 Coenzymes  
    • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition: “The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts"

      Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates: G. M. Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd edition: The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the "Coenzymes" section on this page.  Note that coenzymes are essential for the activity of many enzymes.  Please note that you have already studied this webpage in Subunit 2.6.1, where you have focused on general characteristics of enzymes.  Enzymes are amino acid polymers.  In this Subunit, you learn about coenzymes, which are small organic molecules.  Coenzymes are essential for the biological activity of certain enzymes.  For example, nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is essential for the function of alcohol dehydrogenase, which has a detoxification role in our body after alcohol consumption.  Many enzymes catalyze biological reactions without needing a coenzyme, e.g. trypsin and chymotrypsin work without coenzyme; these enzymes catalyze protein hydrolysis in the small intestine.
       
      This resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.6.3 Coupled Reactions and High-Energy Compounds  
  • 2.7 Test Your Understanding on the Structures of Biomolecules  
    • Assessment: Yakima Valley Community College: J. Loveland’s “Name the Biomolecule”

      Link: Yakima Valley Community College: J. Loveland’s “Name the Biomolecule” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above to access the assessment.  You will find the structural formula of a biomolecule in the center of the page and the names of 14 biomolecule groups on the right side.  Drag and drop the name of the biomolecule into the black box under the structural formula.  You will receive immediate feedback.  If your answer iscorrect,the next structural formula will appear and you can choose again.  If your answer is incorrect, then you may try to answer the question again.  You can also bypass a structural formula if you do not know the answer by clicking on the “Next” button, which appears at the top of the webpage above the structural formula.  This website has a large database, so expect to see different structural formulas and several different structures for the same compound groups.  
       
      This assessment will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.  
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 3: Lipid Metabolism  

    The term “lipid” refers to a broad group of hydrophobic biomolecules.  This family of compounds includes fats, waxes, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), and phospholipids, just to name a few.  While most lipids are hydrophobic, some are amphiphilic, meaning that they possess a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.  This property enables them to form vesicles and membranes in aqueous environments.  Hydrophobic chemicals can be dissolved into the membrane.  The primary biological functions of lipids in living organisms include plasma membrane building, energy storage, enzyme regulation, and signaling.  This unit explains the biosynthesis and biodegradation of lipids.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Triacylglycerol Turnover  
  • 3.1.1 Triacylglycerol Hydrolysis  
  • 3.1.2 Triacylglycerol Resynthesis  
    • Reading: James Hutton Institute: William W. Christie’s “Triacylglycerols”

      Link: James Hutton Institute: William W. Christie’s “Triacylglycerols” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the “1. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols” and “5. Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Plants and Yeasts” sections on this webpage.  
       
      Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2 Triacylglycerol Catabolism: The Fate of Glycerol  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Glycolysis and Fermentation”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Glycolysis and Fermentation” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, select the “Glycolysis Pathway” link under the “Contents of this page” heading, scroll down to the “4. Aldolase Catalyzes” section, and study this entire section.  Glycerol is converted to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (see Subunit 3.1.1 of this course), which in turn is an intermediate of glycolysis.  Thus, glycerol can be used in the glycolytic pathway.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.3 Triacylglycerol Catabolism: Fatty Acid Oxidation  
  • 3.4 Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Fatty Acid Synthesis”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Fatty Acid Synthesis” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage.  Chain elongation during fatty acid synthesis is a series of Claisen condensations.  These redox reactions are catalyzed by multi-subunit fatty acid synthases.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 3 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.5 Terpenoid Biosynthesis  
  • 3.5.1 The Mevalonate Pathway To Isopentenyl Diphosphate  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and then select the “HMG-CoA formation and conversion to mevalonate” link under “Contents of this page,” and study this section.  The section ends with the production of mevalonate.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.5.2 The Deoxyxylulose Pathway To Isopentenyl Diphosphate  
  • 3.5.3 Conversion of Isopentenyl Diphosphate to Terpenoids  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and select "Conversion of mevalonate to isoprenoid precursors" under the “Contents of this page” heading, and study the four images and the associated text in this section.  Check your knowledge: write down the isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the farnesyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis pathways without looking at the figures on the webpage.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.6 Steroid Biosynthesis  
  • 3.6.1 Synthesis of Squalene and its Conversion to Lanosterol  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Cholesterol Synthesis” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and then select “Synthesis of squalene and its conversion to lanosterol” under the “Contents of this page” heading.  Study the pathway summary image right of “Squalene Synthase.” Check your knowledge: write down the lanosterol biosynthesis pathway without looking at the figure on the webpage.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.6.2 Conversion of Lanosterol to Cholesterol  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan's "Cholesterol Synthesis"

