Fluid Mechanics
Purpose of Course showclose
You may think at first that the words “fluid” and “mechanics” should not go together. However, the ways in which fluids (gases and liquids and a few other materials) respond to forces, exert forces, and move from one place to another (their mechanics) are crucially important to many aspects of our experience and our ability to build tools.
Consider, for example, the following areas in which fluid mechanics play an important, if not fundamental, role:
 Meteorology and ocean dynamics (tsunamis, hurricanes, and tornados)
 Fluid flow within living systems (blood flow, lymph flow, air flow)
 Hydraulic machinery (jacks, pumps, lifts, steering mechanisms)
 Chemical processing and piping (pumps, reactors, separators, pipelines)
 Turbomachinery (jet engines, power plants)
 Aeronautical and ship machinery (airplanes, helicopters, boats and ships)
In this course you will first learn about the definition of a fluid and the properties of a fluid, such as density, compressibility, and viscosity. You will then see how these properties influence the way in which fluids flow in response to pressure and velocity variations. You will study this dependence via conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy. Use and solution of these equations for many situations allows the determination of many details of the fluid flow.
This course focuses on applications to two specialized situations: flow in pipes and flow around submerged objects (wings for example). In particular, you will learn to calculate pressure drops in piping systems and forces around submerged objects when exposed to flow. The course concludes with a brief introduction to the complexities of compressible flow, as opposed to flow in which the fluid density is constant.
Course Information showclose
Course Designers: Stephanie Redfern and Tuan Dinh
Peer Reviewers: Dr. Steve Gibbs
Primary Resources: This course is composed of a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following free, online resources from academic institutions that are key to completing this course:
 University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
 University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lecture Notes on Fluid Mechanics
Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Pay special attention to Unit 1, as this unit lays the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units. You will also need to complete review exercises at the end of each unit. Pay special attention to these since they will provide examples of expectations for the Final Exam.
In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.
Time Commitment: You should be able to complete this course in approximately 120 hours of study and creative effort. Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you 17 hours. Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunit 1.1 (a total of 2 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (a total of 3 hours) on Tuesday night; half of subunit 1.4 (about 2 hours) on Wednesday night; the remainder of subunit 1.4 (about 2 hours) on Thursday night; etc.
Tips/Suggestions: Most of the materials for this course are easy to read or study quickly; it is easy to convince yourself prematurely that you understand the material. Rereading may be a useful technique to help better understand the material. Most students learn this sort of material best by implementing example calculations either by hand or by machine. In fact, many students really begin to understand the underlying mathematics only after implementing numerical calculations by machine.
We encourage you to also take notes as you work through the course materials. These notes will be useful as you prepare for your Final Exam.
Learning Outcomes showclose
 Formulate basic equations for fluid engineering problems.
 Use the Poiseuille equation, Reynolds number correlations, and Moody charts for description of laminar and turbulent pipe flows.
 Use tables, figures, and energy equations to predict pressure drop in pipes, across fittings and through pumps and turbines.
 Perform dimensional analysis and identify important parameters.
 Calculate pressure distributions, forces on surfaces, and buoyancy.
 Analyze flow situations and use appropriate methods to obtain quantitative information for engineering applications.
Course Requirements showclose
√ Have access to a computer.
√ Have frequent broadband Internet access.
√ Have the ability/permission to install plugins or software (e.g. Adobe Reader or FLASH. For some modules of this course you will need RealPlayer.)
√ Have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer
√ Have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.).
√ Be competent in the English language.
√ Have read the Saylor Student Handbook.
√ Have completed the following courses from “The Core Program” of the Mechanical Engineering discipline: ME101, ME102, MA101, MA102, MA103 and MA221.
Unit Outline show close
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Unit 1: Introduction to Fluid Statics and Flow Phenomena
This first unit introduces the basic concepts you will need to know in order to understand fluids and how they behave. We will first establish a working definition of the word “fluid” before examining properties specific to fluids, including viscosity (a fluid’s resistance to flow) and compressibility (how a fluid’s volume changes when pressure is applied to it).
Unit 1 Time Advisory show close
We will then study how fluids act in static, motionless situations. One practical application of this study is the understanding of buoyancy – or to what degree objects sink or float when suspended in a fluid.
Unit 1 Learning Outcomes show close

