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World Regional Geography

Purpose of Course  showclose

Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere – including landscape development, weather and climate, and geologic concepts – as well as the influence of human activity – including cultural, economic, and political activity – on those physical features.  Geography students, as they study the many aspects of our physically and culturally diverse world, tend to become more adept at tasks that require both spatial and critical thinking skills.

World Regional Geography covers the basic elements noted above but within a regional context.  Ultimately, World Regional Geography is concerned with the physical and human characteristics that make the regions of our world distinctive.  As you progress through the course, the units will discuss each major world region in detail, placing particular emphasis on cultural and societal structures.  Regions will be discussed within a global framework in the hope that you will gain a better comprehension of how the world map is being defined and redefined.  In addition, you will study key global issues such as international conflict and cooperation, environmental degradation, population growth, and globalization.

This course makes primary use of a comprehensive textbook to facilitate learning.  The concepts presented in World Regional Geography will build upon one another as you progress through the course.  Supplemental readings and online video lectures will be integrated throughout each unit as well.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to GEOG 101: World Regional Geography.  Below, please find general information on this course and its requirements. 
 
Course Designer: Ken Yanow, Professor of Geographical Sciences, Southwestern College
 
Primary Resources: This course is composed of a range of different free, online materials.  However, the course makes primary use of the following resources: Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials.  You will also need to complete:
  • Subunit 1.1 Activity
  • Subunit 2.1 Activity
  • Subunit 4.1 Activity
  • Subunit 4.4 Activity
  • Subunit 5.2 Activity
  • Subunit 5.3 Activity
  • Subunit 5.4 Activity
  • Subunit 7.1 Activity
  • Subunit 8.4 Activity
  • Subunit 9.1 Activity
  • Subunit 12.1 Activity
  • The Final Exam
Please note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam.  However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the activities presented throughout the units.
 
In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam.  Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it.  If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
 
Time Commitment: This course should take you approximately 144.5 hours to complete.  Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit.  These should help you plan your time accordingly.  It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.  For example, Unit 1 should take approximately 20.5 hours to complete.  Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (a total of 5 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (a total of 3.25 hours) on Tuesday night; etc.
 
Tips/Suggestions: Unit 1 provides an introduction to geography and sets the foundation for the entire course.  Take your time with Unit 1 and be sure you feel comfortable with the concepts and Learning Objectives before progressing to the next unit.  

Many of the units include a map activity.  It is very important that you can locate geographic areas, referenced in the course readings and lectures, on a map.  It is also advisable to complete the resources in sequential order as they are assigned.

The chapters and sections assigned from the course textbook, World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization, align with the subunit and sub-subunit breakdown of the course.  Each section of the textbook also contains a series of “Discussion and Study” questions.  Before you read the assigned section or chapter, be sure to review the end-of-section Discussion and Study questions first, and then begin your reading.  While you are reading the text and watching the lectures, you will want to be actively answering and considering the questions.  This will make the learning process much more engaging and efficient. 

Lastly, have fun and enjoy what you are learning!  The world is a fascinating place, and the geographic journey you are about to take will be exciting, enlightening, interesting, and perhaps even a bit startling.  You are about to learn how and why places and people are similar and different, and you will critically examine concepts that everyone should know!

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • Identify and describe the world’s major geographic realms and significant contemporary issues within those realms.
  • Explain the economic interdependencies and cultural interconnections between realms and regions.
  • Define the major sub-disciplines within geography, and provide examples of realms and regions of the world.
  • Identify the fundamental parts of the geographic grid.
  • Use a variety of thematic maps to analyze worldwide distribution patterns of population, religion, language, politics, vegetation, climate, and other elements of geography.
  • Identify the fundamental elements of population distribution and migration patterns.
  • Compare and contrast major political systems, and identify where they are prevalent in the world.
  • Categorize and evaluate regional economic systems.
  • Compare and contrast major world religions and languages within a spatial context.
  • Compare and contrast worldwide urbanization and urban systems.
  • Compare and contrast the climate, physical landscape, and natural environment of the major world regions.
  • Identify and evaluate environmental issues prevalent in the major world regions.
  • Describe and discuss how the physical environment influences human landscapes.
  • Describe and explain socio-economic, cultural, environmental, health, and political issues that result from both homogenization and diversification in historical and contemporary contexts.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    Have access to a computer.

√    Have continuous broadband Internet access.

√    Have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash).

√    Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer.

√    Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).

√    Be competent in the English language.

√    Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Introduction to Geography  

    Geography, derived from the Greek geo (“Earth”) and graphein (“to write”), examines the physical world, human world, and the spatial relationships between physical and cultural phenomena.  Geographers study the Earth’s physical characteristics, its inhabitants and cultures, phenomena such as climate, and the Earth’s place within the universe.  Geographers also look at how the earth, its climate, and its landscapes are changing due to cultural intervention. 
     
    Unit 1 examines the foundational scientific principles of geography.  In this first unit, you will be introduced to the disciplines of geography and their basic components.  You will also learn about critical concepts in the discipline, such as the relationships between people and place, climate change, population increase, urbanization, and globalization.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Geography Basics  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The World”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The World” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your map skills!  Once at the website, click on “The World” icon.  Next, click on the “Play!” button under “Level L – Tutorial.” 

      When you feel comfortable with your knowledge of the oceans and continents of the world, go back to “The World” game choices, and click on the “Play!” button under the “Level 1 – Beginner” heading.  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
                                                                                                      
      This activity should take approximately 15-20 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.1: Geography Basics”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.1: Geography Basics” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the Chapter 1 introduction and “Section 1.1: Geography Basics.”  At the end of the section, you will find a series of Discussion and Study Questions.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review all of the Study and Discussion Questions and keep these questions in mind as you work through the resources in this subunit.  After reading this text, answer the Discussion and Study Questions. This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.1.1 through 1.1.4.
       
      The reading for this subunit provides an introduction to the foundational principles of the major branches of geography, including physical, population, cultural, and economic geography.  In addition, after completing this subunit, you will be able to explain the concept of globalization and how globalization can both positively and negatively affect societies. 
       
      Completing this reading and the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s World Regional Geography: “Course Introduction”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Course Introduction” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled, “Course Introduction.”  Click on “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and watch the entire lecture for an introduction to the basic elements of geography and an overview of the course.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.1 What Is Geography?  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, pay close attention to the section of text below the heading “What Is Geography” in World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization.  After reading this section, make sure that you are able to explain the two branches of geography: physical geography and human geography.

  • 1.1.1.1 Why Should I Be Interested in Geography?  
    • Web Media: YouTube: David Lambert’s “Why Should I Be Interested in Geography?”

      Link: YouTube: David Lambert’s “Why Should I Be Interested in Geography?” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the short video clip for a quick and entertaining description of why everyone should be interested in geography.
       
      Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.1.1.2 Physical Landscape  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, physical landscape.

  • 1.1.1.3 Cultural Landscape  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, cultural landscape.

  • 1.1.1.4 Cartography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, cartography.

  • 1.1.1.5 Geospatial Techniques  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, geospatial techniques.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Penn State University’s “Geospatial Revolution: Trailer”

      Link: YouTube: Penn State University’s “Geospatial Revolution: Trailer” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the short video clip for a brief and entertaining description of geospatial technology and how it is being used in “spatial” fields.
       
      Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: Penn State Public Broadcasting’s “Geospatial Revolution: Full Episodes”

      Link: Penn State Public Broadcasting’s “Geospatial Revolution: Full Episodes” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: There are four full-length “Geospatial Revolution” videos produced by Penn State University.  Please click on the link above, then select the tabs for Episodes 1–4, and view each episode.  The Geospatial Revolution Project is an integrated public media and outreach initiative that focuses on the world of digital mapping and how it changes patterns in thought, behavior, and interaction.  The mission of the Geospatial Revolution Project is to expand public knowledge about the history, applications, and privacy issues of location-based technologies.  Today, geospatial information influences so many different facets of everyday life.  Location-based technologies allow for global knowledge that can certainly enhance our abilities to solve many social and environmental problems around the world.

      Watching all four of these video clips and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.1.5.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, global positioning system (GPS).

  • 1.1.1.5.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, geographic information science (GIS).

  • 1.1.1.5.3 Remote Sensing  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, remote sensing.

  • 1.1.2 The Earth and Graticule Location  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “The Earth and Graticule Location.”

  • 1.1.2.1 Parallels or Lines of Latitude  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Parallels or Lines of Latitude.”  Make sure to carefully review Figures 1.3 and 1.4.

  • 1.1.2.2 Meridians or Lines of Longitude  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Meridians or Lines of Longitude.”

  • 1.1.2.3 Climate and Latitude  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Climate and Latitude.”

  • 1.1.2.4 Seasons  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Carefully review Figure 1.6 for a visual representation of the seasons.

  • 1.1.2.5 Time Zones  

    Note: Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Time Zones.”

  • 1.1.3 Regions in Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading “Regions in Geography.”

  • 1.1.3.1 Formal Regions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, formal regions.

  • 1.1.3.2 Functional Regions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, functional regions.

  • 1.1.3.3 Vernacular Regions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, vernacular regions.

  • 1.1.4 World Regional Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading “World Regional Geography.”  In particular, this reading will define the term “realm” and then provide a quick introduction to all the realms that will be discussed in this class, including the European Realm (Unit 2); the Russian Realm (Unit 3); the North American Realm (Unit 4); the Realm of Middle America (Unit 5); the South American Realm (Unit 6); the Realm of Sub-Saharan Africa (Unit 7); the Realms of North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia (Unit 8); the Southern Asian Realm (Unit 9); the Eastern Asian Realm (Unit 10); the Realm of Southeast Asia (Unit 11); and the Realms of Australia and the Pacific (Unit 12).

  • 1.2 The Environment and Human Activity  
  • 1.2.1 Climate and Human Habitation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Climate and Human Habitation.”

  • 1.2.1.1 Type A: Tropical or Equatorial Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type A climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type A: Tropical or Equatorial Climates.”

  • 1.2.1.2 Type B: Dry or Arid Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type B climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type B: Dry or Arid Climates.”

  • 1.2.1.3 Type C: Moderate or Temperate Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type C climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type C: Moderate or Temperate Climates.”

  • 1.2.1.4 Type D: Cold or Continental Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type D climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type D: Cold or Continental Climates.”

  • 1.2.1.5 Type E: Polar or Extreme Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type E climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type E: Polar or Extreme Climates.”

  • 1.2.1.6 Type H: Highland Climates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type H climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type H: Highland Climates.”

  • 1.2.2 Deforestation and Its Associated Problems  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the headings, “Deforestation” and “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

  • 1.2.2.1 Soil Degradation and Erosion: Laterization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  In particular, focus on the first few sentences of the section of text below the heading, “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

  • 1.2.2.2 Landslides  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, landslides, under the heading, “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

  • 1.2.3 Climate Change  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading “Climate Change.” Climate change will be discussed in greater detail in sub-subunits 13.2.4 and 13.2.5.

  • 1.2.4 Tectonic Plates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Tectonic Plates.”

  • 1.3 Population and Culture  
  • 1.3.1 Demographic Transition  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Demographic Transition.”

  • 1.3.2 Urbanization and Family Size  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Urbanization and Family Size.”

  • 1.3.3 Population Demands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Population Demands.”

  • 1.3.3.1 Population Pyramids  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, population pyramids.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual of population pyramids.

  • 1.3.3.2 General Trends in Population Growth  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” focus on the four trends listed (numbered as sub-subunits 1.3.3.2.1 through 1.3.3.2.4 below).

  • 1.3.3.2.1 Rapidly Expanding  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

  • 1.3.3.2.2 Expanding  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

  • 1.3.3.2.3 Stationary  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

  • 1.3.3.2.4 Contracting  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

  • 1.3.4 Culture and Ethnicity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Culture and Ethnicity.”

  • 1.3.5 Languages of the World  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Languages of the World,” as well as study Figure 1.36.

  • 1.3.5.1 The Nine Dominant Language Families  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Make sure to study the nine dominant language families in Table 1.4.

  • 1.3.5.2 Language Characteristics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the section titled “Language Characteristics.”

  • 1.3.5.2.1 Accent  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “accent,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.2 Creole  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “creole,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.3 Dead Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “dead language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.4 Dialect  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “dialect,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.5 Isolated Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “isolated language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.6 Lingua Franca  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “lingua franca,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.7 Official Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “official language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.8 Pidgin  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “pidgin,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.5.2.9 Slang  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “slang,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

  • 1.3.6 Religions of the World  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Religions of the World.” Make sure to study Figures 1.27 and 1.28.

