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Readings

  • 1.1.1 Reading: Sweet Briar College: Dr. Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe’s “The Roots of Modernism”

    Link: Sweet Briar College: Dr. Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe’s “The Roots of Modernism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “The Roots of Modernism,” which provides some preliminary definitions of modernism and provides an overview of transformations of Western culture that took place between the Renaissance and the late 19th century.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: How does Dr. Witcombe define modernism? What does he identify as the most important reasons for its emergence?
     
    As you encounter study questions in this course, take some time to write your answers down, to post your response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and to respond to others students’ posts.

    Reading this text and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 1.1.1 Reading: The University of Texas at Austin: Harry Ransom Center’s Press Release: “Make It New: The Rise of Modernism Exhibition”

    Link: The University of Texas at Austin: Harry Ransom Center’s Press Release: “Make It New: The Rise of Modernism Exhibition” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this press release for an overview of the historical context of and the defining features of the modernist period.

    Reading this press release should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 1.1.2 Reading: Vanderbilt University: Dr. Bill Kupinse’s “Modernism, Modernization, Modernité, Modern: Some Definitions”

    Link: Vanderbilt University: Dr. Bill Kupinse’s “Modernism, Modernization, Modernité, Modern: Some Definitions” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this text, which proposes various definitions of modernism and modernity.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: How do these definitions differ from one another? Why do you think they differ? Which of the definitions do you find most useful at this point in the course?
     
    Reading this text and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 1.2.1 Reading: Victorian Web: Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade”

    Link: Victorian Web: Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Tennyson’s poem, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Note the chauvinistic, naturalistic, sentimental, and formalist attributes of this Victorian-era poem and the accompanying commentary. Most of these attributes become antithetical to modernist poets.

    Reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 1.2.1 Reading: Victorian Web: Hamilton Beck’s “Explication Commentary”

    Link: Victorian Web: Hamilton Beck’s “Explication Commentary” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: After you have studied Tennyson’s poem, “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” read Beck’s “Explication Commentary” from the paragraph beginning with “The Charge of the Light Brigade was certainly an example of bravado…” through the paragraph that begins with “Tennyson was not naïve in his praise of war…” Keep the themes of bravado and the glory of war in mind for Victorian poetry to contrast against the war poems you will read later in Units 4 and 8.
     
    Reading this commentary should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 1.2.1 Reading: Internet Archive: Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “‘The Brook,’ ‘Break, Break, Break,’ ‘Sweet and Low,’ and ‘The Eagle’”

    Link: Internet Archive: Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “‘The Brook,’ ‘Break, Break, Break,’ ‘Sweet and Low,’ and ‘The Eagle’” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the following poems: “The Brook,” “Break, Break, Break,” “Sweet and Low,” and “The Eagle.” Consider how these poems compare and contrast to “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”
     
    Studying these poems should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 1.2.2 Reading: Rudyard Kipling’s “My Father's Chair,” “The Secret of the Machines,” “A Song of the English,” and Alastair Wilson’s “Commentary on ‘A Song of the English’”

    Link: Rudyard Kipling’s “My Father's Chair,” (HTML) “The Secret of the Machines,” (HTML), “A Song of the English” (HTML), and Alastair Wilson’s “Commentary on ‘A Song of the English’” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Kipling’s poems: “My Father’s Chair,” “The Secret of the Machines,” and “A Song of the English.” Then, read the accompanying commentary. Note Kipling's hyper-patriotism and belief in the English empire's industrial and moral exceptionalism.

    Studying these poems and commentary should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 1.2.3 Reading: Victorian Web: Matthew Arnold’s “Dover Beach”

    Link: Victorian Web: Matthew Arnold's “Dover Beach” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Arnold’s poem, “Dover Beach.” Note the qualities of the poem that make it particular to its time, such as nature imagery, sensory imagery, song-like rhythm, rhyme scheme, and others. “Dover Beach” is Arnold's fatalistic warning to hold onto the sweetness of a moment as long as possible before the imperial giant England, poised on the precipice of Dover's cliffs, is “swept [off] with confused alarms of struggle and flight / Where ignorant armies clash at night.”

    Reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 1.2.3 Reading: Victorian Web: Julia Touche’s “Arnold’s ‘Dover Beach’: A Commentary”

    Link: Victorian Web: Julia Touche’s “Arnold’s ‘Dover Beach’: A Commentary” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: After you have studied the poem “Dover Beach,” read Julia Touche’s commentary on the poem’s structure, form, tone, and theme.
     
    Reading this commentary should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 1.2.4 Reading: Poem Hunter: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “An April Day”

    Link: Poem Hunter: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “An April Day” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Longfellow’s poem, “An April Day.” This poem represents Longfellow’s appreciation of the natural, pastoral world.
     
    Reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 1.2.4 Reading: University of Toronto’s Representative Poetry Online: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “The Landlord’s Tale: Paul Revere’s Ride”

    Link: University of Toronto’s Representative Poetry Online: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “The Landlord's Tale: Paul Revere’s Ride” (HTML)  

    Instructions: Read Longfellow’s poem, “The Landlord’s Tale.” This poem represents Longfellow’s nationalistic pride.
     
    Reading this poem should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 1.2.4 Reading: The American Scholar: Jill Lepore’s “How Longfellow Woke the Dead”

    Link: The American Scholar: Jill Lepore’s “How Longfellow Woke the Dead” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this commentary on Longfellow’s infamous poem, “The Landlord’s Tale: Paul Revere’s Ride.”
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: Do you agree with Lepore’s reading of Longfellow’s poem? Why, or why not? Explain your reasoning.
     
    Reading this text and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
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  • 1.2.5 Reading: NNDB: “Biography of John Greenleaf Whittier”

    Link: NNDB: “Biography of John Greenleaf Whittier” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this biography for an introduction to the poet, John Greenleaf Whittier.

    Reading this text should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 1.2.5 Reading: North Shore Community College: John Greenleaf Whittier’s “Telling the Bees”

    Link: North Shore Community College: John Greenleaf Whittier’s “Telling the Bees” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Whittier’s poem, “Telling the Bees.” Note the themes of this poem and the formal characteristics that are typical of Victorian poetry. Take notes on this poem as you will revisit it later in subunit 1.3 as a precursor to Robert Frost.
     
    Reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 1.2.5 Reading: The Guardian: Carol Rumens’ “Poem of the Week: ‘Telling the Bees’ by John Greenleaf Whittier”

    Link: The Guardian: Carol Rumens’ “Poem of the Week: ‘Telling the Bees’ by John Greenleaf Whittier” (HTML)  

    Instructions: Read this commentary on “Telling the Bees.” This reading should contextualize Whittier for you between the Scotch poet, Robert Burns, and Whittier's New England successor, Robert Frost.
     