1.1 Defining a Fluid
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink “Lecture Notes, 2.2MB, PDF” after the ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics title to download the PDF file for these lecture notes. Read pages 113. This reading will introduce you to fluids and applications of fluids in science and technology. You will also learn about the study of fluids using experimental and theoretical approaches. You may consider saving this PDF file as you will return to this material throughout this course.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts” (PDF)
Instructions: Please scroll down the webpage and click on the hyperlink “Chapter 1” under “Lecture Notes” on the left side of the webpage to download the PDF file for Chapter 1. Read pages 115. This reading will introduce you to definition of fluids and several fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics such as Newtonian fluid and the continuum hypothesis. You may consider saving this PDF file as you will return to this material throughout this course.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

1.2 Fluid Properties
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 1524. This reading will introduce you to basic properties of a fluid, including viscosity, density, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 1 and read pages 615. In this lecture, you will learn about the basic measures of fluid mass and weight (e.g. density, specific weight, and specific gravity).
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

1.3 Classification of Flow Phenomena
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 2940. You will learn basic types of fluid flow in this lecture. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 1.3.11.3.7.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery (Quicktime)
Instructions: Click on the link to “Video Gallery” at the top of the webpage. Then, click the hyperlink for Chapter 1 and watch all five video segments on the webpage. Each video segment lasts about 12 minutes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
 1.3.1 Steady and Unsteady Flows
 1.3.2 Flow Dimensionality
 1.3.3 Uniform and NonUniform Flows
 1.3.4 Rotational and Irrotational Flows
 1.3.5 Viscous and Inviscid Flows
 1.3.6 Incompressible and Compressible Flows
 1.3.7 Laminar and Turbulent Flows

1.4 Flow Visualization
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 4144. You will learn how to visualize flows using streamlines, pathlines, and streaklines.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery (Quicktime)
Instructions: Click on the link to “Video Gallery” at the top of the webpage. Then, click the hyperlink for Chapter 4 and watch all six video segments on the webpage. Each video segment lasts about 12 minutes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Flow Visualization”
Link:MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Flow Visualization” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Download and watch the movie “Flow Visualization.” The length of the movie is 29 minutes. Please also download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

1.5 Vapor Pressure and Surface Tension
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 1 and read pages 1823. In this reading, you will learn about vapor pressure and surface tension.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Surface Tension in Fluid Mechanics”
Link: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Surface Tension in Fluid Mechanics” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Download and watch the movie “Surface Tension in Fluid Mechanics.” The length of the movie is 29 minutes. Please also download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 1: Introduction and Basic Concepts”

1.6 Pressure in Static Fluid
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 2: Pressure and fluid statics”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 2: Pressure and fluid statics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 2 and read the entire document. In this reading, you will learn how to calculate pressure in static fluids. We now understand the basic properties of fluids. We will now begin to study how fluids can be used to measure air pressure and examine how they affect and apply forces to submerged objects (like the bottom of a boat, for example).
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: MIT OpenCourseWare: Professor Water Lewin’s “Gases and Incompressible Liquids”
Link: MIT OpenCourseWare: Professor Water Lewin’s "Gases and Incompressible Liquids" (YouTube)
Also available in:
iTunes U
HTML/PDF Transcript, Adobe Flash, and Mp4 Download
Instructions: Please watch this video (49:33 minutes), which will introduce you Pascal's Principle, hydrostatic pressure, and barometric pressure.
Terms of Use: Walter Lewin, Physics I: Classical Mechanics (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT Open Courseware), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed January 23, 2009). License: Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0. The original version can be found here.  Lecture: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 3 – Fluid Statics”
Link: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 3 – Fluid Statics” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (52:09 minutes), which will introduce you to basic equations of static fluids.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 2: Pressure and fluid statics”

Review Questions for Unit 1
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 1 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 1 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 1 Assessment”

