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Educational Psychology

Purpose of Course  showclose

Purpose of Course

Educational psychologists work to understand how to structure educational systems in order to meet the cognitive and affective needs of students. They study how people learn and develop, identify and suggest efficient teaching methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of various educational policies and practices. Below are a few examples of their matters of focus:

  • Educational psychologists often point out the inherent social nature of our current educational system. Particularly at the elementary level, education involves responding to social instructions just as much as it does learning new academic material. Most of the books that children read not only assist them in learning basic skills, but also convey some sort of moral or social lesson. Teachers spend much of their time focused on social instruction and management.
  • Educational psychologists study the ways that learning environments affect education. A child entering the education system must adjust to a new environment and a new set of rules and goals while also undergoing many personal changes in body and mind. Educational psychology provides us with the tools we need to understand these changes and adaptations.
  • Educational psychologists also study the ways that societal, local, and family issues affect learning and classroom practice. Children come to the classroom with various attitudes about schooling, about teachers, and about goals and possibilities. They come from many different socio-economic situations, parenting styles, and cultural, religious, and political traditions. Educational psychologists are experts who help educators understand this diversity.

Generally speaking, Educational Psychology has two major areas of focus: education theory, and the practicalities of classroom life. This course will attempt to blend those two areas of focus as often as possible, so that you—as the reader, student, and (future) teacher—can get the most out of the material.

Course Information  showclose

Course Designer: Dr. Norman Rose

Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. You will also need to complete:

  • Unit 1: Saylor Discussion Board

  • Unit 9: Saylor Discussion Board

  • The Final Exam

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your Final Exam. However, in order to prepare adequately for this exam, you will need to work through the materials in each unit.
 
In order to pass this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on will be tabulated as soon as the exam is completed. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again following a 14-day waiting period.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of approximately 110 hours to complete. Each unti includes a time advisory that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These advisories should help you plan your time accordingly. It might be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself.



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to
  • explain why knowledge of psychology is important to effective teaching;
  • discuss, compare, and contrast cognitive, constructivist and behaviorist models of teaching and learning, as well as their applications in classroom management;
  • identify important cognitive stages of development, the typical age range of each stage, and the ways that teachers can use that knowledge;
  • identify strategies for enhancing students’ abilities to use complex cognitive skills;
  •  differentiate the cognitive vs. affective domains of learning and their influence on effective teaching;
  • identify important aspects of personal, emotional, and moral development, and ways that teachers can use that knowledge;
  • discuss relevant research in relation to the importance of identifying teacher emotions and the role on student learning;
  • identify diversity in terms of differences in learning styles, intelligence, cultures, and gender, as well as specific abilities and disabilities, that a modern classroom might need to accommodate;
  • discuss theories of motivation and provide rationale for those you would use in your classroom;
  • explain the significance of Flow Theory in motivating reluctant learners;
  • discuss classroom management strategies that facilitate the learning process and prevent or deal with misbehavior, and provide rationale for those strategies you would use in your classroom;
  • identify communication skills that enhance learning, management, and coordination with students’ families;
  • identify the major parts of a lesson or unit plan;
  • explain the significance of effective assessment on student performance;
  • identify and discuss types of teacher-made assessments;
  • discuss the uses of and issues surrounding standardized testing;
  • construct an objective assessment using the rules of RSVP; and
  • identify and discuss factors that influence job satisfaction in a teaching career.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√ have access to a computer;

√ have continuous broadband Internet access;

√ have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g. Adobe Reader  
and Flash);

√ have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√ have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√ be competent in the English language;

√ have read the Saylor Student Handbook; and

√ have completed the Psychology Major’s Core Program (PSYCH101 and
PSYCH201–PSYCH206).
 
It is highly suggested that you have experience with and/or access to K–12 classroom(s).