    Reading this commentary should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
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  • 1.3 Reading: Poem Hunter: Robert Frost’s “Out, Out” and “Mowing”

    Link: Poem Hunter: Robert Frost’s “Out, Out” (HTML) and “Mowing” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Robert Frost’s poems, “Out, Out” and “Mowing.” Note the applicable characteristics of modernist poetry that Professor Hammer describes in his lecture.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question and writing prompt: What effects does Frost try to achieve? Write a brief interpretation of each poem.
     
    Studying these poems, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
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  • 2.1 Reading: Poets.org: The Academy of American Poets’ “A Brief Guide to the Symbolists”

    Link: Poets.org: The Academy of American Poets’ “A Brief Guide to the Symbolists” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this introduction to the French Symbolists. Then, follow the links in the left column under “Related Authors” to read the full entries about Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, and Stéphane Mallarmé.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: What were the most important characteristics of French Symbolism? How did Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Mallarmé contribute to symbolist poetics? What connections do you see between each of their lives and their literary experiments? 

    Reading these sections and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 2.2 Reading: Poem Hunter: Charles Baudelaire’s “Correspondences,” “Invitation to a Voyage,” and “Cats”

    Link: Poem Hunter: Charles Baudelaire’s “Correspondences” (HTML), “Invitation to a Voyage” (HTML), and “Cats” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Baudelaire’s poems, “Correspondences” and “Invitation to a Voyage,” as well as all of the provided translations of “Cats.”
     
    As you read the poems, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What are the most important stylistic and imagery-related differences between “Correspondences” and “Invitation to a Voyage”? Why are the translations of “Cats” different from one another? Why is Symbolist poetry particularly difficult to translate? When you compare Baudelaire’s poems with the Victorian poems you studied in Unit 1, what are the most important differences? Do you perceive any similarities? Take a moment to write down a paragraph in which you summarize your analysis, and consider posting this to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 2.3 Reading: Black Cat Poems: Arthur Rimbaud’s “Dawn,” “Departure,” “Eternity,” and “Sleep”

    Link: Black Cat Poems: Arthur Rimbaud’s “Dawn” (HTML), “Departure” (HTML), “Eternity” (HTML), and “Sleep” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all four poems: “Dawn,” “Departure,” “Eternity,” and “Sleep.” Note that a literary symbol is something, such as an object, picture, written word, or sound, which represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. Recall from “A Brief Guide to Symbolists” in subunit 2.1: “The ‘symbols’ for which they are named are emblems of the actual world – as opposed to the purely emotional world which dominates their work – that accumulate supernatural significance in the absence of a clear narrative or location.”
     
    As you read these poems, consider the ways in which Rimbaud use symbols and/or symbolic language to engage his readers. Identify the symbols used by Rimbaud, and write down all of associations that they elicit in your mind.

    Studying these poems and completing the activity described above should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 2.3 Reading: Angelfire: Stéphane Mallarmé’s “Afternoon of a Faun”

    Link: Angelfire: Stéphane Mallarmé’s “Afternoon of a Faun” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Mallarmé’s poem, “Afternoon of a Faun.”
     
    As you read, consider the symbols and/or symbolic language that Mallarmé used to engage his readers. Identify the symbols used by Mallarmé, and write down all of the associations that they elicit in your mind.
     
    Reading this poem and completing the activity described above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 3 Reading: Brown University and The University of Tulsa’s The Modernist Journals Project: “Modernism Began in the Magazines”

    Link: Brown University and The University of Tulsa’s The Modernist Journals Project: “Modernism Began in the Magazines” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Review this excellent collection of poetry journals that sprung up in the early 20th century and published boundary-breaking modern poets’ works and theories of poetry. Click on the image of each journal to learn more about the publication.
     
    Reviewing the journals should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
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  • 3.1 Reading: Grand Valley State University: Michael Webster’s “Poetic Modes in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century”

    Link: Grand Valley State University: Michael Webster’s “Poetic Modes in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, taking notes on how Symbolist and Imagist poetry was a reaction against the genteel poetry of the Victorian era. This reading will also revisit the definition and characteristics of modernism. Identify the features of the decadent Imagists and Symbolists vs. those of the genteel Victorian poets.
     
    Reading this article and identifying these features should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 3.2 Reading: Poetry Foundation: William Butler Yeats’ “The Song of Wandering Aengus” and “A Coat”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: William Butler Yeats’ “The Song of Wandering Aengus” (HTML) and Allpoetry: “A Coat” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Yeats’ poems, “The Song of Wandering Aengus” and “A Coat.”
     
    As you read, consider the following study question and writing prompt: How does Symbolism enter into Yeats’ poetry? For each poem, write a paragraph in which you analyze the poem’s dominant symbols. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 3.2 Reading: WikiSource: William Butler Yeats’ “The Madness of King Goll”

    Link: WikiSource: William Butler Yeats’ “The Madness of King Goll” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Yeats’ poem, “The Madness of King Goll.” This poem presents itself as a monologue and an ode to the Irish spirit.
     
    As you read, consider the following question and writing prompt: How might the poet represent himself through King Goll? How might the use of myth correspond to the use of symbolism? Write a paragraph analyzing the dominant symbols in this poem and any metaphorical relationship between the poet and character of King Goll. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this poem, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 3.2 Reading: Poetry Archive: William Butler Yeats’ “To the Rose upon the Rood of Time”

    Link: Poetry Archive: William Butler Yeats’ “To the Rose upon the Rood of Time” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Yeats’ poem, “To the Rose upon the Rood of Time.” As you read, identify the poem’s formal features, its themes, and its use of symbolism and imagery.

    Reading this poem and identifying its features should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 3.2 Reading: Poetry Foundation: William Butler Yeats’ “The Wild Swans at Coole”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: William Butler Yeats’ “The Wild Swans at Coole” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Yeats’ poem, “The Wild Swans at Coole.” Identify the formal features, themes, and use of symbolism and imagery in this poem.
     
    Reading this poem and identifying its features should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 3.2 Reading: William Butler Yeats’ “The Symbolism of Poetry”

    Link: William Butler Yeats’ “The Symbolism of Poetry” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: After reading Yeats’ poems in this subunit, read Yeats’ essay, “The Symbolism of Poetry.”
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: How is Yeats’ approach to Symbolism different from that of Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Mallarmé? Write a few paragraphs about what Yeats is trying to achieve through Symbolism. Once you have read this essay, return to one or two of Yeats’ poems in this subunit and identify examples that support your ideas. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this essay, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 3.3 Reading: Poem Hunter: Wallace Stevens’ “Sunday Morning” and “The Man on the Dump”

    Link: Poem Hunter: Wallace Stevens’ “Sunday Morning” (HTML) and “The Man on the Dump” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Wallace Stevens’ poems, “Sunday Morning” and “The Man on the Dump.”
     