  • 1.3.6.1 Universal  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “universal.”

  • 1.3.6.1.1 Christianity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Christianity makes up 33% of the world’s religions. Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Christianity.

  • 1.3.6.1.2 Islam  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Christianity makes up 21% of the world’s religions. Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Islam.

    • Lecture: TED Talks: “Mustafa Akyol: Faith Versus Tradition in Islam”

      Link: TED Talks: “Mustafa Akyol: Faith Versus Tradition in Islam” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the entire lecture from the Ted Talks series.  In this video, journalist Mustafa Akyol discusses Islam and the connections between traditional cultural practicesand the articles of faith.  Mr. Akyol discusses issues with focusing too much on tradition in Islam and not enough on core beliefs.

      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

  • 1.3.6.1.3 Various Forms of Buddhism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that approximately 6% of the world population follows a form of Buddhism.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Buddhism

    • Lecture: TED Talks: “Bob Thurman Says We Can Be Buddhas”

      Link: TED Talks: “Bob Thurman Says We Can Be Buddhas” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire video.  In this lecture, Bob Thurman, who is a Tibetan Monk from the US, talks about some of the basic principles of Buddhism and mass enlightenment.

      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.3.6.2 Ethnic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “ethnic.”

  • 1.3.6.2.1 Judaism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Judaism.

  • 1.3.6.2.2 Shintoism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Shintoism.

  • 1.3.6.2.3 Hinduism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that approximately 14% of the world’s population practice Hinduism.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Hinduism.

  • 1.3.6.2.4 Chinese Religions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Chinese religions, such as Confucianism and Taoism, fall under the category of ethnic religions.

  • 1.3.6.2.4.1 Confucianism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Confucianism.

  • 1.3.6.2.4.2 Taoism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Taoism.

  • 1.3.6.3 Tribal: Animism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded terms, “tribal” and “animism.”

  • 1.4 Globalization and Development  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.4: Globalization and Development”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.4: Globalization and Development” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 1.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions at the end of this reading.  Answer these questions (and keep these questions in mind) as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.4.1 through 1.4.9.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the major concepts of globalization.  Globalization can provide opportunities and advantages for various regions of the world, including increases in national income and value-added profit activities.  However, globalization can also be detrimental to cultural independence.  This subunit explores these concepts, and in future units and subunits, globalization will be a major theme for us to continually reflect upon.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 1.4.1 Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Globalization.”  Make sure that you can define globalization in your own words.

  • 1.4.1.1 European Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “colonialism.”  Make sure to also study Figure 1.30.

  • 1.4.1.2 The Rise of Exploration  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fourth paragraph that discusses European exploration.

  • 1.4.2 Modern Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph.

  • 1.4.2.1 The Information Age  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph and the text surrounding the bolded term, “information age.”

  • 1.4.2.2 Neocolonialism (or Corporate Colonialism)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph and the text surrounding the bolded term, “neocolonialism.”

  • 1.4.3 Opportunity and Advantage  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Opportunity and Advantage.”

  • 1.4.3.1 Rural-to-Urban Shift  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Opportunity and Advantage” heading, focus on the paragraph dedicated to rural-to-urban shift.

  • 1.4.3.2 Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Opportunity and Advantage” heading, study Figure 1.32 and focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “core-periphery spatial relationship.”

  • 1.4.4 National Income Methods  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading “National Income Methods.”

  • 1.4.4.1 Sustainable Income Models  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the second paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods,” and study Figure 1.34.

  • 1.4.4.2 Value-Added Principles  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the second paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods.”

  • 1.4.4.3 Postindustrial Services  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the fifth paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods.”

  • 1.4.5 National Debt  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “National Debt.”  Make sure that you are able to define national debt.

  • 1.4.6 Development and Demographics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Development and Demographics.”  Study Figure 1.36.

  • 1.4.6.1 Fertility Rate  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Development and Demographics” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “fertility rate.”

  • 1.4.6.2 Index of Economic Development  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Development and Demographics” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “index of economic development.”

  • 1.4.7 The Geography of Opportunity  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “The Geography of Opportunity.”

  • 1.4.8 Why Societies Collapse  
  • 1.4.9 Opportunities in Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Opportunities in Geography.”

  • Unit 2: Europe  

    An understanding of the formation of Europe as we know it today – from the dawn of the Roman Empire to the emergence of the European Union (EU) (and beyond!) – is essential to the study of regional geography.  The powerful impact of European colonialism is still felt today, and the continent continues to struggle to confront the cultural forces that unite and divide it.  The rural-to-urban shift prompted by the Industrial Revolution first impacted Europe and continues to impact developing countries.  Understanding the geographic region of Europe is essential to understanding our world. 

    Unit 2 begins with the exploration of the physical characteristics and natural resources of Europe.  You are given the opportunity to explore the historical development of Europe, beginning with the Roman Empire and the Viking Era.  Later in this unit, you learn about Europe’s division in the twentieth century, unification efforts, and how globalization has increased with the advent of the European Union.  Unit 2 ends with a detailed exploration of physical and cultural geography in specific European regions.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Europe”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Europe” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Click on the “Europe” icon.  Next, under the “Landscape” heading, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Europe, go back to the Europe game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape Quiz, go back to the Europe game choices.  Under the “Countries” heading, click on “Play!” for “Level L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Europe game choices, under the “Countries” column, and click “Play!” for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.1: Introducing the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.1 in its entirety.  Before starting Section 2.1, navigate to the end of the section to review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you work through the resources in this subunit.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 2.1.1 through 2.1.3.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the major physical characteristics of Europe, including climate, landforms, and natural resources.  In addition, this reading explores how Europe’s physical geography has supported its overall cultural and economic development.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 1”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 1” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled “0013Europe Part 1.”  To launch the video lecture, select “View in iTunes.”  Watch this entire lecture for an introduction to the European Realm.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 2”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled “0014Europe Part 2.”  To launch this lecture, select “View in iTunes.”  Then, watch the lecture in its entirety.  This lecture is the second part of the European Realm lecture.  Note that you should disregard the last portion of the video where Professor Reisinger refers to a midterm exam for his own students.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.1 Location and Climate  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Location and Climate.”

  • 2.1.1.1 The Dominant Climate Types of Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, study Figure 2.2 on “The Dominant Climate Types of Europe.”

  • 2.1.1.2 The Gulf Stream Current  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Gulf Stream.”

  • 2.1.2 Four Main European Landforms  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Four Main European Landforms.”

  • 2.1.2.1 Alpine Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Alpine Region.”

  • 2.1.2.2 Central Uplands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Central Uplands.”

  • 2.1.2.3 Northern Lowlands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Lowlands.”

  • 2.1.2.4 Western Highlands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Western Highlands.”

  • 2.1.3 Natural Resources in Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Natural Resources in Europe.”

  • 2.2 Historical Development Patterns  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.2: Historical Development Patterns”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.2: Historical Development Patterns” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  As you read, keep these questions in mind, and then answer these questions once you have completed the reading.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.8.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the history of Europe, including how a variety of cultures (including the Roman Empire and Vikings) contributed to European development.  In addition, the reading explores how European colonialism changed and influenced other countries.  The reading also discusses how cultural forces can positively or negatively influence politics.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 2.2.1 Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colonialism.”

  • 2.2.2 The Agrarian Revolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Agrarian Revolution.”

  • 2.2.3 The Industrial Revolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Industrial Revolution.”

  • 2.2.4 Central Business Districts and Primate Cities  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Business Districts and Primate Cities.”

  • 2.2.5 Rural-to-Urban Shift and Population Growth  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Rural-to-Urban Shift and Population Growth.”

  • 2.2.5.1 Declining Family Size in Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

  • 2.2.5.2 Main Reasons for Declining Family Size in Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

  • 2.2.5.3 Problems Associated with the Decline in Family Size  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

  • 2.2.6 Nation-States and Devolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Nation-States and Devolution.”

  • 2.2.7 Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces”.

  • 2.2.8 Religion and Language in Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Religion and Language in Europe.”

  • 2.3 The European Union and Supranationalism  
  • 2.3.1 Unification Efforts in Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Unification Efforts in Europe.”

  • 2.3.1.1 Benelux Agreement  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Benelux Agreement.”

  • 2.3.1.2 Marshall Plan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Marshall Plan.”

  • 2.3.1.3 Treaty of Rome  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Treaty of Rome.”

  • 2.3.1.4 European Union (EU)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “European Union (EU)”.

  • 2.3.2 Supranationalism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Supranationalism.”

  • 2.3.2.1 Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.12 and review the box titled “Special Section: Esperanto.”

  • 2.3.2.2 Currency  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.13 and the paragraphs that follow the figure.

  • 2.3.2.3 Foreign Policy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.14 and read the paragraphs to the left of the figure.

  • 2.3.3 About the European Union and “Member States”  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “About the European Union.”

  • 2.4 Regions of Western Europe  
  • 2.4.1 Northern Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2 Southern Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.1 The Iberian and Balkan Peninsulas  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”  Note the text surrounding the bolded term, “Balkan Peninsula.”

  • 2.4.2.1.1 Spain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Spain in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.1.2 Portugal  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Portugal in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.2.3 Greece  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Greece in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.3 The Italian Peninsula  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about the Italian Peninsula in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.3.1 Italy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Italy in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”  Also, review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

  • 2.4.2.3.1.1 Rome  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.2 Milan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.3 Naples  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.4 Turin  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.5 Palermo  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.6 Florence  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.1.7 Venice  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

  • 2.4.2.3.2 Sicily  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Sicily below the heading, “Southern Europe” as well as in the box “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

  • 2.4.2.3.3 Sardinia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.   In particular, focus on the discussions about Sardinia below the heading, “Southern Europe” as well as in the box “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

  • 2.4.2.4 Cyprus  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Cyprus below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.5 Ministates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.5.1 Malta  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4. In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe

  • 2.4.2.5.2 Monaco  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.5.3 San Marino  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.5.4 Andorra  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.2.5.5 Vatican City  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

  • 2.4.3 Central Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Europe.”

  • 2.4.3.1 The Benelux Countries  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.   In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Benelux Countries.”

  • 2.4.3.2 France  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “France.”

  • 2.4.3.3 Germany  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Germany.”

  • 2.4.3.4 The Alpine Center  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Alpine Center.”

  • 2.4.4 The British Isles  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The British Isles.”

  • 2.4.4.1 Northern England  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern England.”

  • 2.4.4.2 Southern England  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southern England.”

  • 2.4.4.3 Wales  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Wales

  • 2.4.4.4 Scotland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Scotland.”

  • 2.4.4.5 Northern Ireland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Ireland.”

  • 2.4.4.6 The Republic of Ireland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Republic of Ireland.”

  • 2.5 Eastern Europe  
  • 2.5.1 Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

  • 2.5.1.1 The Iron Curtain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Iron Curtain.”

  • 2.5.1.2 Reforms in Eastern Europe in the 1990s  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, study Figure 2.30.

  • 2.5.1.2.1 The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the discussion of the collapse of the Soviet Union in the paragraphs below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

  • 2.5.1.2.2 Central Planning to Open Markets  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

  • 2.5.1.2.3 Government Control to More Independence  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5 In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

  • 2.5.2 Countries of Eastern Europe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Countries of Eastern Europe.”  Note that these countries are outlined in sub-subunits 2.5.2.1 through 2.5.2.10 below

  • 2.5.2.1 Hungary  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Hungary.”

  • 2.5.2.2 The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (Slovakia)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Slovakia.”

  • 2.5.2.3 The Baltic Republics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Baltic Republics.”

  • 2.5.2.4 Poland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Poland.”

  • 2.5.2.5 Moldova  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Moldova.”

  • 2.5.2.6 Belarus  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Belarus.”

  • 2.5.2.7 Ukraine  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ukraine.”

  • 2.5.2.8 Romania  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Romania.”

  • 2.5.2.9 Albania  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Albania.”

  • 2.5.2.10 Bulgaria  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Bulgaria.”

  • 2.5.3 Former Yugoslavia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Former Yugoslavia.”

  • 2.5.3.1 A Valuable Lesson in Political and Cultural Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “A Valuable Lesson in Political and Cultural Geography.”

  • 2.5.3.2 The Breakup of Former Yugoslavia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Breakup of Former Yugoslavia.”

  • 2.5.3.3 The War for Kosovo  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The War for Kosovo.”

  • 2.5.3.4 Conclusion of Former Yugoslavia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Conclusion of Former Yugoslavia.”

  • Unit 3: The Russian Realm  

    Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of physical area – almost twice the size of the United States.  The country is so large in fact, that a train journey from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok – the respective western and eastern termini of the Trans-Siberian Railway – takes about one week of constant travel to complete.  On this incredible journey from coast to coast, you would travel through eight time zones!   