Unit Outline show close


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  • Unit 1: Introduction and Two Major Views of Learning  

    This first unit will cover the first two chapters in the textbook. The first chapter provides an overview of the purposes and uses of educational psychology, trying to answer the question: “What can educators get out of studying psychology, especially a branch that devotes itself to teaching and learning?” I hope that you will get a sense of the enormous responsibility every teacher has, and how this branch of psychology can make a difference in this discipline.

    The second chapter will introduce you to the two major categories in the psychology of learning: behaviorism (sometimes known as learning theory) and constructivism (also known as cognitive psychology). The differences between the two are summarized below:
    • Behaviorists say that knowledge cannot be directly seen or measured; only behavior can be seen and measured, so it should be the focus of education. Behaviors are learned from the environment (called stimuli). In other words, humans learn because something (or someone) in the outer environment induces or causes learning by getting the learner to perform new behaviors. It might involve providing an example for the learner to imitate, or it might involve providing a reward when the learner performs a certain behavior.
    • Many educational goals involve behaviors that can be controlled by environmental factors. (Think of how you might use imitation or rewards to train a young child to say “please” or how you might get an older child to hit a ball or to memorize math facts.) Because there are so many learning situations that can be accomplished through behaviorist theory and methods, it is important for educators to understand why and how behaviorism works. Constructivists use cognitive psychology to explain learning from the learner’s perspective. They say that knowledge results from complex internal cognitive processes, rather than external environmental stimuli. They say that although we cannot observe knowledge or understanding taking place in the brain, we can make reasonable assumptions about what is occurring, and often we can get people to verbalize their thought processes about how they have learned. Cognitive psychologists study such things as how we determine solutions to social and academic problems, how we store information, and how we use that information in novel ways. Then they try to show how all these mental tricks can be done more efficiently and productively in the learning process. This is especially important for educators, because they are always interested in how to maximize their instructional efforts, and they want their learners to get the most out of every learning experience. 
    Behaviorism and constructivism appear to oppose one another. One approaches learning as the consequence of individuals performing whatever behavior it takes to get a pleasant result, while the other defines learning as a complex series of mental gymnastics. In fact, neither theory can account for all types of learning under all conditions. In the real world, educators find both learning theories applicable in different settings. As a result, it is important to understand their principles and applications here at the beginning, since these two perspectives will reappear throughout the course. You will see evidence of behaviorism and constructivism in topics regarding classroom instruction as well as in topics on behavior management. 

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Overview: Psychology in the Modern Classroom  
  • 1.2 Teacher Views of Learning  
    • Reading: The Global Text Project: Rosemary Sutton & Kelvin Seifert’s Educational Psychology, 2nd Edition: “Chapter 2: The Learning Process”

      Link: The Global Text Project: Rosemary Sutton & Kelvin Seifert’s Educational Psychology 2nd ed.: “Chapter 2: The Learning Process” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Go to the Table of Contents beginning on page 4 and click on “2. The Learning Process.” This reading provides a general introduction to theories of behaviorism and cognitivism and covers Subunits 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5. This file is large and may take a while to load fully.
       
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the Global Text Project and can be found in its original form here

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “The Teacher”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “The Teacher” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: The focus of the video is to provide an overview of the importance of the teacher in learning. Many arguments center on class size, dollars spent per students, etc., when in fact the most significant variable is the teacher. This video provides an excellent discussion of the importance of different types of knowledge a teacher must attain and their role in student learning.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted by the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Teaching: Science, Art, Craft”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s "Teaching.Art.Science.Craft” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: The focus of the video is to provide an overview of the importance of the teacher in learning. Many arguments center on class size, dollars spent per students, etc., when in fact the most significant variable is the teacher. This video provides an excellent discussion of the importance of different types of knowledge a teacher must attain and their role in student learning.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted by the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 1.3 Major Theories and Models about Learning  
  • 1.3.1 Behaviorism (Learning Theory)  

    Within this subunit, we explore the eldest learning theory, Behaviorism. There is much debate about the relevance of Behaviorism to current educational learning theory; however, many classroom teachers, school psychologists, and administrators continue to use their knowledge of this theory to attempt to explain specific student behaviors. The following resources will highlight two fundamental models of learning by behaviorists: Classical (Respondent) Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. By the conclusion of this subunit, you should have a firm grasp on the major premise of Behaviorism: learning can only be noted if there is an observable change in a student’s behavior. Pay attention to this aspect, as it will differ significantly from the theory of Constructivism. 