    As you read, consider the following study question and writing prompt: What Symbolist elements do you notice in these poems? Write a brief paragraph to summarize your thoughts, using examples from the poems to support your ideas. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems and completing the writing activity above should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 3.3 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Wallace Stevens’ “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird”

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: Wallace Stevens’ “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Wallace Stevens’ poem, “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.”
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: What is the subject of the poem? What symbols does Stevens use? How does this symbolism affect you as the reader?
     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 3.4 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Al Filreis’ “Imagism”

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Al Filreis’ “Imagism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this brief text for definitions and characteristics of Imagism and Imagists.

    Reading this text should take less than 15 minutes.

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  • 3.4 Reading: Wikipedia: “Imagism”

    Link: Wikipedia: “Imagism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read “Imagism” for an overview of the movement as well as the publications and poets associated with the movement.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
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  • 3.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Ezra Pound”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Ezra Pound” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this biographical essay on Ezra Pound. Take notes on the text as you read about Pound’s various leadership positions with regard to the Imagist and Symbolist movements.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 3.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Pound’s essay on what not to do as an Imagist. As you read, consider the following study questions: How does Pound define Imagism? How does he discuss the process of translating poetry? Write a brief paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 3.5 Reading: Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “In a Station of the Metro” and “The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “In a Station of the Metro” (HTML) and “The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Pound’s poems, “In a Station of the Metro” and “The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter.”
     
    As you study these poems, consider the following questions and writing prompt: What do these poems express about the modern condition? In what ways does each poem’s form depart from traditional poetic norms? What is the effect of introducing references to Chinese culture in the second poem? Write a few paragraphs that describes Ezra Pound’s connection to Imagism and Symbolism through an analysis of these poems. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 3.6 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: H.D.’s “Sea Rose”

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: H.D.’s “Sea Rose” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read H.D.’s poem, “Sea Rose.” As you read, consider the following study questions: What is the dominant imagery in this poem? Does the poem allow you to form unambiguous images in your mind? Why, or why not?

    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 3.6 Reading: Poetry Foundation: H.D.’s “Oread”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: H.D.’s “Oread” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read H.D.’s poem, “Oread.” As you read, consider the following study questions: What is the dominant imagery in this poem? Does this poem allow you to form ambiguous images in your mind? Why, or why not?
     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 3.7 Reading: Modern American Poetry: Amy Lowell’s “On Imagism”

    Link: Modern American Poetry: Amy Lowell’s “On Imagism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Lowell’s essay, “On Imagism.” The term Amygism was used by Ezra Pound in resistance to Lowell’s theories on Imagism.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: How is Amygism both similar to yet different from Imagism? Why might Pound take issue with how Amy Lowell describes the main concerns of Imagist poets? Consider how Pound’s “A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste” compares to Lowell’s “On Imagism.”

    Reading this essay and answering the questions above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 3.7 Reading: American Poems: Amy Lowell’s “The Green Bowl” and “Patterns”

    Link: American Poems: Amy Lowell’s “The Green Bowl” (HTML) and “Patterns” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Lowell’s poems, “The Green Bowl” and “Patterns.” As you read, consider the following study question and writing prompt: How do these poems implement or step away from the rules of Imagist poets as indicated in the essay, “On Imagism”? Write a summary about how these poems address the tenets of Imagism. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Studying these poems, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 3.8 Reading: Wikipedia: “Marianne Moore”

    Link: Wikipedia: “Marianne Moore” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the biography of Marianne Moore for an overview of her contribution to modernist poetry.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
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  • 3.8 Reading: Poem Hunter: Marianne Moore’s “A Grave,” “An Octopus,” “Silence,” “The Fish,” and “The Paper Nautilus”

    Link: Poem Hunter: Marianne Moore’s “A Grave” (HTML), “An Octopus” (HTML), “Silence” (HTML), “The Fish” (HTML), and “The Paper Nautilus” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Moore’s poems: “A Grave,” “An Octopus,” “Silence,” and “The Paper Nautilus.” Note that Moore often used syllabics, the counting of syllables as a form of meter, rather than typical metrical lines; a strong example of the use of syllabics is “The Fish.”
     
    Take some time to note the characteristics of Imagism and modernism found in Moore’s poetry. Choose one or two of Moore’s poems to analyze. Consider the effects that Moore tries to achieve, and write a few paragraphs that explain your interpretation, using examples from the poem to support your ideas. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Studying these poems and completing the writing activity should take approximately 3 hours.

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  • 3.9 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of William Carlos Williams”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of William Carlos Williams” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read William Carlos Williams’ biography. As you read, take notes about the most important turning points in Williams’ life and writing.

    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 3.9 Reading: William Carlos Williams’ “The Poem as a Field of Action”

    Link: William Carlos Williams’ “The Poem as a Field of Action” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Williams’ 1948 essay, “The Poem as a Field of Action.” As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: How are ideas presented in this essay related to Imagist theories you studied earlier in this unit? What elements are new here? Write a paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 3.9 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: William Carlos Williams’ “The Red Wheelbarrow”

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: William Carlos Williams’ “The Red Wheelbarrow” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Williams’ poem, “The Red Wheelbarrow,” which was presented in the course introduction in comparison to Milton. As you revisit this poem, consider the following study questions: In “The Red Wheelbarrow,” the first stanza is very different from the ones that follow. What is the difference? What is the effect of this juxtaposition on the reader?

    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 3.9 Reading: Poets.org: William Carlos Williams’ “This Is Just to Say”

    Link: Poets.org: William Carlos Williams’ “This Is Just to Say” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Williams’ poem, “This Is Just to Say.” As you read, consider the following study questions: How does “This is Just to Say” illustrate the principles of Imagism? What tone comes across in this poem?
     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 4.1 Reading: Voices Education: Siegfried Sassoon’s “The Dragon and the Undying”

    Link: Voices Education: Siegfried Sassoon’s “The Dragon and the Undying” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Sassoon’s poem, “The Dragon and the Undying.” As you read this poem, consider the following study questions and write down some notes with your responses to help prepare you for the upcoming written assignment in this subunit: Does this poem attempt to provide a realistic depiction of modern war? What words and phrases point to a romanticized vision of battle? What emotional effects does this poem produce in the reader? Why might this poem be considered the chivalric ideal? How do you think English audiences reacted to this poem during the time of World War I?