    Russia extends from its European core (where most of the population lives) across the Ural Mountains, into Siberia, and along to the Russian Far East.  Its extensive landscape includes major metropolitan areas, such as Moscow; vast territories in the Arctic north; immense forests of Siberia; grain farms rivaling those in Kansas; and mountain communities in the Caucasus.  Russia has a complicated history of monarchy and totalitarianism, rich natural resources, extremes of wealth and poverty (in fact, in the less populous areas, residents have more economic and social connections with China than with Europe), and a slowly declining population.  It is a dynamic country transitioning from a Communist state to one that is becoming a vital part of the global economy.

    Unit 3 begins with the exploration of the physical characteristics of the Russian realm, along with an analysis of its cultural diversity and regional environmental problems.  You will explore the historical development patterns of Russia and its economy, beginning with the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin.  Next, you will examine the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the post-Soviet economic and political situations that arose.  Finally, the unit ends with a more detailed exploration of specific regions within the Russia Realm.

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Introducing the Realm  
  • 3.1.1 Physical Characteristics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.1.  In particular, focus on the first two paragraphs of the reading as well as study Figure 3.2.

  • 3.1.2 Expansion of the Empire (Including the Soviet Socialist Republics)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Expansion of the Empire (Including the Soviet Socialist Republics).”

  • 3.1.3 Regional Environmental Problems  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Regional Environmental Problems

  • 3.2 The USSR and the Russian Federation  
  • 3.2.1 A Short History of the Bolsheviks, Lenin, and Stalin  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the first few paragraphs that discuss the Bolsheviks, Lenin, and Stalin.

  • 3.2.2 Marxist-Leninist Central Planning  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Marxist-Leninist Central Planning.”

  • 3.2.2.1 Capitalism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “capitalism.”

  • 3.2.2.2 Communism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “communism.”

  • 3.2.2.3 Socialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “socialism.”

  • 3.2.3 The Cold War  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Cold War.”

  • 3.2.3.1 The Iron Curtain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Iron Curtain.”

  • 3.2.3.2 Summary of Russia's Historical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Outline of Russia’s Historical Geography.”

  • 3.2.4 Twenty-First Century Russia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Twenty-First Century Russia.”

    • Lecture: iTunes U: London’s Global University: Dr. Alena Ledeneva’s “How Russia Really Works”

      Link: iTunes U: London’s Global University: Dr. Alena Ledeneva’s “How Russia Really Works” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “How Russia Really Works,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture.  Watch Dr. Ledeneva’s lecture in which she describes how Russia functions.  Rather than focusing on the problems with Russia, Dr. Ledeneva discusses how and why businesses and politics are working in Russia today.  By analyzing post-Soviet politics and business from the perspective of informal practices, Dr. Ledeneva will dispel a number of commonly held stereotypes about corruption and illegality in Russia.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 3.2.5 The Russian Language  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Russian Language.”

  • 3.3 Exploring Russia’s Regions  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 3: Russia:” “Section 3.3: Regions of Russia”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 3: Russia:” “Section 3.3: Regions of Russia” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above, and read Section 3.3 in its entirety as well as the end material in Section 3.4.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text and complete your study of this resource.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 3.3.1 through 3.3.6.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the major cities of Russia’s regions, including the core region and the Eastern Frontier.  The reading also explores the reasons behind the Chechen-Russian conflict and why Russia invaded Georgia in 2008.
       
      Reading and answering questions associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 3.3.1 The Core Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Core Region.”

  • 3.3.2 The Eastern Frontier  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, study Figure 3.13, and review the text below the heading, “The Eastern Frontier.”

  • 3.3.3 Siberia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Siberia.”

  • 3.3.4 The Far East  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Far East.”

  • 3.3.5 Southern Russia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southern Russia.”  Study Figure 3.16

  • 3.3.6 Transcaucasia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 3.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Transcaucasia.” Study Figure 3.17.

  • Unit 4: North America  

    The realm of North America extends from the polar regions of the Arctic in northern Canada and Alaska, all the way south through Mexico and the countries of Central America.  Geographers usually study the continent by dividing it into two separate realms, based on differences in physical and cultural geography.  In North America, the United States and Canada share similar physical characteristics, as well as a similar history of colonialism.  These two countries make up more than 13 percent of the world’s total landmass.  North America is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.  To the north is the Arctic Ocean. 

    North America is highly urbanized with approximately 80 percent of the population living in cities.  Most of North America’s diverse population consists of immigrants or descendants of immigrants from other world regions.  The United States is the world’s largest economy, and it is fair to say that both Canada and the United States enjoy high standards of living.

    Unit 4 begins with an exploration of the physical characteristics of the North American realm, paying particular attention to its physiographic regions.  Next, you will explore the influence of European colonialism in the region.  Then, this unit takes a close look at geographic boundaries and immigration patterns, urban growth, economic development, globalization of the “American Dream,” shifts in demographics, and the distribution of the dominant religious affiliations in the United States. The latter portion of the unit explores the physical and cultural characteristics of Canada.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The United States”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The United States” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “United States” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for the “Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of the United States, go back to the United States game choices, and underneath the “Landscape - Beginner” column, click on the “Play!” button.  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the United States game choices and complete the tutorials for the “Lakes” and then the “Rivers.”  When you feel comfortable, go back to the United States game choices and play both the “Lakes” game and the “Rivers” game.  Your goal is to score at least a 70% for both games.  Good luck!
       
      Completing this activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.1: Introducing the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 4.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text and complete your study of this resource.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 4.1.1 and 4.1.2.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of North America.  The reading also discusses how three European countries significantly influenced the development of North America.  Finally, the reading explores the population distribution of both the United States and Canada.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 4.1.1 European Realms in North America  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “European Realms in North America.”   

  • 4.1.2 Population Distribution in North America  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Population Distribution in North America.”

  • 4.2 United States: Early Development and Globalization  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.2: United States: Early Development and Globalization”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.2: United States: Early Development and Globalization” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 4.2 in its entirety.  At the end of this section you will find a series of Discussion and Study Questions.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures in this subunit.  This reading covers the topics outline for sub-subunits 4.2.1 through 4.2.6.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the United States.  In particular, the reading examines the origin of the geographic boundaries of the United States, its historical migration patterns, urbanization, and the development of a transportation infrastructure.  In addition, the reading explores the concept of the “American Dream” and its subsequent globalization.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 4.2.1 Early Development Patterns  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Early Development Patterns.”

  • 4.2.1.1 The Georgraphic Boundaries of the United States  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, study Figures 4.4 and 4.5

  • 4.2.1.2 Manifest Destiny  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Manifest Destiny.”

  • 4.2.1.3 The Great Migration  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Great Migration” below “The African American Population” heading.

  • 4.2.2 Westward Settlement Patterns and European Immigration  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Westward Settlement Patterns and European Immigration.”

  • 4.2.2.1 Culture Hearths  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “culture hearths.”

  • 4.2.2.2 New England  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the discussions about “New England” under the heading, “Westward Settlement Patterns and European Immigration.”

  • 4.2.2.3 The Mid-Atlantic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the Mid-Atlantic below the heading, “Westward Settlement Patterns and European Immigration.”

  • 4.2.2.4 The South  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the South below the heading, “Westward Settlement Patterns and European Immigration.”

  • 4.2.3 Industrial Development and Urbanization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Industrial Development and Urbanization.”

  • 4.2.3.1 Industrial Revolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Industrial Revolution.”

  • 4.2.3.2 Manufacturing Belt  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Manufacturing Belt.” Study Figure 4.7.

  • 4.2.4 Economic Changes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Changes.”

  • 4.2.4.1 Primary Economic Sector  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Primary economic sector.”

  • 4.2.4.2 Secondary Economic Sector  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Secondary economic sector.”

  • 4.2.4.3 Tertiary Economic Sector  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Tertiary economic sector.”

  • 4.2.4.4 Quaternary Economic Sector  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Quaternary economic sector.”

  • 4.2.4.5 The Von Thunen Model  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Von Thunen Model” below the “Economic Changes” heading.

  • 4.2.5 Migration Patterns  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, Migration Patterns.”

  • 4.2.6 Americanism and Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Americanism and Globalization.”

  • 4.2.6.1 Exporting the Concept of the “American Dream”  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “American Dream” below the “Americanism and Globalization” heading.

  • 4.2.6.2 The Domination of the World's Communications Networks  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Americanism and Globalization.”

  • 4.2.6.3 Corporate Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.2.  In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Americanism and Globalization.”

  • 4.3 United States: Population and Religion  
  • 4.3.1 The American “Melting Pot”  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The American ‘Melting Pot.’”

  • 4.3.1.1 The US Hispanic Population  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The US Hispanic Population.”

  • 4.3.1.2 The African American Population  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The African American Population.”

  • 4.3.2 Geography of Religion in the United States  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Geography of Religion in the United States.”

  • 4.4 Canada  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Canada”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Canada” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Canada” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for the “Georegions L - Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Canada, go back to the Canada game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for the “Georegions G - Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Canada game choices and complete the tutorial for the “Provinces.”  When you feel comfortable with your knowledge of the Canadian provinces, go back to the Canada game choices and play both the “Level 1 - Beginner” and “Provinces” games.  Your goal is to score at least a 70% for both games.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.4: Canada”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.4: Canada” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 4.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lectures for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 4.4.1 through 4.4.5.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Canada, including an analysis of why there are English and French speaking regions in Canada.  In addition, the reading explores how the Canadian and American economies are connected.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 4.4.1 Canadian Provinces and Territories  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Canadian Provinces and Territories.”

  • 4.4.2 Physical Geography of Canada  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography of Canada.”

  • 4.4.3 British versus French Canada  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “British versus French Canada.”

  • 4.4.4 Ethnic Groups in Canada  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Other Ethnic Groups in Canada.”

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: “Ethnic Fragmentation in Canada”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: “Ethnic Fragmentation in Canada” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “Ethnic Fragmentation in Canada,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the video.  Watch the entire lecture for an introductory discussion as to why ethnic groups across Canada have settled in different locations.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.4.5 The Canadian Economy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Canadian Economy.”

  • 4.5 Regions of the United States and Canada  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.5: Regions of the United States and Canada”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 4: North America:” “Section 4.5: Regions of the United States and Canada” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 4.5 in its entirety as well as the end of chapter material in Section 4.6.  At the end of Section 4.5, you will find a series of Discussion and Study Questions.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 4.5.1 through 4.5.9.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of various regions of the United States and Canada.  The reading includes a discussion of which regions in the United States and Canada have significant populations of minority groups and explains why this distribution exists.  In addition, the reading explores how North America’s physical geography contributes to its economic activity.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 4.5.1 The Northeastern Core  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Northeastern Core.”

  • 4.5.2 New England and the Canadian Maritimes  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “New England and the Canadian Maritimes.”

  • 4.5.3 French Canada  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “French Canada.”

  • 4.5.4 The American South  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The American South.”

  • 4.5.5 The Midwest and Great Plains  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Midwest and Great Plains.”

  • 4.5.6 The American Southwest  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The American Southwest.”

  • 4.5.7 The Mountain West  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Mountain West.”

  • 4.5.8 The Pacific Coast  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Pacific Coast.”

  • 4.5.9 The North  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The North.”

  • 4.5.9.1 The Upper Great Lakes Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the upper Great Lakes region below “The North” heading.

  • 4.5.9.2 The Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle below “The North” heading.

  • 4.5.9.2 The Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle below “The North” heading.

  • 4.5.9.2 The Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 4.5.  In particular, focus on the discussions of the Canadian Shield, Alaska, and the Arctic Circle below “The North” heading.

  • Unit 5: Middle America  

    Middle America, the geographic realm between the United States and the continent of South America, consists of three main regions: the Caribbean, Mexico, and the Central American republics.  The Caribbean region, the most culturally diverse of the three, consists of more than seven thousand islands that stretch from the Bahamas to Barbados.  The four largest islands of the Caribbean make up the Greater Antilles, which include Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico.  Hispaniola is made up of two halves: Haiti in the west and the Dominican Republic in the east.  The smaller islands, extending all the way to South America, make up the Lesser Antilles.  The island that is farthest south is Trinidad, just off the coast of Venezuela.  The islands of the Bahamas are situated closest to the U.S. mainland, located in the Atlantic Ocean, and associated with the Caribbean region.

    Central America refers to the seven states south of Mexico: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.  The Pacific Ocean borders Central America to the west, and the Caribbean Sea borders these countries to the east.  While most of the republics have both a Caribbean and a Pacific coastline, Belize has only a Caribbean coast, and El Salvador has only a Pacific coast.