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan's "Cholesterol Synthesis" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, then select the "Conversion of Lanosterol to Cholesterol" link under the “Content on this page” heading, and study the first image.  Then, under the “Content on this page,” click on "Regulation of cholesterol synthesis and pharmaceutical intervention," and study until the end of the webpage.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.7 Clinical Significance of Lipid Metabolism  
  • Unit 4: Carbohydrate Metabolism  

    Carbohydrates have the general formula CnH2nOn.  Autotrophs synthesize carbohydrates (e.g. plants synthesize simple sugar from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis).  The central simple carbohydrate is glucose, because it is delivered as an energy source to all cell types in most multicellular organisms.  Carbohydrates may be stored in polysaccharide form (e.g. glycogen and starch, converted to energy or used as building blocks in a variety of biosynthetic pathways).  Other polysaccharides (e.g. chitin and cellulose) are structural and used for cellular support.  This unit explains the major catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Digestion and Hydrolysis of Complex Carbohydrates  
  • 4.2 Glucose Catabolism: Glycolysis  
  • 4.3 Transformations of Pyruvate  
  • 4.3.1 Conversion of Pyruvate to Lactate or Ethanol  
  • 4.3.2 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA  
  • 4.4 The Citric Acid Cycle  
    • Reading: Clackamas Community College: Sue Eggling’s “Citric Acid Cycle”

      Link: Clackamas Community College: Sue Eggling’s “Citric Acid Cycle” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the entire webpage.  Note that the Citric Acid Cycle is also called the Szent-Györgyi – Krebs Cycle.  Make sure to take notes when you study this webpage.  Please note that oxaloacetic acid is necessary to start the cycle, and it is recycled by the end of the cycle.  Check your knowledge: write down the ten consecutive reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle pathway without looking at the webpage.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 4hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.5 Glucose Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis  
  • 4.6 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway  
  • 4.7 Oxidative Phosphorylation  
  • 4.8 Photosynthesis: The Reductive Pentose Phosphate (Calvin) Cycle  
  • 4.9 Clinical Significance of Carbohydrate Metabolism  
    • Reading: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King’s “Glycogen Storage Diseases”

      Link: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King’s “Glycogen Storage Diseases” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the "Glycogen Storage Disease" section including the "Mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate conversion to free glucose," the "Interrelationships of metabolic pathway disruption in von Gierke disease" figures, and the “Table of Glycogen Storage Diseases” on this webpage.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 5: Amino Acids and Metabolism  

    Amino acids are biomolecules that contain an amine group and a carboxylic acid group.  They also contain a side chain that varies depending on the amino acid.  In α-amino acids, the amino group is on the carbon next to the carboxyl group; α-amino acids are the building blocks for protein synthesis.  Amino acids also play vital roles in coenzymes.  In some living organisms, including humans, not all amino acids can be synthesized.  Essential amino acids are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by an organism in sufficient amounts, because the biosynthetic pathway is absent or not efficient enough.  Thus, essential amino acids must come from the diet of the organism.  
               
    In this unit, you will learn about amino acid catabolism and biosynthesis.  The first step of amino acid catabolism is the removal of the amino group and the elimination of the toxic NHproduct from the cell.  Next, the carbon chain of the amino acid is used in a variety of biosynthetic pathways.  Note that it can also be used as an energy source during starvation.  Amino acids are split into two major groups depending on whether an organism can synthesize them or not.  Non-essential amino acids can be synthesized by the cell in sufficient amounts; essential amino acids cannot be synthesized and must come from the diet.  In this unit, you will study the biosynthesis of amino acids that are non-essential and those that are essential for humans.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Protein Degradation  
  • 5.2 Deamination of Amino Acids  
  • 5.2.1 Transamination of Amino Acids  
  • 5.2.2 Oxidative Deamination of Glutamate  
    • Reading: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Amino Acid Catabolism: Nitrogen”

      Link: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Joyce J. Diwan’s “Amino Acid Catabolism: Nitrogen” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, select the “Deamination of amino acids" link under the “Contents of this page” heading, and study this section up until “Urea Cycle.”  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook: “Oxidative Deamination Reaction”

      Link: Elmhurst College: Charles E. Ophardt’s Virtual Chembook:Oxidative Deamination Reaction” (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study this entire webpage.  Click on the embedded hyperlink to “Transamination and Deamination” to visit an interactive page where you can investigate transamination and deamination reactions simultaneously.  You can also investigate the individual reactions of this metabolic pathway by moving the cursor over the arrows of this metabolic pathway.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.3 The Urea Cycle  
  • 5.4 Catabolism of Amino Acid Carbon Chains  
  • 5.5 Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids  
  • 5.6 Biosynthesis of Essential Amino Acids  
  • 5.6.1 Introduction  
  • 5.6.2 Threonine and Lysine  
    • Reading: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian’s “Synthesis of Amino Acids”