     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 4.1 Reading: Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier”

    Link: Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Brooke’s poem, “The Soldier.” As you read this poem, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: Does this poem attempt to provide a realistic depiction of modern war? What words and phrases point to a romanticized vision of battle? What emotional effects does this poem produce in the reader? Why might this poem be considered the chivalric ideal? How do you think English audiences reacted to this poem during the time of World War I? How does Brooke’s poem compare and contrast to Sassoon’s poem? Write a few paragraphs that respond to these questions and that aim to compare Brooke’s and Sassoon’s poems. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this poem, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 4.2 Reading: BBC: Dr. Stephen Badsey’s “The Western Front and the Birth of Total War,” Dr. Joanna Bourke’s “Shell Shock during World War One,” and Dr. Ruth Henig’s “Versailles and Peacemaking”

    Link: BBC: Dr. Stephen Badsey’s “The Western Front and the Birth of Total War” (HTML), Dr. Joanna Bourke’s “Shell Shock during World War One” (HTML), and Dr. Ruth Henig’s “Versailles and Peacemaking” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all three articles to learn about the realities of the Great War. Then, revisit the poems by Sassoon and Brooke in subunit 4.1.
     
    As you read these articles and revisit the poems from subunit 4.1, consider the following study questions: Do these poets achieve the reality of war? Why, or why not?

    Reading these articles and answering the questions above should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 4.3 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Wilfred Owen,” “Biography of Thomas Hardy,” “Biography of Siegfried Sassoon,” and “Biography of Isaac Rosenberg”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Wilfred Owen” (HTML), “Biography of Thomas Hardy” (HTML), “Biography of Siegfried Sassoon” (HTML), and “Biography of Isaac Rosenberg” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these biographical essays on Wilfred Owen, Thomas Hardy, Siegfried Sassoon, and Isaac Rosenberg. Together, they provide a narrative of various experiences of the end of the Victorian Era and of the Great War.
     
    After you finish reading, write a paragraph or two to summarize what you consider to be the most important historical and cultural characteristics of this time that may have influenced these poets. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading these essays and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.1 Reading: Siegfried Sassoon’s “Repression of War Experience” and “The Rear-Guard”

    Link: : Siegfried Sassoon’s “Repression of War Experience” (HTML) and “The Rear-Guard” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Sassoon’s poems, “Repression of War Experience” and “The Rear-Guard.” For each poem, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What do these poems say about the soldier’s experience in war? What do these poems tell us about World War I? Who is the intended audience? How would you characterize the poet’s relationship to that audience? How would you explain the sources of these various poet-audience relationships? Collectively, what do these poems say about European culture? Write one to three paragraphs to summarize your insights and analysis. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.1 Reading: AftermathWWI.com: Siegfried Sassoon’s “On Passing the New Menin Gate”

    Link: AftermathWWI.com: Siegfried Sassoon’s “On Passing the New Menin Gate” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Sassoon’s poem, “On Passing the New Menin Gate.” As you read this poem, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What does this poem say about World War I and war in general? Who is the intended audience? How would you characterize the speaker’s relationship to that audience? What does this poem say about European culture? Write a few paragraphs to summarize your insights and analysis. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this poem, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.2 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Wilfred Owens’ “Arms and the Boy,” “Anthem for Doomed Youth,” and “Dulce et Decorum Est”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Wilfred Owens’ “Arms and the Boy” (HTML), “Anthem for Doomed Youth” (HTML), and “Dulce et Decorum Est” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Owens’ poems: “Arms and the Boy,” “Anthem for Doomed Youth,” and “Dulce et Decorum Est.”
     
    For each poem, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What is the tone of each poem? What do these poems say about the involvement of youth in war? Who is the intended audience? How would you characterize the poet’s relationship to that audience? How would you explain the sources of these various poet-audience relationships? Collectively, what do these poems say about European culture? How do Owens’ poems compare to those of Sassoon? Write two or three paragraphs to summarize your insights and conclusions. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.3 Reading: John McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields”

    Link: John McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read McCrae’s poem, “In Flanders Fields.” As you read, consider the following study questions: In what ways do you see McCrae challenging the concept of war in this text? How does McCrae’s poem compare to those of Sassoon and Owens?

    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.4 Reading: Web-Books.com: Rudyard Kipling’s “Epitaphs of the War”

    Link: Web-Books.com: Rudyard Kipling’s “Epitaphs of the War” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Kipling’s poem, “Epitaphs of the War.” As you read, consider the following study questions: How does this poem compare and contrast to Kipling’s poems that you have read earlier (see subunit 1.3.2)? How does Kipling’s approach to patriotism in “Epitaphs of the War” differ from the poems in subunit 1.3.2?

    Reading this poem and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 4.4.4 Reading: Great War Literature Magazine: W. Lawrance’s “Rudyard Kipling – Author, Poet, and Quintessential Englishman”

    Link: Great War Literature Magazine: W. Lawrance’s “Rudyard Kipling – Author, Poet, and Quintessential Englishman” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article to learn about the events that changed Kipling’s view of the war. Then, go back and re-read “Epitaphs of the War.”
     
    As you read this article and review the poem, consider the following study questions: How does this article inform your analysis of “Epitaphs of the War”? How would you describe Kipling’s change of heart, or changing attitude?
     
    Reading this article, re-reading “Epitaphs of the War,” and answering the questions above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 4.4.5 Reading: Poets.org: e.e. cummings’ “i sing of Olaf glad and big”

    Link: Poets.org: e.e. cummings’ “i sing of Olaf glad and big” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read cummings’ poem, “i sing of Olaf glad and big.” e.e. cummings spent time as a volunteer ambulance driver at the front in World War I, similar to Ernest Hemingway. He returned with a far more negative position than Hemingway and was very active in articulating his position during the lead up to World War II.
     
    As you read this poem, consider the following study questions: How is this poem a pacifist poem? What is the speaker’s position on war? How might one read this poem as an anti-war poem? How does this poem compare and contrast to Kipling’s “Epitaphs of the War” in terms of the genre of war poetry?
     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
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  • 4.4.5 Reading: The Literature of Poetry: e.e. cummings’ “next to of course god america I”

    Link: The Literature of Poetry: e.e. cummings’ “next to of course god america I” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read e.e. cummings’ poem, “next to of course god america i.” Also, read the commentary that follows the poem. Finally, listen to the recording of cummings reading this poem.
     
    As you read the poem and listen to the recording, consider the following study questions: How is this poem a pacifist poem? What is the speaker’s position on war? How does the speaker reconcile patriotism and anti-war sentiments in this poem? How does this poem compare and contrast to Kipling’s “Epitaphs of the War” in terms of the genre of war poetry?
     