    Your journey through Middle America begins with the exploration of the physical characteristics of this region.  You will distinguish between the Mayan and Aztec Empires and identify the impact of European colonialism in Middle America, with particular attention to Spanish influence in urban development.  The unit ends with an exploration of physical and cultural characteristics of specific regions of the realm, including Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.  In this unit, you will also take a look at regional climatology, focusing on the development and movement of tropical cyclones. 

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Introducing the Realm  
  • 5.1.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”

  • 5.1.2 The Rimland and the Mainland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Rimland and the Mainland”.

  • 5.1.3 The European Invasion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The European Invasion.”

  • 5.1.3.1 The Maya and the Aztec  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Maya and the Aztec.”

  • 5.1.3.2 Spanish Conquest of 1519-1521  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Spanish Conquest of 1519-1521.”

  • 5.1.3.3 The Spanish Colonial City  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Spanish Colonial City.”

  • 5.2 Mexico  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Mexico”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Mexico” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Mexico” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Mexico, go back to the Mexico game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Mexico game choices, and underneath the “States” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Mexico game choices, and underneath the “States” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.2: Mexico”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.2: Mexico” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 5.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.2.1 through 5.2.5.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Mexico.  In addition, the reading explores how the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and maquiladoras have influenced economic and employment situations in Mexico.  Finally, the reading examines how drug cartels are integrated into the Mexican economy.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 5.2.1 Physical Characteristics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Characteristics.”

  • 5.2.2 The Core versus the Periphery  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Core Versus the Periphery.”

  • 5.2.3 Mexican Social Order  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Mexican Social Order.”

  • 5.2.4 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Maquiladoras  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “NAFTA and Maquiladoras.”

  • 5.2.4.1 NAFTA  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “NAFTA and Maquiladoras.” Make sure you are able to define NAFTA after this reading.

  • 5.2.4.2 Maquiladoras  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “maquiladoras,” under the heading, “NAFTA and Maquiladoras.”

  • 5.2.4.3 The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA),” under the heading “NAFTA and Maquiladoras.”

  • 5.2.4.4 Chiapas, NAFTA, and the Zapatista National Liberation Army (ZNLA)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Chiapas and NAFTA.”

  • 5.2.5 Illegal Drug Trafficking in Mexico  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Illegal Drug Trafficking in Mexico.”

  • 5.3 Central America  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Central and South America”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Central and South America” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Central and South American” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscapes” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial” (NOTE: if there is no “Play!” button, then click on the “dialup version” link).  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Central and South America, go back to the Central and South American game choices.  Underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Central and South American game choices, and underneath the “Countries” heading, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Central and South American game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.3: Central America”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.3: Central America” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 5.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.3.1 through 5.3.5.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Central America. In addition, the reading explores how the United States has affected and influenced Central America, both economically and culturally.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 5.3.1 Physical Environment  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Environment.”

  • 5.3.1.1 Altitudinal Zonation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Altitudinal Zonation.”  Study Figure 5.17.

  • 5.3.1.2 Tierra Caliente (Hot Land)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tierra Caliente (Hot Land).”

  • 5.3.1.3 Tierra Templada (Temperate Land)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tierra Templada (Temperate Land).”

  • 5.3.1.4 Tierra Fria (Cold Land)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tierra Fria (Cold Land).”

  • 5.3.1.5 Tierra Helada (Frozen Land)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tierra Helada (Frozen Land).”

  • 5.3.1.6 Tierra Nevada (Snowy Land)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tierra Nevada (Snowy Land).”

  • 5.3.2 European Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “European Colonialism.”

  • 5.3.3 People and Population  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “People and Population.”

  • 5.3.4 Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and Neo-Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “CAFTA and Neo-Colonialism.”

  • 5.3.5 The Republics: Diverse Political Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Republics: Diverse Political Geography.”

  • 5.3.5.1 Guatemala  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Guatemala.”

  • 5.3.5.2 El Salvador  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “El Salvador.”

  • 5.3.5.3 Nicaragua  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nicaragua.”

  • 5.3.5.4 Honduras  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Honduras.”

  • 5.3.5.5 Costa Rica  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Costa Rica.”

  • 5.3.5.6 Belize  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Belize.”

  • 5.3.5.7 Panama and the Panama Canal  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Panama and the Panama Canal.”

  • 5.4 The Caribbean  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The Caribbean”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The Caribbean”
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “The Caribbean” icon.  Next, underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your knowledge of the Caribbean, go back to the Caribbean game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.4: The Caribbean”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 5: Middle America:” “Section 5.4: The Caribbean” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 5.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.4.1 through 5.4.3.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the countries within the Caribbean, including Cuba.  In addition, the reading will explore how colonialism influenced culture and politics in the realm.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “The Caribbean: Parts 1 and 2”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “The Caribbean: Parts 1 and 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lectures titled “07The Caribbean Part 1” and “08The Caribbean Part 2,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures.  Watch both Parts 1 and 2 in their entirety for an introduction to the physical and cultural characteristics of the Caribbean region.
       
      Viewing these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.4.1 European Colonialism in the Caribbean  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “European Colonialism in the Caribbean.”

  • 5.4.2 The Great Antilles  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Greater Antilles.”

  • 5.4.2.1 Cuba: A Rimland Experience  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Cuba: A Rimland Experience.” 

  • 5.4.2.2 The Cuban Revolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Cuban Revolution.”

  • 5.4.2.3 The US Embargo Era  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The US Embargo Era.”

  • 5.4.2.4 A Post-Castro Cuba  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “A Post-Castro Cuba.”

  • 5.4.2.5 The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.”  

  • 5.4.2.6 Haitia and the Dominican Republic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Hispaniola: Haiti and the Dominican Republic.”

  • 5.4.2.7 Jamaica  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Jamaica.”

  • 5.4.3 Tourism and Economic Activity in the Rimland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Tourism and Economic Activity in the Rimland.”   

  • 5.4.3.1 Offshore Banking  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Offshore Banking.”

  • 5.4.3.2 Caribbean Music  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Caribbean Music.”

  • 5.5 Special Topic: Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes)  
  • 5.5.1 Hurricane Dynamics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics.”  Study Figure 5.36.

  • 5.5.1.1 Saffir-Simpson Hurrican Scale  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  Focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics.”  Study Figure 5.37.

  • 5.5.1.2 Example Storms  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  In particular, focus on the text below Figure 5.37 that discusses examples of hurricanes.

  • 5.5.1.3.1 Hurricane Camille  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  Focus on the seventh paragraph below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics” to learn about Hurricane Camille.

  • 5.5.1.3.2 Hurrican Katrina  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  Focus on the seventh paragraph below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics” to learn about Hurricane Katrina.

  • 5.5.1.3.3 Hurricanes Ike, Gustav, and Paloma  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  Focus on the ninth paragraph below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics” to learn about Hurricanes Ike, Gustav, and Paloma.

  • 5.5.2 Typhoon  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “typhoon.” Also, review the fifth and sixth paragraphs below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics” to learn about the devastation that typhoons cause.

  • 5.5.3 Cyclone  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.5.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “cyclone.” Also, review the fifth and sixth paragraphs below the heading, “Hurricane Dynamics” to learn about the devastation that cyclones cause.

  • Unit 6: South America  

    The continent of South America has diverse physical landscapes, from the high Andes Mountains to the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin.  This assortment of physical features offers many natural resources. An abundance of precious metals and fossil fuels, for example, are located in Venezuela and Columbia, while the Amazon Basin is a source of lumber.  More recently, some of the largest iron-ore mines in the world were discovered in the Amazon Basin.  The massive plains of Brazil and the rich soils of the Pampas allow for enormous agricultural operations that provide food products for the continent and for the world.  Even the inhospitable Atacama region in northern Chile holds some of the world’s largest copper reserves.  In addition, the wide variety of climate zones allows for a diverse ecosystem.  The extremes in physical geography in South America have created both barriers and opportunities to those who live there.

    Unit 6 begins with the exploration of the diverse physical characteristics of the South American realm.  You will also discover how South America’s colonial legacy shaped its early cultural landscape, and how European colonialism dominated the realm and divided the continent.  Next, the unit explores unique cultural regions of South America and how these regions influence globalization and trade.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.1: Introducing the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 6.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 6.1.1 through 6.1.4.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of South America.  In addition, the reading explores colonial domination in the realm, and how this domination influenced cultural differences and similarities across the region. 
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 6.1.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”

  • 6.1.2 European Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “European Colonialism.”

  • 6.1.2.1 The Inca Empire and Francisco Pizarro  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Inca Empire and Francisco Pizarro.”

  • 6.1.2.2 The Iberian Division of the Continent  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Iberian Division of the Continent.”

  • 6.1.2.3 Colonialism and the Guiana's  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Colonialism and the Guiana’s.”

  • 6.1.2.4 Guyana  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Guyana.”

  • 6.1.2.5 Suriname  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Suriname.”

  • 6.1.2.6 French Giuana  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “French Guiana.”

  • 6.1.3 Cultural Regions of South America  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cultural Regions of South America.”

  • 6.1.3.1 Tropical Plantation Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tropical Plantation Region.”

  • 6.1.3.2 Rural Amerindian Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Rural Amerindian Region.”

  • 6.1.3.3 Amazon Basin  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Amazon Basin.”

  • 6.1.3.4 Mixed Mestizo Region  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Mixed Mestizo Region.”

  • 6.1.3.5 European Commercial Region (Southern Cone)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “European Commercial Region (Southern Cone).”

  • 6.1.4 Globalization and Trade  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Globalization and Trade.”

  • 6.2 Urban North and Andean West  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.2: Urban North and Andean West”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.2: Urban North and Andean West” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 6.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 6.2.1 through 6.2.4. 

      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the Urban North and Andean West regions of South America, including Colombia and Paraguay.  In addition, the reading reviews the three main export products of Colombia and what role the United States plays in their export. 
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 6.2.1 Venezuela: Oil, Politics and Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Venezuela: Oil, Politics, and Globalization.”

  • 6.2.2 Colombia: Drugs, Coffee, and Oil  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colombia: Drugs, Coffee, and Oil.”

  • 6.2.2.1 Colombia and the Drug Trade  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Colombia and the Drug Trade.”

  • 6.2.2.2 Colombian Coffee and Oil  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Colombian Coffee and Oil.”

  • 6.2.3 Rural Amerindian State of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Rural Amerindian States of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.”

  • 6.2.3.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Physical Geography.”

  • 6.2.3.2 Economic Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Economic Geography.”

  • 6.2.3.3 Tourism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tourism.”

  • 6.2.3.4 Political Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Issues.”

  • 6.2.3.5 Population and Culture  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Population and Culture.”

  • 6.2.4 Paraguay  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Paraguay.”

  • 6.3 Brazil  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.3: Brazil”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.3: Brazil” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 6.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 6.3.1 through 6.3.4. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Brazil, including an analysis of the ethnically diverse composition of Brazil.  In addition, the reading explores the development and exploitation of the Amazon Basin.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 6.3.1 A Portuguese Colony  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assignedbelow subunit 6.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “A Portuguese Colony.”

  • 6.3.2 Southeast Core: Urbanize and Industrialize  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assignedbelow subunit 6.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southeast Core: Urbanize and Industrialize.”   

  • 6.3.3 Northern Periphery: The Amazon Basin  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assignedbelow subunit 6.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Periphery: The Amazon Basin.”   

  • 6.3.4 Regional Brazil  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assignedbelow subunit 6.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Regional Brazil.”

  • 6.4 The Southern Cone  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.4: The Southern Cone”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 6: South America:” “Section 6.4: The Southern Cone” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 6.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 6.4.1 through 6.4.3.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the South American region known as the Southern Cone (including Argentina and Chile).  In addition, the reading explores the pattern of immigration that created the regional heritage of the Southern Cone.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 6.4.1 Uruguay  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Uruguay.”

  • 6.4.2 Argentina  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Argentina.”

  • 6.4.2.1 Physical Regions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Physical Regions.”

  • 6.4.2.2 Population and Culture  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Population and Culture.”

  • 6.4.2.3 People and Politics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “People and Politics.”

  • 6.4.3 Chile  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Chile.”

  • 6.4.3.1 The Rain Shadow Effect  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Rain Shadow Effect.”

  • 6.4.3.2 Socioeconomic Conditions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Socioeconomic Conditions.”

  • 6.4.3.3 Chile and NAFTA  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 6.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Chile and NAFTA.”