Unit 2: Fluid Dynamics and Kinematics
In this unit, we will take a look at fluids in motion. In particular, we will set the stage for later applications by providing fundamental definitions and tools for flow situations. These tools include Bernoulli’s equation for the conservation of energy in this unit and equations for the conservation of mass and momentum. In later units we will apply those tools to commons situations such as flow in conduits and around obstacles.
Unit 2 Time Advisory show close
Unit 2 Learning Outcomes show close

2.1 The Bernoulli Equation
 Lecture: MIT OpenCourseWare: Professor Water Levin’s “Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle, and Fluid Dynamics”
Link: MIT OpenCourseWare: Professor Water Levin’s “Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle, and Fluid Dynamics” (YouTube)
Also available in:
HTML/PDF Transcript. Adobe Flash, and Mp4 Download
iTunes U
Instructions: Please watch this video (49:00 minutes), which will introduce you to the Bernoulli equation from a classical mechanics perspective.
Terms of Use: Walter Lewin, Physics I:Classical Mechanics, Fall 1999. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed November 10, 2010). License: Creative Commons BYNCSA 3.0. The original version can be found here.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3: Bernoulli Equation”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3: Bernoulli Equation” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink “Chapter 3” under “Lecture Notes” to download the PDF file for Chapter 3. Read pages 127. In this reading, you will learn about flow patterns and the Bernoulli equation. You will learn to apply the Bernoulli equation to calculate several flow situations, including stagnation flow and flow in pilot tube.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Assessment: MIT: Course 801: “8.01 Quiz 9, Fall 1994” and “8.01 Quiz 9 Solutions, Fall 1994”
Link: MIT: Course 801: “8.01 Quiz 9, Fall 1994” (PDF) and “8.01 Quiz 9 Solutions, Fall 1994” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the first link to Quiz 9 Problem #3 of the Fall 1994 class. Please solve the problem. Read the problem statement carefully and try to solve it yourself before looking up the solution in the second link.
Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of MIT, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.
 Lecture: MIT OpenCourseWare: Professor Water Levin’s “Hydrostatics, Archimedes' Principle, and Fluid Dynamics”

2.2 Fluid Velocity
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the “Chapter 4” hyperlink under the “Lecture Notes” section on the left side of the webpage to download the PDF file for Chapter 4. Read pages 13 to learn about different descriptions of velocity.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Read pages 4752. This reading will introduce you to Eulerian and Lagrangian views of fluid motions.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Eulerian Lagrangian Description”
Link: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Eulerian Lagrangian Description” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Download and watch the movie “Eulerian Lagrangian Description” on the webpage. The length of the movie is 27 minutes. Please also download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow”
Link: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 6 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (51:10 minutes), which will introduce you to kinematics of fluid flow. This lecture will cover the material that you need to know for subunits 2.2 and 2.3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”

2.3 Fluid Acceleration
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 4 and read pages 47. In this reading, you will learn about acceleration field and material derivative.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Pressure Field and Acceleration”.
Link: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Pressure Field and Acceleration.” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Download and watch the movie “Pressure Field and Acceleration.” The video is 29 minutes in length. Please also download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”

2.4 Basic Control Volume Approach
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink “Chapter 4” under the “Lecture Notes” section on the left side of the webpage to download the PDF file for Chapter 4. Please read pages 1415.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”

2.5 Reynolds Transport Theorem
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 4 and read pages 1617. In this reading, you will learn about Reynolds Transport Theorem, which will be used to formulate the basic conservation laws of fluid mechanics in Unit 3.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 5258. The reading will provide a detailed explanation and mathematical derivation of Reynolds Transport Theorem.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 7 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow”
Link: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 7 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (51:10 minutes), which will introduce you to Reynolds Transport Theorem.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 4: Fluids Kinematics”

Review Questions for Unit 2
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 2 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 2 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 2 Assessment”

Unit 3: Finite and Differential Control Volume Analysis
In Unit 2, you learned some fundamental definitions and learned to apply the conservation of energy (Bernoulli’s equation) to flow situations. In Unit 3, you will learn a systematic process for applying the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy to specific volumes (control volumes) of interest. For example, this control volume might be a section of pipe or a fluid tank. In addition, we will introduce the conservation laws over a differential or infinitesimal volume element in order to obtain differential equations representing the conservation principles. You will learn more about the application of differential analysis in Unit 4.
Unit 3 Time Advisory show close
Unit 3 Learning Outcomes show close