    Reading this poem, reading the commentary, listening to the recording, and answering the questions above should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
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  • 4.4.5 Reading: Harvard Magazine: Adam Kirsch’s “The Rebellion of E.E. Cummings”

    Link: Harvard Magazine: Adam Kirsch’s “The Rebellion of E.E. Cummings” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article about the range of cummings’ anti-establishment perspective. Then, go back and re-read the poems by cummings in this subunit.
     
    As you read this article and revisit the poems in this subunit, consider the following study question: How does this article inform your reading of these poems?
     
    Reading this article, re-reading the poems in this subunit, and answering the question above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 4.5 Reading: Poetry X: Walter de la Mare’s “The Truants”

    Link: Poetry X: Walter de la Mare’s “The Truants” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Walter de la Mare’s poem, written in 1920. As you read, consider the following study question: What are the most important differences between this poem and the war-time poems you studied in this unit?

    Reading this poem and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 4.5 Reading: Literature Study Online: Stephen Colbourn’s “The Georgian Poets and the War Poets”

    Link: Literature Study Online: Stephen Colbourn’s “The Georgian Poets and the War Poets” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this essay on the Georgian poets and war poets. After reading this essay, re-read Mare’s poem in this subunit.
     
    As you read this essay and revisit the poem, consider the following study question and writing prompt: How does this essay inform your reading of “The Truants”? Write a paragraph that links the experience of World War I and the emergence of a distinctive modernist poetic style. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

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  • 5.1 Reading: Princeton University Press: Christine Poggi’s Inventing Futurism: The Art and Politics of Artificial Optimism: “Chapter 1: Futurist Velocities”

    Link: Princeton University Press: Christine Poggi’s Inventing Futurism: The Art and Politics of Artificial Optimism: “Chapter 1: Futurist Velocities” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “Chapter 1: Futurist Velocities,” and take careful notes on the Futurist movement.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: How did Futurism differ from Imagism and 19th-century Symbolism? What did these movements have in common? Write a paragraph or two that compares and contrasts the rhetorical aims of these movements. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this chapter, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

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  • 5.1 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Mina Loy’s “Aphorisms on Futurism,” “Lunar Baedeker,” and “Giovanni Franchi”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Mina Loy’s “Aphorisms on Futurism” (HTML), “Lunar Baedeker” (HTML), and “Giovanni Franchi” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Mina Loy’s three poems: “Aphorisms on Futurism,” “Lunar Baedeker,” and “Giovanni Franchi.” Also, read the introductory note to “Aphorisms on Futurism” as well as read Jessica Burstein’s article, accessible by clicking on the “Poem Guide” tab for “Lunar Baedeker.”
     
    As you read these poems, consider the following study questions: How do Loy’s poems represent or depart from Futurist poems? How does gender figure in these poems? How might one provide a Feminist interpretation of her poems? Write a paragraph or two to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, reading the article, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 3 hours.

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  • 5.1.1 Reading: wendtroot.com: “Italian Futurism”

    Link: wendtroot.com: “Italian Futurism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article on Italian Futurism, and take notes in order to compare and contrast Italian Futurism with aspects of other modern poetry movements that have already been discussed. Later on, you may use your notes to also draw comparisons among Futurism, Vorticism, and Objectivism.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 5.1.1 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Filippo Marinetti’s Excerpts from Manifesto of Futurism

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: Filippo Marinetti’s Excerpts from Manifesto of Futurism (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these two excerpts from Filippo Marinetti’s hugely influential 1909 Manifesto of Futurism: “The Joy of Mechanical Force” and “Futurist Manifesto.”
     
    As you read these excerpts, consider the following study questions: Why do you think there was such an emphasis on the future during this era? What are the dominant images in this manifesto? How does it represent modernity? Is the individual person important? Are there any anti-humanist or violent elements in this text? What should a Futurist poet strive for in his or her art? How does Loy’s “Aphorisms on Futurism” compare to Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism? What are the most important differences between the two texts? Write a paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading these texts, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 5.1.2 Reading: Poets.org: “A Brief Guide to Futurism” and “Biography of Vladimir Mayakovsky”

    Link: Poets.org: “A Brief Guide to Futurism” (HTML) and “Biography of Vladimir Mayakovsky” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the guide to Futurism and take notes to learn about the distinctions between Italian Futurism and Russian Futurism. Then, read the biography on Vladimir Mayakovsky, one of the distinctive poets of Russian Futurism. It may be useful to review your notes on Italian Futurism.
     
    As you read and review your notes, consider the following study question: What are the most important differences between Russian and Italian Futurism?

    Reading these texts, reviewing your notes, and answering the question above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 5.1.3 Reading: History Today: Richard Jensen’s “Futurism and Fascism”

    Link: History Today: Richard Jensen’s “Futurism and Fascism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “Futurism and Fascism” to learn about Futurism’s political connection.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What is the author’s main argument about the relationship between Futurism and Fascism? Do you find it convincing? Why, or why not? Using what you know about Italian Futurism from subunit 5.1.1 to support your ideas, write a brief paragraph to analyze this political and literary connection. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this article, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 5.2.1 Reading: Vorticism: “Introduction [to Vorticism]” and “Modern Vorticists”

    Link: Vorticism: “Introduction [to Vorticism]” (HTML) and “Modern Vorticists” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the introduction to Vorticism. Then, read the brief information about modern Vorticists.

    Reading these sections should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 5.2.2 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “Vortex”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Ezra Pound’s “Vortex” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the introductory note as well as Pound’s essay, “Vortex,” which first appeared in BLAST. This reading will help you understand the origins of the poetic movement of Vorticism as well as will explain the rhetorical aims of the movement.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question: How does Pound’s explanation of Vorticism relate to other movements like Imagism and Symbolism?
     
    Reading this essay and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 5.2.3 Reading: Vorticism: “Biography of Wyndham Lewis”

    Link: Vorticism: “Biography of Wyndham Lewis” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this biography of Wyndham Lewis to better understand the artistic connection to Vorticism.
     
    As you read, consider the following questions: What inspired Lewis to strike out on his own to form his own movement rather than to simply join one? Note that Vorticism was influenced by Cubism. How might you see this transferred over to poetry?
     
    Reading this biography and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 5.2.3 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Wyndham Lewis’ “Long Live the Vortex!” and “Our Vortex”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Wyndham Lewis’ “Long Live the Vortex!” and “Our Vortex” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the introductory note as well as excerpts from “Long Live the Vortex!” and “Our Vortex,” pieces published in BLAST as part of Lewis’ manifesto on Vorticism. Pay particular attention to the early stages of the evolution of the Vorticist movement and its relationship to World War I. 
     