  • Unit 7: Sub-Saharan Africa  

    Sub-Saharan Africa includes the African countries south of the Sahara Desert.  This unit will also include many of the countries in the African Transition Zone, which cuts across the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, as part of the realm.  The realm can be further broken down into regional components: Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa.  At the eastern end of the African Transition Zone is the Horn of Africa, which is often included in the region of East Africa.  Maps vary in terms of which countries are included in each region, but this general geographic breakdown is helpful in identifying country locations and characteristics.  Madagascar is a large island off the southeastern coast of Africa and is usually not included with the other regions because its geographic qualities and biodiversity are quite different from the mainland.

    There is considerable variation in how the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa are delineated and identified on maps.  The debate is not about what regions are in Sub-Saharan Africa, but rather, which countries are to be included within each region.  Cultural geography vastly differs from country to country, and even amongst ethnic groups within countries.  The diversity in human geography is one of the most noteworthy dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.  The variety of ethnic groups, languages, and religious affiliations create a thriving sea of cultural diversity.

    Globalization has allowed the once-remote regions of Sub-Saharan Africa to connect with the rest of the world.  Advancements in communication and transportation technology have created networks connecting Africa with global markets.  The political arena is dynamic: changes in political leadership through coups or military takeovers are common, as is authoritarian rule.  Bitter civil wars are a part of the region’s history, with violence and conflict continuing in some areas today, while other areas exhibit political stability and thriving economies.  However, Sub-Saharan Africa is still home to some of the poorest countries in the world.  Poverty is evident in the countryside and in the urban slums of the largest cities.   

    Your exploration of Sub-Saharan Africa begins with the analysis of the physical characteristics that make up the region.  You will then discover which kingdoms and empires shaped the culture and people of present-day Africa, with a specific look at how colonialism impacted Sub-Saharan Africa.  As your journey through the regions of the world has shown us thus far, wherever one goes in the world, one cannot escape the cultural, political, and economic impact of European colonialism. 

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Africa”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Africa” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Africa” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Africa, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Rivers L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Rivers G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Rivers quiz, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.1: Introducing the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.1.1 through 7.1.4. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of Sub-Sahara Africa, including the African Transition Zone.  In addition, the reading explores how early kingdoms flourished in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the colonial era.  Finally, the reading analyzes the impact of European colonialism in Africa and the significance of the Berlin Conference.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Sub-Saharan Africa: Parts 1 and 2”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Sub-Saharan Africa: Parts 1 and 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lectures titled “09Sub Saharan Africa Part 1” and “0010SubSaharan Africa Part 2,” and select “View in iTunes” for each to launch the lectures.  View both Parts 1 and 2 in their entirety for an introduction to the physical and cultural characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa.
       
      Viewing these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: TED Talks: “Andrew Mwenda Takes a New Look at Africa”

      Link: TED Talks: “Andrew Mwenda Takes a New Look at Africa” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this TED Talks lecture regarding what Andrew Mwenda believes are the opportunities for creating wealth and happiness throughout the African continent.

      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

    • Lecture: TED Talks: “Chris Abani on the Stories of Africa”

      Link: TED Talks: “Chris Abani on the Stories of Africa” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this TED Talks lecture regarding Chris Abani’s search for the “heart” of Africa.

      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

  • 7.1.1 Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa  

     Note: This topic of this subunit is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa.”   

  • 7.1.2 Kingdoms, Empires, and the Slave Trade  

    Note: This topic of this subunit is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kingdoms, Empires, and the Slave Trade.”   

  • 7.1.3 Colonialism in the Sub-Saharan Africa  

    Note: This topic of this subunit is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colonialism in the Sub-Saharan Africa.”  

  • 7.1.4 From Colonialism to Independence  

    Note: This topic of this subunit is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “From Colonialism to Independence.”   

  • 7.2 Human Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.2: Human Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.2: Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.2.1 through 7.2.7.
       
      This reading provides an in-depth analysis of the human geography characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa.  In particular, the reading explores the relationship between family size, urbanization rates, and income levels as well as the diversity of languages and religions in the realm.  In addition, the reading identifies and explores the areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that have experienced civil war or political conflict in recent years.  Finally, we explore the geographical pattern of HIV infections in the realm and discuss why it is difficult to contain and prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 7.2.1 Economic Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Geography.”

  • 7.2.2 Incomes, Urbanization, and Family Size  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Incomes, Urbanization, and Family Size.”

  • 7.2.3 Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa.”

  • 7.2.4 Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa.”

  • 7.2.5 Etnic Divisions and Civil Wars  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ethnic Divisions and Civil Wars.”

  • 7.2.6 HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.”

  • 7.2.7 Tourism Potential  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Tourism Potential.”

  • 7.3 Physical and Cultural Characteristics of West Africa  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.3: West Africa”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.3: West Africa” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.3.1 through 7.3.11. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of West Africa.  In addition, the reading explores how family size and economic activities are related to population growth in the region.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 7.3.1 Niger  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Niger.”

  • 7.3.2 Mali  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Mali.”

  • 7.3.3 Mauritania, Senegal, and the Gambia  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading “Mauritania,” including the subsection “Senegal and the Gambia.”

  • 7.3.4 Guinea-Bissau and Guinea  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Guinea-Bissau and Guinea.”

  • 7.3.5 Sierra Leone  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Sierra Leone.”

  • 7.3.6 Liberia  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Liberia.”

  • 7.3.7 Ivory Coast  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ivory Coast.”

  • 7.3.8 Ghana  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ghana.”

  • 7.3.9 Burkina Faso (Formerly Upper Volta)  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Burkina Faso (Formerly Upper Volta).”

  • 7.3.10 Togo and Benin  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Togo and Benin.”

  • 7.3.11 Nigeria  

    Note: This topic of is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Nigeria.”

  • 7.4 Physical and Cultural Characteristis of Central Africa  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.4: Central Africa”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.4: Central Africa” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text and complete your study of this resource.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.4.1 through 7.4.3. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of Central Africa.  In addition, the reading discusses the role of women in Central Africa as well as the major conflicts in the region and why they are occurring.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 7.4.1 Central African Republics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central African Republics.”

  • 7.4.2 Conflicts and Unrest in Central Africa States  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Conflicts and Unrest in Central Africa States.”

  • 7.4.3 The Other Side of Life in Central Africa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Other Side of Life in Central Africa.”

  • 7.4.4 The Role of Women  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Role of Women.”

  • 7.5 Physical and Cultural Characteristics of East Africa  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.5: East Africa”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.5: East Africa” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.6 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.5.1 through 7.5.10. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of East Africa, including Somalia.  In addition, the reading explores the importance of the vibrant ecosystem of the East African region to potential economic activities and the impact of the African Transition Zone in the Horn of Africa.
       
      Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 7.5.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”

  • 7.5.2 The Great Rift Valley, Serengeti, and Game Reserves  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Great Rift Valley,” including the subheading “Serengeti, and Game Reserves.”

  • 7.5.3 Tanzania  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Tanzania

  • 7.5.4 Kenya  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kenya.”

  • 7.5.5 Uganda  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Uganda.”

  • 7.5.6 Ethiopia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ethiopia.”

  • 7.5.7 Eritrea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Eritrea.”

  • 7.5.8 Djibouti  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Djibouti.”

  • 7.5.9 Somalia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Somalia.”

  • 7.5.10 Rural-to-Urban Shift  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Rural-to-Urban Shift.”

  • 7.6 Physical and Cultural Characteristics of Southern Africa  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.6: Sub-Saharan Africa”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 7: Sub-Saharan Africa:” “Section 7.6: Sub-Saharan Africa” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 7.6 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.6.1 through 7.6.9. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of Sub-Saharan Africa.  In addition, the reading explores how ethnicity has played a role in the political situation of each country in the Southern African region.  The discussion continues with an analysis of apartheid’s effect on South Africa (both culturally and economically).
       
      Reading and answering the questions associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 7.6.1 Angola  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Angola.”

  • 7.6.2 Namibia and the Namib Desert  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading “Namibia.”  Also, pay attention to the text surrounding the bolded term, “Namib Desert.”

  • 7.6.3 Zambia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Zambia.”

  • 7.6.4 Malawi  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Malawi.”

  • 7.6.5 Mozambique  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Mozambique.”

  • 7.6.6 Zimbabwe and Robert Mugabe  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Zimbabwe.”  Also, pay attention to the section surrounding the bolded term, “Robert Mugabe.”

  • 7.6.7 Botswana and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Botswana.”  Also, pay attention to the text surrounding the bolded term, “Central Kalahari Game Reserve.”

  • 7.6.8 South Africa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “South Africa.”

  • 7.6.8.1 The Xhosa and the Zulu  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded terms, “Xhosa” and “Zulu,” below the heading, “South Africa.”

  • 7.6.8.2 The Boer Wars  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Boer Wars,” below the heading, “South Africa.”

  • 7.6.8.3 Apartheid  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “apartheid,” below the heading, “South Africa.”

  • 7.6.8.4 The 2010 World Cup Soccer Games  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “The 2010 World Cup Soccer Games.”

  • 7.6.9 Swaziland and Lesotho  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 7.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Swaziland and Lesotho.”

  • Unit 8: North Africa & Southwest Asia  

    The realm of North Africa and Southwest Asia is large and expansive in terms of physical area, but its regions share a number of common qualities.  The physical area of this realm is divided into three regions: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and the countries of Turkestan (the geographic region of Central Asia).  The countries in the North African region include those bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, from Morocco to Sudan.  The realm borders the Atlantic Ocean, the Sahara Desert, and the African Transition Zone.  Egypt has territory in both Africa and Asia through its possession of the Sinai Peninsula.  The second region, Southwest Asia, includes Turkey, Iran, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula.  The land on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea is frequently referred to as the Levant and is often considered to be part of the Middle East.  Central Asia, also referred to as Turkestan, includes the “stan” countries from Kazakhstan to Afghanistan.  The suffix stan, meaning “land of,” is a common suffix for nations in Central Asia.  Afghanistan is the only country of Central Asia that was not officially a part of the former Soviet Union.

    Though each unit of this course is relevant and important, few units are perhaps as important to present day global dynamics as this unit.  Unit 8 begins with the identification of the three basic physical and cultural traits the countries of the realm have in common: climate, Islam, and natural resources.  In this unit, you will take a detailed look at one of the more important “cultural hearths” of the region: the availability and control of fresh water.  You will also analyze the differences and similarities between the three most prevalent monotheistic religions in this region of the world.  Finally, you will take an in-depth look at major conflicts that have plagued the region historically and presently.

    Unit 8 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 8 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Introducing the Realm  
  • 8.1.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the first few paragraphs of the reading.

  • 8.1.2 Cultural Hearths  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cultural Hearths.”

  • 8.1.2.1 Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent.”  Study Figure 8.3.

  • 8.1.2.2 Nile River Civilization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nile River Civilization.”

  • 8.1.3 Access to Fresh Water  

    Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Access to Fresh Water.”

  • 8.1.3.1 Underground Water in Libya  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Underground Water in Libya.”

  • 8.1.3.2 Nile Water in Egypt  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nile Water in Egypt.”

  • 8.1.3.3 Water from the Tigris and Euphrates  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water from the Tigris and Euphrates.”

  • 8.1.3.4 Water Conservation in Israel  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water Conservation in Israel.”

  • 8.1.3.5 Mountain Water in Iran  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Mountain Water in Iran.”

  • 8.1.3.6 Water Shortages in Arabia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water Shortages in Arabia.”

  • 8.1.3.7 Diversion of Water in Turkestan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Diversion of Water in Turkestan.”

  • 8.1.4 Arab Spring of 2011  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Arab Spring of 2011.”

  • 8.2 Muhammad and Islam  
  • 8.2.1 The Prophet Muhammad  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Prophet Muhammad.”

  • 8.2.2 Spatial Diffusion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Spatial Diffusion.”

  • 8.2.3 The Five Pillars of Islam  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Five Pillars of Islam.”

  • 8.2.4 The Death of Muhammad  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Death of Muhammad.”

  • 8.2.5 Secular State versus Religious State  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Secular State versus Religious State.”

  • 8.2.5 Sudan: Slavery and Genocide  

    Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Sudan: Slavery and Genocide.”   

  • 8.3 North Africa and the African Transition Zone  
  • 8.3.1 The Maghreb: “Isle of the West”  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Maghreb: ‘Isle of the West.’” 

  • 8.3.2 Economic Geography of the Maghreb  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Geography of the Maghreb.”  

  • 8.3.2.1 Political Geography of the Maghreb  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Geography of the Maghreb.” 

  • 8.3.2.2 Western Sahara and Morocco  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Western Sahara and Morocco.”   