  • 1.3.1.1 Classical (Respondent) Conditioning  
  • 1.3.1.2 Operant Conditioning  
  • 1.3.2 Constructivism (Cognitive Theory)  
  • 1.3.3 Psychological Constructivism  
  • 1.3.4 Social Constructivism  
  • 1.3.5 Bloom’s Taxonomy as Teacher-Applied Constructivism  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Bloom’s Taxonomy: Overview”

       Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Bloom's Taxonomy: Overview”
       
      Instructions: Again, we come around to Bloom’s Taxonomy. This time, we can see how it can be used to enhance constructivist planning and learning. Consider how using the taxonomy can help in both academic and social learning.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Bloom’s Taxonomy: Tiered Activities”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Bloom's Taxonomy: Tiered Activities” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Again, we come around to Bloom’s Taxonomy. This time, we can see how it can be used to enhance constructivist planning and learning. Consider how using the taxonomy can help in both academic and social learning.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 1 Assessment”  
    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 1 Assessment”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 1 Assessment” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please complete the linked assessment without any help from books, notes, or videos. When you are done (or if you are stuck), check your work against The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 1 Assessment Answer Key.” (PDF)
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “PSYCH303 Discussion Board”: “Unit 1 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “PSYCH303 Discussion Board”: “Unit 1 Discussion Forum”(HTML)
       
      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials and completing the assessment, consider completing the following activity and then post your findings on the course discussion board. Feel free to start your own related posts and respond to other students’ postings, as well. If you haven’t already done so, you will need to create a free account at the link above to participate in the discussions.
       
      1. Find examples of adults using behaviorist principles with children or students in everyday life. This might include verbal praise and rewards for a job well done, negative reinforcement, or the “Premack” principle. You may also see examples of behaviors that do not conform to behaviorist principles such as “bribes” before the expected behavior (e.g. “If I give you this candy now do you promise to be good”). Good places to see behaviorism in everyday life are school sporting events (observe how the parents and coaches talk to the kids); parents and kids waiting in line in supermarkets and other shops; parents and students interacting in toy stores; and classrooms. You should include at least three incidents.
       
      2. For each incident, write a description of where you observed (e.g., supermarket Friday at 6:00pm), who (e.g., adult women and child 2-3 years old) you observed, the actual observational details, and an analysis of the behavioral principle you believe the observed behavior illustrates.

  • Unit 2: Human Development during the Schooling Years  

    In this unit, we will explore human development theories, focusing mainly on the years of formal education—pre-kindergarten through high school. We will look at growth and development in the following areas: physical, cognitive, linguistic, emotional, social, and moral. (And remember, in a classroom full of students, all of these areas are in flux at all times—and not at the same rate or pace in each child!)

    The idea behind studying development is that if you are aware of patterns or stages of development, you can design teaching and management strategies that will maximize results while minimizing problems. For instance, if you understand what is emotionally and cognitively important to young children, you can plan and speak in ways that will engage them in a new learning activity. Or, if you understand what sorts of physical, social, and emotional processes are going on in young teenagers, you can plan activities that keep them focused and prevent embarrassment or upset feelings.

    We will first look at cognitive development. Mental processes are the most important element of learning, so we need to get a firm grasp of how the mind develops and how it works at various ages. (Does this seem to be a constructivist attitude about learning, emphasizing brain and mind and cognitive processes? For the most part, you would be correct in this assumption!)

    Then we will look at social development, especially in the schooling years. After all, students are social and emotional beings, and their attitudes and skills change over time. Educators need to be able to identify what their students are feeling about themselves and about each other, and to what they are socially and emotionally able to respond. This will help in planning and teaching, as well as in managing the atmosphere of the classroom.