    Reading these texts should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 5.2.3 Reading: Brown University and The University of Tulsa’s The Modernist Journals Project: BLAST (No. 1, Ed. Wyndham Lewis)

    Link: Brown University and The University of Tulsa’s The Modernist Journals Project: BLAST (No. 1, Ed. Wyndham Lewis) (HTML)

    Instructions: Using the scrolling tool on the left-hand side of the webpage, go to page 9 (“Long Live the Vortex!”), and read the manifesto in its entirety (pp. 9–45). Once you have read the manifesto, explore the magazine’s other pages, paying attention to both the language of the poems and the visual aesthetic of this publication.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: What are the most important claims this manifesto makes about art? How are these different from the creed of the Symbolists and the Imagists? What do you think was so revolutionary about BLAST?
     
    Reading the text, answering the questions above, and exploring poems in BLAST should take approximately 3 hours.

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  • 5.3 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Peter O’Leary’s “The Energies of Words”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Peter O’Leary’s “The Energies of Words” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “The Energies of Words” to learn about Poetry Magazine’s legendary 1931 Objectivist issue and the origins as well as characteristics of the movement.

    Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 5.3 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Poetry, February 1931

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Poetry, February 1931 (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the poems in the 1931 magazine issue, Poetry, dedicated to the Objectivists. Make sure to study Louis Zukofsky's poem “‘A’: Seventh Movement: ‘There Are Different Techniques,’” and list the Objectivist elements that this poem illustrates.
     
    Reading this issue of Poetry, studying Zukofsky’s poem, and identifying various Objectivist elements should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 6.2 Reading: Poets.org: Ezra Pound’s The Cantos: “Canto XIV”

    Link: Poets.org: Ezra Pound’s The Cantos: “Canto XIV” (HTML)

    Instructions: Before doing the readings for this subunit, please review your notes on Professor Langdon Hammer’s lecture on Ezra Pound, which you listened to in subunit 6.1. Then, read “Canto XIV” in its entirety.
     
    Write a brief analysis of the rhetorical goals of this poem, as well as its imagery, form, and tone. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reviewing your notes, reading the text, and completing the writing activity should take 2 hours.

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  • 6.3 Reading: Poetry Foundation: T.S. Eliot’s “Tradition and Individual Talent”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: T.S. Eliot’s “Tradition and Individual Talent” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “Tradition and Individual Talent.” As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What concept of individuality emerges from this essay? What does this say and imply about the place of emotions in modern poetry? Write a brief paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 6.4 Reading: Modern American Poetry: Excerpts from Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberley

    Link: Modern American Poetry: Excerpts from Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (HTML)

    Instructions: Scroll down the webpage to find selections from Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberley.
     
    As you read, compare this poem to other poems by Pound that you read in earlier subunits. Consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What is unique about Pound’s diction? What is the effect of the various phrases borrowed from other languages? Can one say that this poem has formal or thematic unity? Why, or why not? Write a brief paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this text, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 6.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Gertrude Stein” and “Biography of H.D.”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Gertrude Stein” (HTML) and “Biography of H.D.” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the biographies of Gertrude Stein and H.D. to better understand the experiences of expatriate women poets.

    Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 6.5 Reading: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library: “Literary Expatriates in Paris”

    Link: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library: “Literary Expatriates in Paris” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on literary expatriates in Paris. As you read, consider the following study question: Why, do you think, Americans would look to leave their country during this era?

    Reading this article and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 6.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Gertrude Stein’s “A Carafe, That Is a Blind Glass,” “A Little Called Pauline,” and “New”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Gertrude Stein’s “A Carafe, That Is a Blind Glass” (HTML), “A Little Called Pauline” (HTML), and “New” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Stein’s three poems: “A Carafe, That Is a Blind Glass,” “A Little Called Pauline,” and “New.”
     
    As you read these poems, consider the following study questions: How do these poems differ from Imagist and other early modernist poems you studied previously in this course? What characteristics of high modernism do you find in these poems? Write a paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 6.6 Reading: The Literature Network: William Butler Yeats’ “Easter, 1916” and “The Second Coming”

    Link: The Literature Network: William Butler Yeats’ “Easter, 1916” (HTML) and “The Second Coming” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Yeats’ poems: “Easter, 1916” and “The Second Coming.”
     
    As you study these poems, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: How would you relate “The Second Coming” to the events and aftermath of World War I? How does Yeats use biblical imagery in this poem? How does the poem’s form work to support or subvert its message? What characteristics of high modernism do you find in these poems? Write a paragraph or two to summarize your ideas. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 6.7 Reading: Project Gutenberg: T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land

    Link: Project Gutenberg: T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Eliot’s 434-line poem, The Waste Land. As you read this poem, consider the ways in which it is an emblem of the post-WWI sensibility. What features of the poem contribute to that sensibility?

    Reading this poem and answering the question above should take approximately 5 hours.

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  • 6.8 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Hart Crane,” Hart Crane’s “Legend,” and Selections from Hart Crane’s “The Bridge”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Hart Crane” (HTML), Hart Crane’s “Legend” (HTML), and Selections from Hart Crane’s “The Bridge” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the biography of Hart Crane. Then, read the poem “Legend” and selections from “The Bridge.” Note the form and style of the poems, and summarize their content in your own words.  

    Reading the biography, studying the poems, and summarizing the form and style of the poems should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 6.8 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Brian Reed’s “Hart Crane: Voyages”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Brian Reed’s “Hart Crane: Voyages” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Reed’s explication of Hart Crane’s “Voyages.”
     
    Reading this text should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 7.1 Reading: Poets.org: “A Brief Guide to the Harlem Renaissance”

    Link: Poets.org: “A Brief Guide to the Harlem Renaissance” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “A Brief Guide to the Harlem Renaissance.” As you read, consider the following study question: What were the most important characteristics of the Harlem Renaissance?

    Reading this article and answering the question above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 7.1 Reading: Yale New Haven Teachers Institute: Caroline Jackson’s “Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture”

    Link: Yale New Haven Teachers Institute: Caroline Jackson’s “Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on the Harlem Renaissance. This reading provides an introduction to the movement as well as analyzes the styles of McKay, Cullen, Hughes, and Toomer, using excerpts from poem to support the analysis. Take notes on the most influential figures of the Harlem Renaissance and the most important events of this period.

    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 7.2.1 Reading: The University of Virginia: W.E.B. Du Bois’ “The Strivings of Negro People”

    Link: The University of Virginia: W.E.B. Du Bois’ “The Strivings of Negro People” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Du Bois’ “The Strivings of Negro People.” This is an influential essay published by W.E.B. Du Bois in the Atlantic Monthly in 1897.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: Why do you think this essay became so important? How does Du Bois characterize the cultural predicament of African Americans? Write a paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 7.2.2 Reading: James Weldon Johnson (ed.)’s The Book of American Negro Poetry: “Preface”

    Link: James Weldon Johnson (ed.)’s The Book of American Negro Poetry: “Preface” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read James Weldon Johnson’s “Preface” to The Book of American Negro Poetry. As you read, take notes on the text, focusing on how Johnson’s “Preface” characterizes the achievements and contributions of African Americans.