3.1 Mass Conservation
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Read pages 5868. This reading will introduce you to conservation of mass and the continuity equation. You will also learn several simple applications of the continuity equation.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 5 and read pages 14. In this reading, you will be introduced to the basics of finite control volume analysis. You will also learn how to apply mass conservation in the context of control volume analysis.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Lecture: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 8 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow”
Link: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay: Professor T. I. Eldho’s “Lecture 8 – Kinematics of Fluid Flow” (YouTube)
Instructions: Please watch this video (55:02 minutes), which will introduce you to continuity equation.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

3.2 Momentum Equations
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Read pages 6978. This reading will introduce you to conservation of momentum and the most important equations in fluid mechanics, i.e. the NavierStokes equations. We will examine the NavierStokes equations more thoroughly in Unit 4.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 5 and read pages 520. In this reading, you will study several practical applications of the momentum equations, including jet deflected by a plate or a vane, flow through a nozzle, and forces on bends.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

3.3 Energy Equations
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 5 and read pages 2137. In this reading, you will learn how to apply the first law of thermodynamics to derive energy equations for fluid flows. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.13.3.4.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery (Quicktime)
Instructions: At the top of the webpage, click on the link to the “Video Gallery.” Then, click on the hyperlink for Chapter 5 and watch all eight video segments on the webpage. Each video segment lasts about 12 minutes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 5: Finite Control Volume Analysis”
 3.3.1 First Law Comparisons
 3.3.2 First Law Applications
 3.3.3 Irreversible Flow
 3.3.4 Loss Determination

Review Questions for Unit 3
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 3 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 3 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 3 Assessment”

Unit 4: Application of Differential Analysis
Application of differential analysis allows the determination of how properties such as fluid velocity and pressure vary within a volume of interest. For example, we might be interested in the details of fluid flow within a conduit, through a turbine, or over an airplane wing.
Unit 4 Time Advisory show close
In those applications, we chose a volume of interest with appropriate boundary conditions and integrate the governing differential conservation equations to obtain distributions or profiles of quantities of interest.
Unit 4 Learning Outcomes show close

4.1 Kinematics and Deformation
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 6 and read pages 15. In this reading, you will learn how about motions of fluid element, which include translation, linear deformation, rotation, and angular deformation.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”

4.2 Mass Conservation and Linear Momentum
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 6 and read pages 612. In this reading, you will be introduced to the continuity and momentum balance equations in differential form.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”

4.3 The NavierStokes Equations
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 6 and read pages 1237. In this reading, you will learn how to derive the NavierStokes equations.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 6: Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow”

Review Questions for Unit 4
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 4 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 4 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 4 Assessment”

Unit 5: Dimensional Analysis
How does one build a smallscale wind tunnel experiment to determine if an airplane design on the large scale is practical? Should one use the same air speeds for the small plane as for the large plane?
Unit 5 Time Advisory show close
One could pose many similar questions about how situations change with size or other scale.
A related question might be: “How can we combine measured quantities (e.g. velocity, length, time) to completely characterize a situation?”
A simple example which you will learn about in detail is fullydeveloped flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid in a pipe. For this case, we need only specify the Reynolds number (fluid density x fluid velocity x pipe diameter / fluid viscosity) to fully specify the flow conditions.
Not only is dimensional analysis useful for designing and analyzing experiments, it also provides a convenient ways of simplifying the governing equations and hence simplifies the solution and application of those equations.
In this unit, you will learn the fundamentals of dimensional analysis.
Unit 5 Learning Outcomes show close

5.1 Introduction to Dimensional Analysis
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 8391. This reading will introduce you to geometric and dynamic similarities and scaling of governing equations.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis Modeling”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink “Chapter 7” in the “Lecture Notes” section on the left side of the webpage to download the PDF file for Chapter 7. Read page 1 for a brief introduction on the need for dimensional analysis. You may want to save this PDF file as you will review other pages in this chapter throughout this unit.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