    We will next look at moral development. Some argue that this area of development has no relationship to schooling and that it should be handled by family, community, religion, etc. However, when you put a group of learners into a single space, there are bound to be situations that demand moral and ethical decision making, from both the teacher and students. Think back to your own years in school. You can probably remember issues of fairness, justice, caring, and honesty, among others. Educators should be able to recognize what their students are capable of thinking, feeling, and doing in this area. (By the way, there is a difference between morals and ethics: look up the difference if you aren’t certain about the distinction. Once you do, you might then think about how classroom situations can be handled from either one perspective or the other.)

    Finally, we will look at two big issues in modern society, and in our schools: how children can gain resilience in the face of hardships of all kinds, and how bullies and psychopaths affect the classroom.

    Those of you familiar with the field might find this unit a review. However, regardless of your background, you should emerge from this unit with a stronger understanding of development theories. In later units, you will find that this understanding can be applied toward more effective teaching and better classroom management.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Overview of Development  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Development Theories Overview”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Development Theories Overview” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video is an introduction to the notion of developmental theories. Note what makes a theory, how theories have different concepts of maturing, and whether or not stages are absolute and sequential.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.2 Considerations of Physical Development  
    • Reading: Illinois State Department of Education Learning Standards: “Physical Development & Health”

      Link: The Illinois State Department of Education Learning Standards: “Physical Development & Health” (Web Page)
       
      Instruction: Please review the Illinois State Department of Education webpage on Learning Standards for Physical Development and Health. The main emphasis of this source is on the role of comprehensive physical development and health programs, and their role in enhancing the capacity of students' minds and bodies. The Illinois State Department of Education further highlights that healthy minds and bodies are basic to academic success and, in later life, enhance the ability to contribute to a productive work environment. As you review these learning standards, consider their role in the everyday classroom, and how they can be supported through effective teaching strategies and academic activities.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 2.3 Cognitive Development: Piaget  
  • 2.3.1 Overview of Piaget’s Theories  
  • 2.3.2 Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development  
  • 2.3.3 Critiques and Updates of Piaget  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Piaget: Application”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Piaget: Application” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video will provide an overview of how educators apply Piaget’s theories, especially when working with learners who are at the cusp of a new stage.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Maria Montessori”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Maria Montessori” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch the above video to learn about an alternative educational method still alive and well today. Montessori education is very popular in many areas of the country. Pay special attention to the role of autonomy in the developing learner and the emphasis of the teacher as a facilitator and guide with this student-centered approach.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.4 Social Development  
  • 2.4.1 Overview of Social Development  
  • 2.4.2 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (Overview)  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Background Information”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Background Information” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video is the first in a series, so be sure to pay particular attention to the concepts being introduced in relation to who Erikson was, the impact his own experience had on his theories, and the impact of his research on current teaching practices.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.4.3 Early Childhood Psychosocial Stages  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stages 1–3”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stages 1–3” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Currently, more families are choosing to enroll their children in preschool programs. With some states and local areas providing public preschool, it is important to become aware of the first three stages—particularly Stage 3—of Erikson’s theory as they relate to early childhood education and development.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.4.4 Middle Childhood Psychosocial Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stage 4 (Middle Childhood)”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stage 4 (Middle Childhood)” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This is the stage of Erikson’s theory that applies to most elementary school grades and some middle-school students as well. It is important to understand what is going on in learners’ inner lives at this stage, as learning can be affected by the emotional and social environment.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.4.5 Adolescence Psychosocial Stage: Identity vs. Role Confusion  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stage 5 (Adolescence)”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Erikson: Stage 5 (Adolescence)” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Stage 5 spans the middle and high school years, and will complete this course’s study of Erikson. (You can do Web searches to find link on later adult stages if you are interested.) The inner lives of adolescents are often changeable and turbulent, so it is important to understand what they are experiencing as they move through the school day.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “James Marcia: Adolescence”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “James Marcia: Adolescence” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video highlights an adolescence expert. Consider if his views match, enhance, or contradict Erikson’s.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.4.6 Adulthood Psychosocial Stages  
    • Reading: Boundless: “Becoming an Adult”

      Link: Boundless: “Becoming an Adult” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: The reading provides a general overview of one of the more recent theories in adult development: Emerging Adulthood. This unique theoretical perspective was pioneered by the works of Dr. Arnett. As you peruse this material, consider the role of the other stages of psychosocial development and their impact on the stages that emerge in adulthood. Is the theory as fluid as Erikson noted?
                 
      Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to the Boundless Project and can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 2.4.7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Deficit Needs and Being Needs  
  • 2.5 Moral Development  
  • 2.5.1 Kohlberg’s Stage Theory of Moral Development  
  • 2.5.2 Gilligan’s Theory of the Ethic of Care  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gilligan’s Stages of the Ethics of Care”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gilligan's Stages of the Ethics of Care” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Here is a video on Gilligan’s construct of moral development. Did the author of the video make a mistake in the title? Is this a stage theory, in which one stage must be completed before coming into another? Pay special attention to the aspect of her theory that differs greatly from Kohlberg’s theory.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 2.5.3 Other Perspectives on Moral Development  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Moral Dilemmas”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Moral Dilemmas” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Kohlberg and others have used stories with moral dilemmas or conflicts to start conversations. These conversations reveal the moral reasoning participants might not even realize they possess. Educators can gauge moral stages, concerns, or issues among participants. How might you use such stories?

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Values Clarification”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Values Clarification” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Values Clarification was popular a few decades ago as a way for educators and counselors to help learners reveal and then raise their attitudes and ethical reasoning. Can you see similar work going on today in schools, but under different names?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s version of Norman S. Rose’s “Moral Development: The Experiential Perspective of Moral Development”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s version of Norman S. Rose’s “Moral Development: The Experiential Perspective of Moral Development” (PDF)
       
      Instruction: Earlier in this unit, you read Rose’s treatise on human development. This paper looks at how moral development is defined and managed in his conception of natural design.
       
      Terms of Use: The material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Norman S. Rose. This is an electronic version of an article published in the Journal of Moral Education, with the citation: Rose, Norman S., 1992. Moral Development: the experiential perspective. Journal of Moral Education, 21(1): 29–40. <http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/0305724920210103 >. (accessed 17 February 2011). Journal of Moral Education is available online here.

  • 2.6 Emotional Intelligence and Impulse Control  
  • 2.7 Resilience  
  • 2.8 Bullying and Aggression  
  • 2.8.1 Bullying  
  • 2.8.2 Aggression  
    • Web Media: Sophia’s “Frustration and Aggression”

      Link: Sophia’s “Frustration and Aggression” (Video Lecture)
       
      Instructions: This video lecture provides an excellent overview related to the psychological and biological explanations of such emotional experiences as frustration and aggression. This is significant in understanding why bullying or aggressive behaviors often develop in students particularly scapegoating and displacing anger.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 2 Assessment”  
  • Unit 3: Understanding Diversity  

    This unit will explore the ways in which educators acknowledge and accommodate uniqueness in learners. This is an important topic in modern education: partly because of changing diversity of learners, and partly because of renewed emphasis on opportunity and achievement for all students.
      
    First, we will look at diversity in terms of how students differ in their personal and group backgrounds. This includes differences in learning styles, intelligence modes, gender, cultures, and language. Imagine a classroom of nine year olds. Although they are the same age, each child has a unique blend of abilities and preferences in the learning process. One child is a boy who is highly verbal and learns best by listening—but he is still learning English, having arrived from Central America less than a year ago. Another child is a girl who talks very little and learns best by thinking quietly to herself about an answer—and she gets nervous and distracted by people talking near her. Now imagine 18 to 24 other children in the room, each with a unique set of needs and preferences and talents. Somehow, a teacher must help each one learn to his/her maximum ability. How is this to be done? We won’t try to answer that question in this unit, but we will begin to consider the possible variances within and among any given group of children.
      