    Reading this text should take approximately 3 hours.

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  • 7.2.3 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Claude McKay”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Claude McKay” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this biographical essay to learn about McKay’s life and his poetry.
     
    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.2.3 Reading: Claude McKay’s “If We Must Die” and “The Harlem Dancer”

    Link: Poetry Foundation: Claude McKay’s “If We Must Die” (HTML) and University of Pennsylvania:  “The Harlem Dancer” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read McKay’s poems: “If We Must Die” and “The Harlem Dancer.” As you study these poems, consider the following study questions: How do these poems engage social issues? How does each poem’s form affect its message?

    Studying these poems and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.2.4 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Countee Cullen”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Countee Cullen” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this biographical essay to learn about the life and works of Countee Cullen.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.2.4 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Countee Cullen’s “A Brown Girl Dead,” “Heritage,” and “For Amy Lowell”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Countee Cullen’s “A Brown Girl Dead” (HTML), “Heritage” (HTML), and “For Amy Lowell” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Cullen’s poems: “A Brown Girl Dead,” “Heritage,” and “For Amy Lowell.” Compare the poems’ formal qualities and their message.
     
    As you study these poems, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What are the universal aspects of these poems? What are their political aspects? How would you characterize the speaker’s attitude toward life? Based on what you learned about Amy Lowell’s poetry, how do you think Lowell might have responded to Cullen’s poem? Write a few paragraphs to summarize your thoughts, using evidence from the course materials to support your ideas. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 2 hours.

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  • 7.2.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Langston Hughes”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: “Biography of Langston Hughes” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this biographical essay to learn about Hughes’ life and the role he played in the Harlem Renaissance.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.2.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Langston Hughes’ “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Langston Hughes’ “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the introductory note as well as Hughes’ essay, “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.” As you read, consider the following study question: How does Hughes analyze the relationship between race and poetry?

    Reading this essay and answering the question above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 7.2.5 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Elizabeth Alexander’s “The Black Poet as Canon-Maker”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Elizabeth Alexander’s “The Black Poet as Canon-Maker” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Alexander’s essay, “The Black Poet as Canon-Maker.” As you read, consider the following study question: What does Alexander’s essay add to your understanding of the Harlem Renaissance?
     
    Reading this essay and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.2.5 Reading: Modern American Poetry: Onwucheka Jemie, Bartholomew Brinkman, and John Moore’s “On ‘Ku Klux’”

    Link: Modern American Poetry: Onwucheka Jemie, Bartholomew Brinkman, and John Moore’s “On ‘Ku Klux’” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this collection of analyses on Hughes’ “Ku Klux,” compiled by the Modern American Poetry project.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question: What are the similarities and differences between these analyses and your own interpretation of Hughes’ “Ku Klux”?
     
    Reading this text and answering the question above should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 7.2.5 Reading: Modern American Poetry: James Smethurst’s “Langston Hughes in the 1930s”

    Link: Modern American Poetry: James Smethurst’s “Langston Hughes in the 1930s” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Smethurst’s essay on Langston Hughes. As you read, consider the following question: What is the rationale for Hughes’ interest in Communism?

    Reading this essay and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.3 Reading: Poets.org: Anthony Walton’s “Double-Bind: Three Women of the Harlem Renaissance”

    Link: Poets.org: Anthony Walton’s “Double-Bind: Three Women of the Harlem Renaissance” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Walton’s essay on the women of the Harlem Renaissance.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question: How does this essay characterize the dilemmas and challenges faced by African American women poets during the Harlem Renaissance? Write a paragraph to summarize your thoughts. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this essay, answering the question above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 7.3.1 Reading: Poets.org: Jesse Redmon Fauset’s “Dead Fires” and “La Vie C'est La Vie”

    Link: Poets.org: Jesse Redmon Fauset’s “Dead Fires” (HTML) and “La Vie C'est La Vie” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Fauset’s poems: “Dead Fires” and “La Vie C’est La Vie.” As you study these poems, consider the following study questions: What are your interpretations of these poems? What cultural challenges are explored in these poems? What is their formal structure? How would you compare these to other Harlem Renaissance poems you have read so far? Studying these poems and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.3.2 Reading: The Poetry Foundation: Georgia Douglas Johnson’s “Common Dust” and “Smothered Fires”

    Link: The Poetry Foundation: Georgia Douglas Johnson’s “Common Dust” (HTML) and “Smothered Fires” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Johnson’s poems: “Common Dust” and “Smothered Fires.” Identify the formal qualities, tone, and imagery in these poems.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: What cultural challenges are expressed in these poems? How would you compare these poems to Jesse Redmon Fauset’s poems?
     
    Studying these poems and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.3.2 Reading: Poet.org: Georgia Douglas Johnson’s “Black Woman” and “The Heart of a Woman”

    Link: Poet.org: Georgia Douglas Johnson’s “Black Woman” (HTML) and “The Heart of a Woman” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Johnson’s poems: “Black Woman” and “The Heart of a Woman.” Identify the formal qualities, dominant tone, and imagery in these poems.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions: What cultural challenges are expressed in these poems? How would you compare them to Jesse Redmon Fauset’s poems that you studied in the previous subunit?

     
    Studying these poems and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 7.3.3 Reading: Poets.org: Gwendolyn Bennett’s “Quatrains,” “Fantasy,” “Sonnet 1,” and “Sonnet 2”

    Link: Poets.org: Gwendolyn Bennett’s “Quatrains” (HTML), “Fantasy” (HTML), “Sonnet 1” (HTML), and “Sonnet 2” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Bennett’s poems: “Quatrains,” “Fantasy,” “Sonnet 1,” and “Sonnet 2.” Identify the formal qualities, dominant tone, and imagery in these poems.
     
    As you read these poems, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: How would you compare them with other Harlem Renaissance poems? What cultural challenges are expressed in these poems? Write a paragraph to summarize your analysis of the poems of Gwendolyn Bennet, Georgia Douglas Johnson, and Jesse Redmon Fauset. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Studying these poems, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 8.1 Reading: Michigan Quarterly Review: Jay Ladin’s “‘After the End of the World’: Poetry and the Holocaust”

    Link: Michigan Quarterly Review: Jay Ladin’s “‘After the End of the World’: Poetry and the Holocaust” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Ladin’s essay, “‘After the End of the World’: Poetry and the Holocaust.”
     
    As you read this essay, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What arguments does the author make about the possibility of writing poetry after the Holocaust? What do you think is the role of poetry in the face of genocide? Write a paragraph to summarize your insights. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 3 hours.
     