  • 8.3.2.3 Algeria  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Algeria.”  

  • 8.3.2.4 Tunisia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tunisia.”   

  • 8.3.2.5 Libya  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Libya.”

  • 8.3.3 The Nile River and Egypt  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Nile River and Egypt.”   

  • 8.3.3.1 Population Dynamics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Population Dynamics.”   

  • 8.3.3.2 Political Dynamics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Dynamics.”  

  • 8.3.4 The African Transition Zone  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The African Transition Zone.”

    • Web Media: National Geographic’s: “God Grew Tired of Us: From Sudan to the United States”

      Link: National Geographic’s: “God Grew Tired of Us: From Sudan to the United States” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Watch this engaging documentary clip that follows the path of a number of “Lost Boys” from Sudan’s civil war to the United States.  Sudan’s civil war forced over 25,000 “Lost Boys” to travel across Sub-Saharan Africa in search of safety.  This video is first in a series. Watching the rest of the videos is optional though highly encouraged.  If interested in watching the rest of the videos, note that one video will automatically progress to another video.
       
      Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 8.3.6 The African Union  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The African Union.”

  • 8.4 Israel and Its Neighbors  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Middle East”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Middle East” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Middle East” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of the Middle East, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Seas & Bays L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Seas & Bays G – Game.” Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Seas & Bays quiz, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%. Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.4: Israel and Its Neighbors”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.4: Israel and Its Neighbors” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.4.1 through 8.4.4. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Israel and its neighbors (including the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon).  In addition, the reading explores the history of the region and discusses how the region of Palestine has evolved into the current Jewish State of Israel.  Finally, the reading identifies the complications of the one-state and two-state solutions to the division of the region.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 8.4.1 The State of Israel  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The State of Israel.”

  • 8.4.1.1 The Division of Palestine  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Division of Palestine.”

  • 8.4.1.2 The Palestinians, Israel, and Possible Solutions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Palestinians, Israel, and Possible Solutions.”

  • 8.4.2 Jordan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Jordan.”

  • 8.4.3 Syria  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Syria.”

  • 8.4.4 Lebanon  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Lebanon.”

  • 8.4.4.1 Lebanon: Switzerland of the Middle East  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for a discussion of how Lebanon is known as the “Switzerland of the Middle East.”

  • 8.4.4.2 Beirut: “The Paris of the Middle East”  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for a discussion of how Beirut is known as the “Paris of the Middle East.”

  • 8.4.4.3 The Conflict between Lebanon and Israel  

    seventh paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for discussions on the growing conflict between Lebanon and Israel.

  • 8.4.4.3.1 Hezbollah  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Hezbollah,” under the heading, “Lebanon.”

  • 8.4.4.3.2 The Role of Syria  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the seventh paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for discussions on the role of Syria in the conflict between Lebanon and Israel.

  • 8.5 Arabs, Islam, and Oil  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.5: Arabs, Islam, and Oil”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.5: Arabs, Islam, and Oil” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.5 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.5.1 through 8.5.8. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the countries within the Arabian Peninsula.  In addition, the reading explores women’s rights and circumstances in each of these countries.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 8.5.1 The States of the Arabian Peninsula  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “States on the Arabian Peninsula.”

  • 8.5.2 Saudi Arabia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Saudi Arabia.”

  • 8.5.2.1 Saudi Culture  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Saudi Culture.”

  • 8.5.2.2 Role of Women  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Role of Women.”

  • 8.5.3 Kuwait and Operation Desert Storm  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kuwait.”  Also, pay attention to the text surrounding the bolded term, “Operation Desert Storm.”

  • 8.5.4 Bahrain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Bahrain.”

  • 8.5.5 Qatar  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Qatar.”

  • 8.5.6 United Arab Emirates (UAE)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “United Arab Emirates (UAE).”

  • 8.5.7 The Sultanate of Oman  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Sultanate of Oman.”

  • 8.5.8 Yemen  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Yemen.”

  • 8.6 Iraq, Turkey, and Iran  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.6: Iraq, Turkey, and Iran”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.6: Iraq, Turkey, and Iran” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.6 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.6.1 through 8.6.3.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Iraq, Turkey, and Iran.  In addition, the reading explores the reasons behind the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War in 2003.  The reading also seeks to describe why Turkey wants to be a member of the European Union (EU) and why it has not been accepted.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 8.6.1 Iraq  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Iraq.”

  • 8.6.1.1 Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).”

  • 8.6.1.2 The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991).”

  • 8.6.1.3 Ethnic and Cultural Divisions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

  • 8.6.1.3.1 Sunni Triangle  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

  • 8.6.1.3.1.1 Baghdad  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

  • 8.6.1.3.1.2 Tikrit  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

  • 8.6.1.3.1.3 Ramadi  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

  • 8.6.1.3.2 Karbala and Najaf  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded terms, “Karbala” and “Najaf.”

  • 8.6.1.3.3 Kurdistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Kurdistan.”

  • 8.6.1.4 The Iraq War (2003-2011)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Iraq War (2003-2011).”

  • 8.6.1.5 Resources and Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Resources and Globalization.”

  • 8.6.1.6 Politics, Oil Companies, and the Administration of US President George W. Bush  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Politics, Oil Companies, and the Administration of US President George W. Bush.”

  • 8.6.2 Turkey  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Turkey.”

  • 8.6.2.1 Constantinople and the Ottoman Empire  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Constantinople.”

  • 8.6.2.2 Istanbul and Ankara  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Istanbul.”

  • 8.6.2.3 The Kurds and Eastern Turkey  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Turkey.”

  • 8.6.2.4 Cyprus  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled, “Cyprus.”

  • 8.6.3 Iran  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Iran.”

  • 8.6.3.1 Persian Empire to Islamic Republic  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Persian Empire to Islamic Republic.”

  • 8.6.3.2 Political Challenges  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Challenges.”

  • 8.6.3.3 Economic Resources  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Economic Resources.”

  • 8.7 Central Asia and Afganistan  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.7: Central Asia and Afghanistan”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.7: Central Asia and Afghanistan” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.7 as well as the end of chapter material in Section 8.8.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.7.1 through 8.7.7.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Afghanistan and the nations of Central Asia.  In particular, the reading discusses how Central Asia has been transitioning from a Soviet-dominated region to independent states and what has been occurring in the various states to adapt to the new economic environment.  In addition, the reading explores the geopolitical history of Afghanistan and why this area has been difficult to govern under a central government and why there is continual conflict in Afghanistan between Western military forces and local Taliban insurgents.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 8.7.1 Central Asia or Turkestan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Asia or Turkestan.”   

  • 8.7.2 Kazakhstan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kazakhstan

  • 8.7.3 Uzbekistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Uzbekistan

  • 8.7.4 Turkmenistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Turkmenistan.”   

  • 8.7.5 Kyrgyzstan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kyrgyzstan.”

  • 8.7.6 Tajikistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Tajikistan.”  

  • 8.7.7 Afganistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Afghanistan.”

  • 8.7.7.1 The Soviet Invasion and the Taliban  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Soviet Invasion and the Taliban.”  

  • 8.7.7.1.1 Mujahedeen  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Mujahedeen.”  

  • 8.7.7.1.2 Osama bin Laden  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Osama bin Laden.”  

  • 8.7.7.1.3 The Taliban  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Taliban.”   

  • 8.7.7.1.4 The Northern Alliance  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Northern Alliance.”

  • 8.7.7.2 Al-Qaeda and the US Invasion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Al-Qaeda and the US Invasion

  • 8.7.7.2.1 Al-Qaeda  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Al-Qaeda.”

  • 8.7.7.2.2 Operation Enduring Freedom  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Operation Enduring Freedom” as well as the text in the box titled “Operation Enduring Freedom.”

  • 8.7.7.2.3 Abottadad, Pakistan and the Compound of Osama bin Laden  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Al-Queda and the US Invasion.”

  • 8.7.7.2.4 Democratic Elections in Afganistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  Focus on the fifth paragraph below the heading, “Al-Queda and the US Invasion.”

  • 8.7.7.3 Resources and Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Resources and Globalization.”  

  • Unit 9: South Asia  

    Of the world’s seven continents, Asia is the largest.  Its physical landscapes, political units, and ethnic groups are both numerous and wide-ranging.  The entire region of Asia consists of Russia, Southwest Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. 

    The South Asia realm was the birthplace of two of the world’s great religions: Hinduism and Buddhism.  Today South Asia also includes large Muslim populations and large groups of followers of various other religions.  Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism are the top three religions of South Asia.  While Pakistan and Iran are both Islamic republics, each represents a significant branch of that faith; Iran is predominantly Shia, and Pakistan is mostly Sunni.  Religious differences are also evident on the eastern border of the realm, where Bangladesh and India share a border with Myanmar.  Bangladesh is mainly a Muslim country, while most in India align themselves with Hinduism.  In Myanmar, most follow Buddhist traditions.  In addition, Sikhism is a major religion in the Punjab region, which is located on India’s northern border with Pakistan.

    In this unit, you will explore and analyze the incredibly diverse physical, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia.  First, you will take a look at the physical geography of the region, paying special attention to the climate of the realm; in particular, the Indian Monsoon.  Next, you will explore regional population growth.  The balancing of natural capital and population growth is and will remain a primary issue in the realm’s future.  South Asia is highly populated, with about one-and-a-half billion people representing a wide range of ethnic and cultural groups.  The diverse population has been brought together into political units that have roots in the realm’s colonial past, primarily under Great Britain.  British colonialism had a significant impact on the realm; its long-term effects include political divisions and conflicts in places such as Kashmir and Sri Lanka.  After you explore population, you will then identify and analyze globalizing forces in the realm.  Current globalizing forces are compelling South Asian countries to establish a trade network and institute economic policies among themselves.  South Asia is not one of the three main economic core areas of the world; however, it is emerging to compete in the world marketplace.  Some would call India a part of the semi-periphery, which means it is not actually in the core or in the periphery but displays qualities of both.  India remains the dominant country of South Asia and shares either a physical boundary or a marine boundary with all the other countries in the realm.  Finally, you will take an in-depth look at different physical and cultural characteristics of specific countries within the realm, paying special attending to religions of India and South Asia.

    Unit 9 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 9 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Asia”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Asia” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Asia” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Asia, go back to the Asia game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Asia game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Rivers L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Asia game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Rivers G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Rivers quiz, go back to the Asia game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Asia game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%. Good luck!
       
      This activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.1: Introduction to the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.1: Introduction to the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 9.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading also covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 9.1.1 through 9.1.5.
       
      This reading provides and introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of South Asia, paying special attention to the dynamics of the monsoon and how it affects human activities.  In addition, the reading explores how European colonialism has impacted the realm, both culturally and politically.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “South Asia: Part 1” and “World Regional Geography:” “South Asia: Part 2”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “South Asia: Part 1” (iTunes U) and “World Regional Geography:” “South Asia: Part 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the links above, locate the lectures titled “0021South Asia Part 1” and “0022South Asia Part 2,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch each lecture.  View Parts 1 and 2 for an introduction to the physical, cultural, and political characteristics of the realm known as “South Asia.” 
       
      Watching these video lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 9.1.1 Physical Geograpy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”   

  • 9.1.2 The Monsoon  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Monsoon.”

  • 9.1.2.1 Reasons for the Monsoon  
  • 9.1.2.2 Flooding Associated with the Monsoon Season  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  Focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “monsoon,” as well as the second paragraph below the heading “The Monsoon.”

  • 9.1.3 Early Civilizations  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Early Civilizations.”   

  • 9.1.3.1 Indus Valley Civilization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Indus Valley Civilization

  • 9.1.3.2 The Mauryan Experience  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Mauryan Empire

  • 9.1.3.3 Mughal Empire  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Mughal Empire.”   

  • 9.1.4 Colonialism in South Asia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colonialism in South Asia.”   

  • 9.1.5 Population in South Asia and India  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Population in South Asia and India.”   

  • 9.2 The Peripheral States of South Asia  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.2: The Peripheral States of South Asia”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.2: The Peripheral States of South Asia” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 9.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 9.2.1 through 9.2.6. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the peripheral states of South Asia, including Kashmir, Bhutan, and Nepal.  In addition, the reading explores the main environmental concerns that are apparent in each of the peripheral states of South Asia.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 9.2.1 The Punjab  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Punjab.”  

  • 9.2.1.1 Sikhism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the fourth and fifth paragraphs below the heading, “The Punjab.”

  • 9.2.1.2 Khalistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Khalistan.”   

  • 9.2.2 The Kingdom of Kashmir  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Kashmir.”   