    This first kind of diversity also includes differences in sub-cultures, because student attitudes and performance can be influenced by regional and socio-economic differences. Here’s an example to consider: Imagine an African-American child living in an affluent northern United States metropolitan suburb. Does this child have more in common with the Caucasian child living down the street or with an African-American child living in the rural southern part of the country? What is the basis of your answer?
      
    After looking at differences in circumstance and personal preferences, we will look at diversity in terms of disabilities that individual students might exhibit. Disabilities can include impairments in physical, emotional, or cognitive functioning—and sometimes a combination of these. In the past, such children might spend part or all of the school day in classrooms that catered exclusively to special needs students. But today, with much emphasis on the concept of inclusion, it is likely that these children will attend school in regular classrooms with the direct and/or indirect support of certified special education teachers who follow each student’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP).

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Overview of Diversity  
  • 3.2 Diversity in Groups and Populations  
  • 3.2.1 Multiple Intelligences  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This is the first of several videos that point out the vast diversity in terms of thinking and learning that can be present in a classroom. Learners can differ in many ways, and still be considered normal. And some learners will have special needs—meaning that their learning abilities are so different from others as to require special instruction, curriculum, equipment, etc.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Spiritual Intelligence”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Spiritual Intelligence” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Dr. Johnson adds this (perhaps unsubstantiated/unproven) intelligence to those Gardner has proposed.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video shows another way to look at intelligence among learners, aside from Gardner’s theories. Is this perspective more or less practical for classroom application?
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 3.2.2 Gifted and Talented Students  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gifted and Talented”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Gifted and Talented” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this video and consider what special needs you might encounter with gifted students, who can easily master the regular curriculum, but might not be motivated to do so!
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form at here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 3.2.3 Gender Differences  
    • Web Media: YouTube: “Learner Diversity: Sexual Orientation”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: Sexual Orientation” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click the link to watch discussion on gender differences and sexual orientation preferences. Consider how gender can affect learning style and learning. Consider the potential implications of sexual orientation on the learning atmosphere of a classroom.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: tvoparents’ “Gender and Learning”

      Link: YouTube: tvoparents’ “Gender and Learning” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click the link to watch discussion on gender differences and sexual orientation preferences. Consider how gender can affect learning style and learning. Consider the potential implications of sexual orientation on the learning atmosphere of a classroom.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 3.2.4 Cultural Differences  
    • Web Media: YouTube: jstclairatumw’s “Culturally Responsive Teaching”

      Link: YouTube: jstclairatumw’s “Culturally Responsive Teaching”
       
      Instructions: This video provides insight into how experts are looking at the many issues that arise when classrooms include students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Note that respect and honoring of cultures goes far beyond recognizing the holidays and foods of others: it might even need to include how to talk to learners, what to expect of them, and issues of pride, inclusion and alienation, self-esteem, safety, and curriculum decisions.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: Languages”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: Languages” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click the link for a professor’s discussion on diversity and language. Language can be a major roadblock for some learners struggling to understand written and verbal instructions. It can also be a social barrier.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: SES/ Poverty 1”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: SES/ Poverty 1” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click the link to watch a professor discuss differences fostered by differing socio-economic statuses (SES). Economic class differences can be striking with regard to attitudes about justice, fairness, school standards, respect of teachers, etc. Therefore, SES differences should be thought of as differences in culture just as much as ethnic differences.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson (andyaxe1976) “Learner Diversity: SES/ Poverty 2”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: SES/ Poverty 2” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Click the link to watch a professor discuss differences fostered by differing socio-economic statuses (SES). Economic class differences can be striking with regard to attitudes about justice, fairness, school standards, respect of teachers, etc. Therefore, SES differences should be thought of as differences in culture just as much as ethnic differences.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: Religion”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Learner Diversity: Religion” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Although religion has no formal place in public schools, the culture of religion comes with each child into the classroom, and often with the teacher as well. It is important to begin to understand how religion can influence students’ attitudes and behaviors.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 3.3 Diversity in Ability  
  • 3.3.1 Background and History of Accommodations  
    • Web Media: Sophia: “What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?”