5.2 The Buckingham Pi Theorem
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 9196. Using the Buckingham Pi Theorem introduced in this reading, you will able to find dimensionless physical parameters without use of governing equations.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 7 and read pages 211. This reading will introduce you to the basics of dimensional analysis as well as applications of dimensional analyses in simple fluid flows.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

5.3 Common Dimensionless Numbers
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 9699. You may be surprised at the large number of useful, dimensionless numbers that exist in fluid mechanics. The significance of several important dimensionless numbers will be discussed in detail in this reading. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 5.3.15.3.5.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 7 and read page 12 to learn about common dimensionless parameters for fluid flow problems. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 5.3.15.3.5.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
 5.3.1 Reynold’s Number
 5.3.2 Froude Number
 5.3.3 Mach Number
 5.3.4 Pressure Coefficient
 5.3.5 Weber Number

5.4 Similarity and Model Testing
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 7 and read pages 1519. Engineers often need to create sizeddown models of their products in order to safely and adequately test them prior to production. For example, an airplane wing may be modeled as a much smaller airfoil, placed in a wind chamber, for testing purposes. Therefore, we need to know how to precisely “scale up” the results in order to determine how the real product will react.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling”

Review Questions for Unit 5
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 5 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 5 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 5 Assessment”

Unit 6: Analysis of Simple Flow Geometries (Pipe Flow and Boundary Layers)
In this unit, you will learn about the details of two simple flow geometries which form the basis of much engineering analysis of practical flow situations. These geometries are flow in a circular conduit or pipe and flow near a submerged surface. Pipes or similar geometries occur widely in both nature and engineering; consider blood flow, oil pipelines, steam pipelines, and the internal plumbing of a building or automobile, for example. Analysis of flow near submerged surfaces is important in airfoil design, coating processes, and entrance flows, amongst other. An important aspect of both of these flow situations is whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.
Unit 6 Time Advisory show close
Unit 6 Learning Outcomes show close

6.1 Laminar Pipe Flow and the Hagen—Poiseuille Equation
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 126133. You will be introduced to pipe flow and the HagenPoiseuille solution for pipe flows. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 6.1 and 6.2.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

6.2 Laminar and Turbulent Pipe Flows
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 133141. In this reading, you will learn how to calculate velocity profiles for laminar and turbulent pipe flows. You will also learn how to use Moody chart to calculate friction factor as function of Reynold number and surface roughness.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Turbulence”
Link: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Turbulence” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Download and watch the movie “Turbulence.” The movie is 29 minutes in length. Please also download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Assessment: University of Delaware: Dr. Shreeram Inamdar’s “Applied Fluid Mechanics: Pipe Flow”
Link: University of Delaware: Dr. Shreeram Inamdar’s “Applied Fluid Mechanics: Pipe Flow” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink titled “Pipeflow.pdf” to download the PDF. Solve Problem 6.9 on page 19 of the document. Read the problem statement carefully and try to solve it yourself before looking up the solution. The solution to the problem is given on pages 2023.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

6.3 Head Losses
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”
Link: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Lecture Notes of ME330: Elementary Fluid Dynamics and read pages 141157. As fluids flow through pipes, they experience a number of losses that reduce their velocities. Losses can occur due to viscous effects (think, for example, of friction along the walls of the pipe) or flow through bends or valves. In this reading, you will learn how to calculate these losses.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Assessment: University of Delaware: Dr. Shreeram Inamdar’s “Applied Fluid Mechanics: Minor Loss”
Link: University of Delaware: Dr. Shreeram Inamdar’s “Applied Fluid Mechanics: Minor Loss” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink titled “Minor_loss.pdf” to download the PDF. Solve Problem 10.1 on page 6 of the document. Read the problem statement carefully and try to solve it yourself before looking up the solution. The solution to the problem is given on page 7.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Kentucky: Professor J. M. McDonough’s Lectures Notes on Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: “Lectures on Elementary Fluid Dynamics”