  • 9.2.2.1 Northern Control: Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Kashmir.”  Study Figure 9.8.

  • 9.2.2.2 Southern Control: India  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2. In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Kashmir.”  Study Figure 9.8.  

  • 9.2.2.3 Eastern Control: China  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Kashmir.”  Study Figure 9.8

  • 9.2.3 The Kingdom of Bhutan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Bhutan.”   

  • 9.2.3.1 Buddhism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  Focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “The Kingdom of Bhutan.”

  • 9.2.3.2 Gross National Happiness (GNH)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Gross National Happiness (GNH).”

  • 9.2.4 The Kingdom of Nepal  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Kingdom of Nepal.”   

  • 9.2.4.1 Tarai Lowlands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Tarai Lowlands.”   

  • 9.2.4.2 Mt. Everest  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Mt. Everest.” 

  • 9.2.4.3 Pashupatinath Temple  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Pashupatinath Temple.” 

  • 9.2.5 Sri Lanka  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Sri Lanka.”

  • 9.2.5.1 The Sinhalese People  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sinhalese.”   

  • 9.2.5.2 Ceylon  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Ceylon.”   

  • 9.2.5.3 Tamil Tigers  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Tamil Tigers.” 

  • 9.2.6 The Maldives  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Maldives.”   

  • 9.3 Pakistan and Bangladesh  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.3: Pakistan and Bangladesh”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 9: South Asia:” “Section 9.3: Pakistan and Bangladesh” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 9.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 9.3.1 through 9.3.8.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Pakistan and Bangladesh.  In addition, the reading explores the history of why East Pakistan became Bangladesh.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 9.3.1 Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Pakistan.”

  • 9.3.2 Regions of Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Regions of Pakistan.”  

  • 9.3.2.1 The Punjab  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Punjab.”   

  • 9.3.2.2 Baluchistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Baluchistan.” 

  • 9.3.2.3 The Sindh  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Sindh.” 

  • 9.3.2.4 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (The North West Frontier)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (The North West Frontier).”

  • 9.3.2.5 The Tribal Areas  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Tribal Areas.”   

  • 9.3.2.6 Northern Areas with Disputed Kashmir  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Northern Areas with Disputed Kashmir.”  

  • 9.3.3 Religions and Politics in Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Religion and Politics in Pakistan.”  

  • 9.3.3.1 Madrassas  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Madrassas.”   

  • 9.3.3.2 Benazir Bhutto: the First Female Prime Minister of Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Benazir Bhutto: The First Female Prime Minister of Pakistan.”

  • 9.3.4 Environmental Issues in Pakistan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Environmental Issues in Pakistan.”   

  • 9.3.5 Bangladesh  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Bangladesh.”

  • 9.3.6 Population and Globalization  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Population and Globalization.”   

  • 9.3.7 Environmental Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Environmental Issues.”   

  • 9.3.8 Women and Banking in Bangladesh  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.3.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Women and Banking in Bangladesh.”

  • 9.4 India  
  • 9.4.1 India and Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “India and Colonialism.” 

  • 9.4.2 The People of India  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The People of India.”  

  • 9.4.3 Urban versus Rural  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Urban versus Rural.”  

  • 9.4.4 India's Economic Situation  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “India’s Economic Situation.”

  • 9.4.4.1 Vehicle Manufacturing  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Vehicle Manufacturing.”   

  • 9.4.4.2 The Indian Cinema  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Indian Cinema.”   

  • 9.4.5 India: East and West  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “India: East and West.”   

  • 9.4.6 India: North and South  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “India: North and South.”   

  • 9.4.7 Biodiversity and the Environment  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Biodiversity and the Environment.”   

  • 9.5 Religions of India and South Asia  
  • 9.5.1 Hinduism  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Hinduism.”  

  • 9.5.2 The Hindu Caste System  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Hindu Caste System.”  

  • 9.5.3 Buddhism  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Buddhism.”   

  • 9.5.4 Other Religions in South Asia  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.” 

  • 9.5.4.1 Islam  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading “Islam” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”  

  • 9.5.4.2 Christianity  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Christianity” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”      

  • 9.5.4.3 Jainism  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Jainism” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”      

  • 9.5.4.4 Sikhism  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Sikhism” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”      

  • 9.5.4.5 Baha'i Faith  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Baha’i Faith” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”      

  • 9.5.4.6 Zoroastrianism  

    Note: This topic covered by the reading assigned below subunit 9.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Zoroastrianism” under the heading, “Other Religions of South Asia.”    

  • Unit 10: East Asia  

    East Asia is home to one-fifth of the entire world population, with China being the largest country in the realm.  The countries of Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan border the massive nation of China.  East Asia’s location on the Pacific Rim has provided the countries of the realm a port of access to the global economy.  The manufacturing industry has fueled the high-tech engines of the Pacific Rim economies, which have taken advantage of the massive labor pool of the Chinese heartland.  The island of Taiwan, off the eastern coast of China, has an independent government that has been separated from mainland China since the end of World War II.  Hong Kong, a former British possession with one of the best ports in Asia, is on the southern coast of China.  The former Portuguese colony of Macau, which has been returned to Chinese control, is just west of Hong Kong.  The autonomous region of Tibet, referred to by its Chinese name, Xizang, is in western China.  Tibet has been controlled by Communist China since 1949, shortly after the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was declared a country. 

    In this unit, you will first study the wonderfully diverse physical geography of East Asia.  East Asia is surrounded by a series of mountain ranges in the west, Mongolia and Russia to the north, and Southeast Asia to the south.  The Himalayas border Tibet and Nepal; the Karakoram Ranges, Pamir’s, and the Tian Shan Mountains shadow Central Asia; and the Altay Mountains are next to Russia.  The Himalayan Mountains are among the highest mountain ranges in the world, and Mt. Everest is the planet’s tallest peak standing at over 29,000 feet tall.  These high ranges create a rain-shadow effect that dominates western China.

    After you explore the physical geography of the region, you will then analyze the impact of colonialism in China, and identify the various countries and regions that were controlled by colonial interests.  Additionally, you will explore the physical, political, economic, and cultural characteristics of China, including its population dynamics and the “One-Child-Only” policy.  The unit ends with an analysis of some of the major physical and cultural characteristics of Japan, North Korea, and South Korea.

    Unit 10 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 10 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 10.1 Introducing the Realm  
  • 10.1.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”   

  • 10.1.2 River Basins of China  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “River Basins of China.”  

  • 10.1.2.1 The Yangtse River  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Yangtze River.”  

  • 10.1.2.2 Three Gorges Dam (The New China Dam)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term as well as the text in the box titled “Three Gorges Dam (The New China Dam).”

  • 10.1.3 Chinese Dynasties and Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Chinese Dynasties and Colonialism

  • 10.1.3.1 The Han Dynasty  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Han Dynasty.”   

  • 10.1.3.2 The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty.”   

  • 10.1.3.3 The Silk Road  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Silk Road.”   

  • 10.1.3.4 The Opium Wars  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Opium Wars.”   

  • 10.1.3.5 Formosa (Now Called Taiwan)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Formosa (Now Called Taiwan).”  

  • 10.1.3.6 The Boxer Rebellion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Boxer Rebellion.”   

  • 10.1.4 Three Way Split in China  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Three Way Split in China.”

  • 10.1.4.1 The Long March of 1934  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Long March of 1934.” Study Figure 10.10.  

  • 10.1.4.2 The Emergence of Communist China in 1949  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.1.  Study Figure 10.10, and review the paragraph below the figure.

  • 10.2 Emerging China  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 10: East Asia:” “Section 10.2: Emerging China”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 10: East Asia:” “Section 10.2: Emerging China” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 10.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.2.1 through 10.2.4.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the cultural and economic characteristics of China.  In addition, the reading explores the One-Child-Only Policy and discusses the policy’s impact on Chinese culture.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 10.2.1 The Emergence of Modern China  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Emergence of Modern China.”  

  • 10.2.1.1 The Great Leap Forward  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Great Leap Forward.”  

  • 10.2.1.2 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.”   

  • 10.2.1.3 The Bamboo Curtain  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Bamboo Curtain.”   

  • 10.2.2 Political Units  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Political Units.”   

  • 10.2.3 The People  

    Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The People.”   

  • 10.2.4 Population  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading “Population” under the heading “The People.”   

  • 10.2.4 Economic Summary of China  

    Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Summary of China.”  

  • 10.2.4.1 Growth of Enterprise and Industry  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Growth of Enterprise and Industry,” under the “Economic Summary of China” heading.

  • 10.2.4.1 One-Child-Only Policy  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “One-Child-Only Policy,” under the heading “The People.”   

  • 10.2.4.2 Geopolitics  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Geopolitics,” under the “Economic Summary of China” heading.    

  • 10.2.4.2 Female Infanticide  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Female Infanticide,” under the heading “The People.”      

  • 10.2.4.3 More Boys than Girls: Cultural Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “More Boys than Girls: Cultural Issues,” under the heading “The People.”   

  • 10.2.4.4 Periphery-to-Core Migration  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Periphery-to-Core Migration,” under the heading “The People.”   

  • 10.2.5 Ethnic Groups  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ethnic Groups.” 

  • 10.3 China's Periphery  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 10: East Asia:” “Section 10.3: China’s Periphery”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 10: East Asia:” “Section 10.3: China’s Periphery” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 10.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.3.1 through 10.3.4.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of China’s peripheral regions, including Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet.  In addition, the reading explores the many challenges that Tibet has experienced in becoming an autonomous region of China.  Finally, the reading seeks to explain why the peripheral regions of Tibet, Hong Kong, and Taiwan are important to the Chinese government and the vitality of the country.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 10.3.1 Hong Kong and Shenzhen  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Hong Kong and Shenzhen.”

  • 10.3.2 Taiwan (ROC)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Taiwan (ROC).”   

  • 10.3.3 Autonomous Region of Tibet  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Autonomous Region of Tibet.”   

  • 10.3.3.1 Panchen Lama  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Panchen Lama.” 

  • 10.3.3.2 Who is the Dalai Lama?  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Who is the Dalai Lama?”  

  • 10.3.3.3 Population  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  Focus on the eighth paragraph under the heading, “Autonomous Region of Tibet.”  Also, study Figure 10.23.

  • 10.3.3.4 The Core Peripheral Spatial Relationship of Tibet to China  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  Study Figure 10.23 and read the paragraph below the figure under the heading, “Autonomous Region of Tibet.”

  • 10.3.4 Mongolia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Mongolia.”  

  • 10.4 Japan and Korea (North and South)  
  • 10.4.1 Japan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Japan.”   

  • 10.4.1.1 The Development of Japan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Development of Japan.”  

  • 10.4.1.2 Economic Growth  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Economic Growth.”

  • 10.4.1.3 Modern Japan  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Modern Japan.”   

  • 10.4.2 North Korea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the headings, “Korea” and “North Korea.”

  • 10.4.3 South Korea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the headings, “Korea” and “South Korea.”

  • 10.4.4 Unification of North Korea and South Korea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 10.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Unification of North Korea and South Korea.”  

  • Unit 11: Southeast Asia  

    The region between China, India, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean is known as Southeast Asia.  Political borders in Southeast Asia were created through a combination of factors, including natural features, traditional tribal distinctions, colonial claims, and political agreements.  Indonesia, the fourth-most populous country in the world, is situated in this realm. 

    Southeast Asia is a region of peninsulas and islands.  The only landlocked country is the rural country of Laos, which borders China, Vietnam, and Thailand.  The physical geography of Southeast Asia includes beaches, bays, inlets, and gulfs.  The thousands of islands in Southeast Asia provide refuge for a variety of cultural groups.  For example, the island of New Guinea has hundreds of local groups with their own languages and traditions.  Indonesians, Malays, and Filipinos, coinciding with the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, dominate the large number of ethnic groups. Each of these main groups has many subgroups that hold to their own cultural heritage in the areas where they exist.  The many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines create the opportunity for diversity to continue to thrive,in spite of the globalization process that has increased the interaction and communication opportunities between groups.

    Unit 11 begins with an exploration of the physical geography of Southeast Asia, followed by analysis of the impact of colonialism to the realm, and an introduction to the ethnic mosaic of the region.

    Unit 11 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 11 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 11.1 Introducing the Realm  
  • 11.1.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”   

  • 11.1.2 Impact of Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Impact of Colonialism.”   

  • 11.1.3 Cultural Introduction  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cultural Introduction.”   

  • 11.1.4 Overseas Chinese  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Overseas Chinese.”   

  • 11.1.4.1 The Chinese Exodus to Southeast Sea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  Review the text below the heading, “Overseas Chinese.”   