      Link: Sophia: “What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?”
       
      Instructions: The question and answer series listed above provides many of the answers sought by educators in relation to Response to Intervention (RTI). Whether a content area teacher or intervention specialist, this information will provide the background needed in understanding the importance of this legislative change in identifying of children with special needs. Additionally, RTI is a tiered process of instruction that allows schools to identify struggling students early and provide appropriate instructional interventions. Early intervention means more chances for success and less need for special education services.  RTI would also address the needs of children who previously did not qualify for special education.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 3.3.2 Categories of Disabilities: Learning, Behavioral, Cognitive, Physical, Sensory  
  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 3 Assessment”  
  • Unit 4: Student Motivation  

    This unit will explore the ways that educators motivate their students to learn and strive for excellence. We will look at motivation theories that place varying emphasis on teacher and student input. Then we will examine a model that integrates elements of those theories.
      
    When you think about motivating students, you come to a crossroad: do you employ behavioristic theories and methods, relying on mostly external rewards and punishments, or do you employ constructivist theories and models, addressing intrinsic motivation in your students? This is how you can divide most theories and methods—by judging whether they emphasize extrinsic or intrinsic motivators. Of course, it gets more complicated than that….
      
    In a behaviorist model, the teacher sets up an extrinsic reward system to motivate students to comply or achieve. The rewards might be tokens to be exchanged for prizes, stars on a chart, or grades. But, however it is done, you’ll notice that the teacher is in charge; the teacher is the judge and paymaster. Everyone has to focus on what the teacher wants and expects in order to earn the reward. After a while, a teacher might find that students actually expect a reward for performing simple tasks, and they might not want to comply unless they can get something in return. Now the bargaining begins—in a place where love of learning is supposed to rule!
      
    In a constructivist model, the teacher has to dig deep to find the right intrinsic motivator—sometimes a slightly different motivator for different children. And that’s not surprising, when you think about it. Abraham Maslow described the pathway to full personality as an ongoing search to fulfill internal needs. Individuals seek basic survival needs, and when those are met, they seek relationship and companionship. And when those needs are met…. Well, you get the idea, and there will be reading and videos to help you. Now, imagine a student who comes to your classroom hungry, another who comes in lonely, and another who comes in thirsting for knowledge and challenge—very different motivators at work! (And by the way, Maslow had a long career as a researcher and thinker. When you know about his hierarchy of needs, you have learned only a fraction of what he thought and wrote about.)
      
    So, a teacher who wants to motivate intrinsically has to find what motivates various students. This search for students’ internal motivators can be both challenging and rewarding. There’s a famous researcher and writer, Jere Brophy, who literally wrote the book on these matters—actually, more than one, and you might want to read some of his work if this topic intrigues you. He recognized that there are many ways to motivate students intrinsically, and we’ll be looking at some of them.
      
    Surprise and curiosity can be great motivators, especially at the beginning of a learning unit. Imagine a history teacher coming into the room dressed as Abraham Lincoln, or a science teacher who seems to be able to make colored liquids instantly! Those sorts of performances quickly arouse student interest. But of course, the teacher had better follow up with other motivating activities once the novelty and surprise wear off….
      
    Another motivator is helping students see relevance—relationships between what they are learning and something that is important to them personally. (How often has a teacher suggested that it’s important to learn something because “you’ll need it in the future”—without taking the time to describe HOW it can be used in the future. Frustrating, isn’t it?)
      
    Then there are motivators that get students to be their own learning monitors: helping them set learning goals for themselves, rather than having to learn only what the teacher puts in a syllabus or an assignment sheet. This can also apply to setting goals for better work habits or social behaviors. The idea is to get students involved in finding their own reasons for picking up a topic and running with it—especially when they can decide the direction and speed of the run!
      