6.4 Boundary Layers
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 9: Flow Over Immersed Bodies”
Link: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 9: Flow Over Immersed Bodies” (PDF)
Instructions: Please download the PDF file for Chapter 9 and read the entire document. When fluids flow past an object, they experience viscous effects near the surface in an area known as the “boundary layer.” Flow outside of the boundary layer is considered to be inviscid, or unaffected by resistance along the object. We need to understand boundary layers in order to analyze lift (reactant forces acting perpendicular to the applied force, typically pushing an object up) and drag (forces that oppose the applied force—think of air resistance). Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 6.4.16.4.7.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  Web Media: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Fundamentals of Boundary Layers”
Link: MIT: Professor Ascher Shapiro’s National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films: “Fundamentals of Boundary Layers” (RealPlayer)
Instructions: Click on the hyperlink titled “Fundamentals of Boundary Layers” to download the video. Watch the movie in its entirety; the length of the movie is 25 minutes. Also, please download and read the companion film notes.
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: University of Iowa: Professor Fred Stern’s Lectures Notes on Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 9: Flow Over Immersed Bodies”
 6.4.1 Introduction to the Boundary Layer
 6.4.2 Laminar Boundary Layers
 6.4.3 Turbulent Boundary Layers
 6.4.4 Boundary Layer Transition
 6.4.5 Pressure Gradients
 6.4.6 Drag
 6.4.7 Lift

Review Questions for Unit 6
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 6 Assessment"
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 6 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise. This exercise should require less than 5 hours to complete.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 6 Assessment"

Unit 7: Compressible Flow
In previous units, we have not considered compressibility as significant; it is generally not significant for liquid flows or for slow flows of gases. However for fast gas flows such as in turbines, past projectiles, over airplane wings, and in some gas processing applications, compressibility can be a very important factor in determining characteristics of the flow.
Unit 7 Time Advisory show close
In this unit will provide an introduction to the properties of compressible flows so that you may appreciate the simplicity of incompressible flow and anticipate possible future study or work.
Unit 7 Learning Outcomes show close

7.1 Fundamentals of Compressible Flow
 Reading: Prof. Gerald Recktenwald’s (Pennsylvania State University) notes on Compressible Flow
Link: Prof. Gerald Recktenwald’s (Pennsylvania State University) notes on Compressible Flow (PDF)
Instructions: Scroll down to Lecture 13 and download and read the “slides” pdf (38 pages).
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 Reading: Prof. Gerald Recktenwald’s (Pennsylvania State University) notes on Compressible Flow

7.2 Isentropic Flow and Stagnation
 Reading: MIT: Professor Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 2: Thermo, Ideal Gases, Steady Isentropic Flow, Stagnation State”
Link: MIT: Professor Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 2: Thermo, Ideal Gases, Steady Isentropic Flow, Stagnation State” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the “PDF” hyperlink for Lecture 2 to download the file. Read the entire document (8 pages). This lecture will introduce you to the basic equations of isentropic flow.
Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Professor Anette Hosoi and can be found in its original form here.
 Reading: MIT: Professor Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 2: Thermo, Ideal Gases, Steady Isentropic Flow, Stagnation State”

7.3 NonIsentropic Flow, Friction, and Heating
 Reading: MIT: Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 4: Energy Equation, Entropy Equation, Flow with Fricton, Fanno Line”
Link: MIT: Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 4: Energy Equation, Entropy Equation, Flow with Friction, Fanno Line” (PDF)
Instructions: Please click on the “PDF” hyperlink for Lecture 4 to download the file. Read the entire document (7 pages). This lecture will introduce you to the basic equations of nonisentropic flow.
Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Professor Anette Hosoi and can be found in its original form here.
 Reading: MIT: Professor Anette Hosoi’s Lectures Notes on Compressible Fluid Dynamics: “Lecture 4: Energy Equation, Entropy Equation, Flow with Fricton, Fanno Line”

Review Questions for Unit 7
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 7 Assessment”
Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 7 Assessment” (HTML)
Instructions: Please perform this exercise. This exercise should require less than 3 hours to complete.
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME201: Unit 7 Assessment”

Final Exam
 Final Exam: The Saylor Foundation's ME201 Final Exam
Link: The Saylor Foundation's ME201 Final Exam
Instructions: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 Final Exam: The Saylor Foundation's ME201 Final Exam