      Link: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian’s “Synthesis of Amino Acids” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down about 1/3 of the way to the “Threonine/lysine” section, and study this section, which describes the biosynthesis of threonine from oxaloacetate through aspartate semialdehyde as well as the biosynthesis of lysine from threonine.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.6.3 Isoleucine, Valine, and Leucine  
    • Reading: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids"

      Link: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down about half way to the "Branch Chain Amino Acids" heading, and study this entire section.  Isoleucine, valine, and leucine are branch chain amino acids. 
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.6.4 Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, and Tyrosine  
    • Reading: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids"

      Link: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down about half way to the "Aromatic Amino Acids" heading, and study this entire section.  Phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan are aromatic amino acids. 
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.6.5 Histidine  
    • Reading: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids"

      Link: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down toward the end of the webpage to the "Histidine" heading, and study this entire section, which describes the biosynthesis of histidine from PRPP through AICAR and imidazolglycerol phosphate.
       
      This resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.6.6 Methionine  
    • Reading: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids"

      Link: University of Wisconsin-Madison: Timothy Paustian's "Synthesis of Amino Acids" (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down toward the end of the webpage to the "Methionine" heading, and study this entire section, which describes the biosynthesis of methionine from oxaloacetate through homoserine, using cysteine as a sulfur donor.
       
      This resource will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.7 Clinical Significance of Amino Acid Metabolism  
  • Unit 6: Nucleotide Metabolism  

    Nucleotides are building blocks of RNA and DNA.  They are also a part of a number of high energy molecules, including ATP, which is the energy currency in all known cells.  Nucleotides function as cofactors in the regulation of enzyme activities.  A nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and phosphate groups.  In this unit, you will study the biosynthesis and biodegradation of nucleotides. 

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Nucleotide Catabolism  
  • 6.1.1 Hydrolysis of Polynucleotides  
    • Reading: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism"

      Link: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and then select "Hydrolysis of Polynucleotides" in the "Topics" section, located on top of the page.  Study the "Hydrolysis of Polynucleotides" section, including the catalyzed reaction, which is revealed when you click on the "Reaction" button.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
                          
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1.2 Pyrimidines: Cytidine, Uridine, and Thymidine  
    • Reading: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism"

      Link: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and then select the "Pyrimidine Catabolism" link in the "Topics" section, located on top of the page.  Study the "Pyrimidine Catabolism" section, including the catalyzed reaction, which is revealed when you click on the "Reaction" button.

      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.1.3 Purines: Adenosine and Guanosine  
    • Reading: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism"

      Link: University Of Utah: Carol N. Angstadt's "Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and then select the "Purine Catabolism" link in the "Topics" section, located on top of the page.  Study the "Purine Catabolism" section, including the catalyzed reaction, which is revealed when you click on the "Reaction" button.
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.2 Biosynthesis of Purine Ribonucleotides  
    • Reading: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King's "Introduction"

      Link: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King's "Introduction" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the "Introduction,” "Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis," and "Regulation of Purine Nucleotide Synthesis" sections.  In the “Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis” section, hover your mouse over the abbreviated names of the intermediates (PRA, GAR, FGAR, FGAM, AIR, CAIR, SAICAR, AICAR, and FAICAR) to see their chemical structures.  Note that the inosine monophosphate (IMP) is the primary nucleotide product of de novonucleotide synthesis.  IMP is built on a phosphorylated ribose derivative (PRPP).  Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) are derived from IMP in consecutive reactions of the biosynthetic pathways.  
       
      Studying this resource will take approximately 3 hours to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3 Biosynthesis of Pyrimidine Ribonucleotides  
    • Reading: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King's "Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis"

      Link: The Medical Biochemistry Page: Michael W. King's "Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis" (HTML)
       
      Instruction: Please click on the link above, and study the “Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis” section.  On the Synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate by CPS I figure, hover your mouse over the reactant (carbamoyl phosphate) and intermediates (CA, DHO, orotate, OMP); doing so will reveal the structure of these molecules.  Please note that UTP is the primary nucleotide product; CTP is synthesized from UTP. Studying this resource will take approximately 3 hours to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  

  • 6.4 Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides  
  • 6.4.1 dADP, dGDP, dCTP, and dUDP  
  • 6.4.2 dTMP  
  • 6.5 Salvage of Nucleotides  
  • 6.6 Inborn Errors in Nucleotide Metabolism  
  • Final Exam