  • 11.1.4.2 European Colonial Influence  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  Review the text below the heading, “Overseas Chinese.”   

  • 11.1.4.3 Japanese Occupation and Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.1.  Review the text below the heading, “Overseas Chinese.”   

  • 11.2 The Mainland Countries  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 11: Southeast Asia:” “Section 11.2: The Mainland Countries”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 11: Southeast Asia:” “Section 11.2: The Mainland Countries” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 11.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 11.2.1 through 11.1.5. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the mainland countries of Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Laos, the Democratic Kampuchea, and Thailand.  In addition, the reading explores how Vietnam was divided by civil war and the impact the war had on the country.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 11.2.1 Vietnam  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Vietnam.” 

  • 11.2.1.1 Political Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Political Geography.”  

  • 11.2.1.2 Modern Vietnam  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Modern Vietnam.”  

  • 11.2.2 Laos  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Laos.”   

  • 11.2.3 Cambodia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cambodia.”   

  • 11.2.3.1 A Notorious History  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “A Notorious History.”   

  • 11.2.3.2 Modern Cambodia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Modern Cambodia.”   

  • 11.2.4 Thailand  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Thailand.”   

  • 11.2.5 Myanmar or Burma  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Myanmar or Burma.”   

  • 11.3 The Insular Region (Islands of Southeast Asia)  
  • 11.3.1 Malaysia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Malaysia.”   

  • 11.3.1.1 Diversity of Culture and Ethnicity in Malaysia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Diversity of Culture and Ethnicity in Malaysia.”   

  • 11.3.1.2 Economic Development in Malaysia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Development in Malaysia.”  

  • 11.3.2 Singapore  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Singapore.”  

  • 11.3.3 Indonesia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Indonesia.”   

  • 11.3.4 Brunei  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Brunei.”   

  • 11.3.5 The Philippines  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Philippines.”   

  • 11.3.5.1 Environmental Forces  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Environmental Forces.”   

  • 11.3.5.2 Political Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Geography.”   

  • 11.3.5.3 Cultural Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Cultural Geography.”  

  • 11.3.5.4 The Global Economy and Outsourcing  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Global Economy and Outsourcing.”   

  • 11.3.6 East-Timor (Timor-Leste)  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 11.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “East Timor (Timor-Leste).”   

  • Unit 12: Australia and New Zealand  

    Australia and New Zealand have flora and fauna that are found nowhere else on Earth.  Australia is an island, a country, and a continent – the world’s smallest continent, but the only “Island Continent.”  No other land mass can make those three claims.  Australia consists of a large mainland and the island of Tasmania to the south.  The mainland of New Zealand consists of two main islands, separated from Australia’s southeastern region by the Tasman Sea. 

    The Indian Ocean surrounds Australia’s western and southern coasts.  Indonesia and Papua New Guinea lie to the north, separated by the Timor Sea and the Arafura Sea.  The Gulf of Carpentaria extends to the north along Australia’s eastern coast, almost reaching Papua New Guinea.  The Great Barrier Reef runs for more than 1,600 miles off the continent’s northeastern shores, with the Coral Sea, which separates the Great Barrier Reef from the South Pacific.  The southern side of Australia is the Great Australian Bight, and the island of Tasmania.  Finally, to the south of Australia and New Zealand is Antarctica. 

    The two countries have distinct physical geographies.  Australia is relatively flat with low elevation highlands and an extensive dry interior, while New Zealand has high mountains and receives more rainfall.  New Zealand and Australia’s geographic isolation from the rest of the world has allowed rare and extraordinary species to flourish. It is quite a remarkable place.

    Your journey through this unit begins with an exploration of the Australian and New Zealand realm, with particular emphasis on the physical geography of the region and the impact of colonialism to the place and the Aboriginal people.  Next, you will explore the physical, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of Australia and New Zealand. 

    Unit 12 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 12 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 12.1 Introducing the Realm  
    • Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Oceania”

      Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Oceania” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Oceania” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Oceania, go back to the Oceania game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Oceania game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Oceans L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Oceania game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Oceans G – Game.” Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
       
      Once you have successfully completed the Oceans quiz, go back to the Oceania game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.” When you feel comfortable, go back to the Oceania game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%. Good luck!  
       
      NOTE: This quiz also includes the countries and islands discussed in Unit 13: The Pacific and Antarctica.
       
      This activity should take 1 hour to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 12: Australia and New Zealand:” “Section 12.1: Introducing the Realm”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 12: Australia and New Zealand:” “Section 12.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 12.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 12.1.1 and 12.1.2. 
       
      This reading provides and introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Australia and New Zealand.  In addition, the reading explores how colonialism has affected the development and socioeconomic conditions of Australia and New Zealand (including how colonialism impacted the Maori and the Aboriginal populations).  The reading also explores how isolation has allowed for the high level of biodiversity in the realm.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Australia and Oceania: Part 1” and “Australia and Oceania: Part 2”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Binghamton: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Australia and Oceania: Part 1” (iTunes U) and “World Regional Geography:” “Australia and Oceania: Part 2” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the links above, locate the lectures titled “0025Australia and Oceania Part 1” and “0026Australia and Oceania Part 2,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch each lecture.  View Parts 1 and 2 in their entirety for an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of this realm. NOTE: these lectures also include information regarding Unit 13 (namely, with regards to the islands of the South Pacific).
       
      Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 12.1.1 Isolation Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Isolation Geography.”   

  • 12.1.2 Colonialism  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colonialism.”   

  • 12.2 Australia  
  • 12.2.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”

  • 12.2.2 Climate Regions  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Climate Regions.”   

  • 12.2.3 Population, Urbanization and the Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Population, Urbanization, and the Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship.”

  • 12.2.4 Culture and Immigration  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Culture and Immigration.”   

  • 12.2.5 Economic Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Geography.”   

  • 12.2.6 Mining and Aboriginal Lands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Mining and Aboriginal Lands.”   

  • 12.2.7 Austalia's Future  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Australia’s Future.”   

  • 12.3 New Zealand  
  • 12.3.1 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”   

  • 12.3.1.1 Tectonic Plates and Gondwanaland  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tectonic Plates and Gondwanaland.”   

  • 12.3.1.2 Biodiversity in New Zealand  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Biodiversity in New Zealand.”   

  • 12.3.2 Cultural Dynamics and the Maori  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 12.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cultural Dynamics and the Maori.”   

  • Unit 13: The Pacific and Antarctica  

    Almost all of Antarctica rests south of the Antarctic Circle, surrounded by the Southern Ocean.  The closest continent to Antarctica is South America.  Many countries have laid claim to sections of Antarctica, nevertheless the continent lacks industrial development.  In the early 20th century, Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Norway announced claims to parts of Antarctica.  In 1961, these nations and others signed the Antarctic Treaty, essentially putting aside their territorial claims in the interests of international cooperation in scientific research.  In 1991, 24 nations approved an addition to the treaty that would ban oil and other mineral exploration for at least 50 years.

    The hundreds of South Pacific islands are surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and make up the largest geographic area in the world.  The Pacific realm includes the island groups in the tropics between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  There has been little industrial development in the South Pacific.  Just as Antarctica has been divided up and claimed by other countries – though it was not colonized by them – most of the islands in the South Pacific were claimed or colonized by the imperial powers of Europe, Japan, or the United States.  Both areas are considered to be peripheral realms in the overall scheme of the global economy.  Tourism is the major activity in the South Pacific, and research and tourism are the major activities in Antarctica.  Both regions have opportunities for greater economic development in the future.

    Both the Pacific realm and Antarctica are impacted by climate change.  Rising temperatures melt the polar caps, which in turn raise sea levels.  Changes in precipitation patterns seriously alter the biodiversity of tropical islands in the Pacific, while changes in temperature and precipitation affect agricultural activity and tourism on many islands.  Climate change in Antarctica could cause further decline for the animals native to the realm.

    Unit 13 begins with the exploration of physical and cultural characteristics of the three groups of the islands of the South Pacific: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.  During your exploration, you will analyze the geographic characteristics (physical, cultural, and political) of specific islands within the three groups.  Then, you will travel to the Southern Ocean and the Antarctica, paying special attention to environmental concerns such as climate change and ozone depletion.

    Unit 13 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 13 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 13.1 Pacific Islands  
    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 13: The Pacific and Antarctica:” “Section 13.1: The Pacific Islands”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 13: The Pacific and Antarctica:” “Section 13.1: The Pacific Islands” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 13.1 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 13.1.1 through 13.1.1.
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations that make-up the Pacific Islands, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.  In addition, the reading explores which islands remain under the auspices of France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, or the United States.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 13.1.1 Introducing the Realm  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Introducing the Realm.”   

  • 13.1.2 Melanesia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Melanesia.”   

  • 13.1.2.1 Papua New Guinea  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Papua New Guinea.”  

  • 13.1.2.2 Solomon Islands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Solomon Islands.”   

  • 13.1.2.3 Vanuatu  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Vanuatu.”   

  • 13.1.2.4 New Caledonia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “New Caledonia.”   

  • 13.1.2.5 Fiji  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Fiji.”   

  • 13.1.3 Micronesia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Micronesia.”   

  • 13.1.3.1 Guam  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Guam,” under the heading, “Micronesia.”   

  • 13.1.3.2 Northern Mariana Islands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Northern Mariana Islands,” under the heading, “Micronesia.”  

  • 13.1.3.3 Nauru  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nauru,” under the heading, “Micronesia.”  

  • 13.1.3.4 Palau  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Palau,” under the heading, “Micronesia.”  

  • 13.1.3.5 Marshall Islands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Marshall Islands,” under the heading, “Micronesia.”   

  • 13.1.4 Polynesia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text under the heading, “Polynesia.”

  • 13.1.4.1 Hawaii  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Hawaii.”   

  • 13.1.4.2 Kiribati  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Kiribati.”   

  • 13.1.4.3 Samoa  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Samoa.”   

  • 13.1.4.4 Tonga  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tonga.”   

  • 13.1.4.5 Tuvalu  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tuvalu.”   

  • 13.1.4.6 French Polynesia  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.   In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “French Polynesia.”  

  • 13.1.4.7 The Pitcairn Islands, Easter Island, and the Cook Islands  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Pitcairn Islands, Easter Island, and the Cook Islands.”

  • 13.2 Antarctica  
    • Web Media: National Geographic’s “Polar Regions: Destination: Antarctica.”

      Link: National Geographic’s “Polar Regions: Destination: Antarctica” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the short video for an introduction to the geography of Antarctica.
       
      Watching this video (several times as needed) should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 13: The Pacific and Antarctica:” “Section 13.2: The Antarctica”

      Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 13: The Pacific and Antarctica:” “Section 13.2: The Antarctica” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 13.2 as well as the end of chapter material in Section 13.3.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 13.2.1 through 13.2.6. 
       
      This reading provides an introduction to the physical characteristics of the Antarctic.  In addition, the reading discusses the political struggle of governing Antarctica and how the international community manages the continent.  Finally, the reading explores the effects of climate change to the region.
       
      Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • 13.2.1 The Southern Ocean  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Southern Ocean.”   

  • 13.2.2 Physical Geography  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Physical Geography.”  

  • 13.2.3 The Antarctic Treaty  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Antarctic Treaty.”   

  • 13.2.4 Climate Change  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Climate Change.”   

    • Lecture: iTunes U: University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh: Professor Laura Carnahan’s “Weather and Climate”

      Link: iTunes U: University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh: Professor Laura Carnahan’s “Weather and Climate” (iTunes U)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate “Lecture 21 – Climate,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture.  View the entire lecture for an introduction to global climate change, including causes, evidence, and consequences.
       
      Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 13.2.5 Ozone Depletion  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ozone Depletion.”   

  • 13.2.6 Global Impacts and Organizations  

    Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 13.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Global Impacts and Organizations.”   

    • Web Media: National Geographic’s “Global Warming: Antarctica Ice.”

      Link: National Geographic’s “Global Warming: Antarctica Ice” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this brief video for a discussion of how global warming is affecting ice melt in the Antarctica (and subsequently, how this melt can potentially affect coastal cities around the world).
       
      Watching this video (several times as needed) should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Unit 14: Course Conclusion and Globalization  

    This World Regional Geography course has taken you from continent to continent and country to country.  Along our journey, we have explored the particular physical and cultural characteristics that make each place unique.  In addition, we have seen how colonialism and globalization have blended and altered cultures, economies, and political structures.  This final lecture takes a deeper look at globalization and asks how globalization has affected regions, predicts how globalization will affect regions, and theorizes the level of integration or disintegration of regions due to globalization. 

    Unit 14 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 14 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • Final Exam  

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