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  • 8.1 Reading: Michigan Quarterly Review: Alicia Ostriker’s “Holocaust Poetry: Another View”

    Link: Michigan Quarterly Review: Alicia Ostriker’s “Holocaust Poetry: Another View” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Ostriker’s essay, “Holocaust Poetry: Another View.”
     
    As you read this essay, consider the following study questions: What is Ostriker's main argument? Do you find it compelling? Why, or why not? Do the quotes of poetry that she provides support her argument? Why, or why not?
     
    Reading this essay and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour.
     
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  • 8.2.1 Reading: George Mason University’s History Matters: “Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation”

    Link: George Mason University’s History Matters: “Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the “Executive Order 9066” for historical context about the relocation of Japanese-Americans to internment camps.
     
    Reading this text should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 8.2.1 Reading: Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies: “Letters from the Japanese American Internment”

    Link: Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies: “Letters from the Japanese American Internment” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Study the Smithsonian’s learning module on Japanese-American internment camps. Click on the links from “Clara Breed” through “Legacies.” Take notes on the Americans’ attitudes toward internment as well as the historical context of this period to use later in consideration of poetry written during this time.
     
    Reading these webpages should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
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  • 8.2.2 Reading: Modern American Poetry: Violet Kazue de Cristoforo’s “Pre-War Japanese American Haiku”

    Link: Modern American Poetry: Violet Kazue de Cristoforo’s “Pre-War Japanese American Haiku” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Violet Kazue de Cristoforo’s essay on the pre-war Japanese American Kaikos, or free-style Haikus.
     
    As you read, consider the following study questions and writing prompt: What are the major concerns of pre-war Japanese American haikus? How does the historical information from subunit 8.2.1 inform your reading of these haikus? Write a paragraph or two summarizing the themes and imagery in these poems. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this essay, answering the questions above, and completing the writing activity should take approximately 45 minutes.

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  • 8.2.2 Reading: Lantern Review Blog: “Poetry in History: Japanese American Internment”

    Link: Lantern Review Blog: “Poetry in History: Japanese American Internment” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this essay to learn about the Japanese American poets in internment camps during World War II.
     
    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 8.2.2 Reading: Voices [Education Project]: World War II Poets: “Violet Kazue de Cristoforo”

    Link: Voices [Education Project]: World War II Poets: “Violet Kazue de Cristoforo” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this brief biography of Violet Kazue de Cristoforo as well as a few of her haiku poems.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question: How would you describe the relationship of these haikus to the experience of internment?

    Reading this article and answering the question above should take approximately 15 minutes.

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  • 8.3.1 Reading: Western Michigan University: Randall Jarrell’s “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner”

    Link: Western Michigan University: Randall Jarrell’s “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Jarrell’s poem, “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.” As you read, consider the following study questions: What is the meaning of this poem? What does it say about the value of human life during war? What is Jarrell’s intention with the use of metaphor?

    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 8.3.1 Reading: Modern American Poetry: Randall Jarrell’s “The Refugees”

    Link: Modern American Poetry: Randall Jarrell’s “The Refugees” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Jarrell’s poem, “The Refugees.” As you read, consider the following study questions: What are the poem’s key themes and ideas? How does this poem compare and contrast to the World War I poems you read in Unit 4?
     
    Reading this poem and answering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 8.3.2 Reading: Voices [Education Project]: The Poets of World War II: “Keith Douglas”

    Link: Voices [Education Project]: The Poets of World War II: “Keith Douglas” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the brief biographical introduction. Then, study all of the poems reproduced on this page by first reading them and then listening to the recordings: “Vergissmeinnich,” “How to Kill,” “Cairo Jag,” and “Simplify Me When I’m Dead.” To access the recordings, follow the YouTube links. Examine the rhyme scheme of each poem, and note the tone of these poems.
     
    As you study these poems, consider the following study questions: How do these poems represent the war experience? What are the effects of their forms? How are they different from early modernist and high modernist poems you studied in previous units?
     
    Studying these poems, listening to the recordings, and answering the questions above should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

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  • 8.3.3 Reading: Voices [Education Project]: The Poets of World War II: “Karl Shapiro”

    Link: Voices [Education Project]: The Poets of World War II: “Karl Shapiro” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the brief biographical note as well as Shapiro’s poems: “Elegy for a Dead Soldier” and “Epitaph.” Recall that an elegy is a poetic form that is a serious reflection and lament for the deceased.
     
    Note both the differences and the similarities between Shapiro’s poems and the poems of both Randall Jarrell and Keith Douglas. Write a paragraph or two that analyzes the different approaches these poets take to address a similar subject. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Reading these texts and comparing and contrasting Shapiro’s poems to Jarrell and Douglas should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 8.4 Reading: The Christian Science Monitor: Jim Regan’s “The Atomic Bomb in American Culture”

    Link: The Christian Science Monitor: Jim Regan’s “The Atomic Bomb in American Culture” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Jim Regan’s article on the atom bomb and its impact on culture.
     
    As you read, consider the following study question: How would you describe the impact that the atomic bomb had on American culture?
     
    Reading this article and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
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  • 8.4 Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Professor Al Filreis’ “Cultural Aspects of Atomic Anxiety”

    Link: University of Pennsylvania: Professor Al Filreis’ “Cultural Aspects of Atomic Anxiety” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Professor Filreis’ “Cultural Aspects of Atomic Anxiety.” Write a paragraph to summarize the most important ways in which the invention and use of the atomic bomb influenced European and American culture in a fatalistic manner. Consider posting your paragraph to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.

    Reading this article and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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  • 8.4 Reading: The Peace Pledge Project: Alison Fell’s “August 6, 1945”

    Link: The Peace Pledge Project: Alison Fell’s “August 6, 1945” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Alison Fell’s poem, “August 6, 1945.” Make sure to also read the information, history, and ideas on this poem.

    Reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

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  • 8.4 Reading: The Peace Pledge Project: Denise Levertov’s “Talk in the Dark”

    Link: The Peace Pledge Project: Denise Levertov’s “Talk in the Dark” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Denise Levertov’s poem, “Talk in the Dark.”
     
    Consider the role of the poet in alerting fellow citizens about the end of the world as we know it. As you read the poems in this unit, consider the following study questions: How is artistic innovation influenced by political commitments? Should it be? Does literature have ethical responsibilities? Write a few paragraphs that responds to these questions and the poet’s role, using examples from Fell’s poem, Levertov’s poem, and other poems from this unit to support your ideas. Consider posting your written response to the ENGL408 Course Discussion Board, and respond to other students’ posts.
     
    Studying this poem and completing the writing activity should take approximately 1 hour.

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