    The final model we will look at is rather sophisticated: Expectancy x Value. In a nutshell, it is a model that combines the concept of anticipation of reward (extrinsic or intrinsic) with the concept of judging how much it is worth the effort to get the reward. The textbook should help you get a grip on this.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Theories of Motivation  
  • 4.1.1 Background on Motivation Theory  
  • 4.1.2 Motives as Interests  
  • 4.1.3 Attribution Theory  
  • 4.2 Motivation and Perception  
  • 4.2.1 Motivation and Mindset  
    • Web Media: YouTube: NCEA’s “Carol Dweck, Growth Mindset and Motivation” (YouTube)

      Link: YouTube: NCEA’s “Carol Dweck, Growth Mindset and Motivation” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video provides an overview of the main tenets of Dr. Carol Dweck’s theory of the Growth Mindset and Motivation. Dr. Dweck argues that students’ motivation to learn is greatly impacted by their own understanding of their individual learning and performance characteristics (e.g., whether fixed or malleable). Other work by Dr. Dweck emphasizes this as the performance-oriented mindset vs. the mastery-oriented mindset, which significantly impacts the types of goals learners set for themselves. Consider the role of this thinking pattern and student outcomes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 4.2.2 Motivation and Stereotype Threat  
  • 4.3 Expectancy x Value—An Integrated Model of Motivation  
    • Web Media: Sophia: “Social Learning Theory”

      Link: Sophia: “Social Learning Theory” (Video Lecture)
       
      Instructions: This video lecture provides a quick review of material you have already learned throughout this course (behaviorist and cognitive principles of learning). Additionally, it provides a new discussion on two important aspects that influence classroom behavior and motivation: expectancy and value. Consider the impact of students’ pre-existing beliefs about the value of academic tasks and the belief that they are of value.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 4 Assessment”  
  • Unit 5: Classroom Management and Communication  

    This unit will explore the ways that educators manage learning environments to maximize learning and social cohesion. We will first look at strategies that prevent misbehavior; these are the things teachers do to keep students focused on learning. They include such elements as:
    • organization of the physical space, so that everyone has space to work and move;
    • well-defined procedures and routines, such as where to find spare pencils, where to turn in work, or how to clean up and leave the room; and
    • rules for acceptable work and behavior, such as how to get the teacher’s attention, how much talking or helping is allowed, or consequences for late work.
    Keeping students focused on learning also involves teacher behaviors. These are the verbal and non-verbal actions that let students know that the teacher is aware of the entire learning environment—what students are doing, and how they are feeling. (Did you ever have a teacher who talked while facing the board or projector screen, instead of facing the students? That’s a big, fat no-no!) And another important strategy: keep things moving. Don’t let the pace of learning get interrupted or jerky. Don’t allow holes or cracks in the flow that might invite students to exit to dreamland or misbehavior!
      
    Then it will be time to focus on what to do when misbehavior has occurred. An effective teacher will deal with this in an efficient and fair way. To do this, some teachers use a one size fits all method. This might be considered the best way to make it seem fair, but don’t you wonder if every student and every misbehavior can or should be treated the same in the name of fairness?
      
    Some effective teachers have a variety of techniques, each to fit you and the occasion. They might include these strategies: 
    • Ignore the minor stuff and praise those who are doing the right thing. That might get everyone interested in joining the praise parade.
    • Walk over to the students who are starting to misbehave and just stand VERY close by.
    • Make eye contact with anyone misbehaving. Add a frown or shake of the head for added effect.
    • Make the misbehaving student apologize, then move on.
    • Spend time with the misbehaving student after the lesson, and issue logical consequences for his/her actions. (What’s logical? Read the textbook and watch the videos for ideas.)
    • If it involves a conflict between two students, let them work it out, but not during the learning time or your instructional time.
    Our last topic in this unit is a broad one: how to communicate with and to students. This includes how to convey expectations without talking down to students. And, it includes how to encourage students to participate in discussions, so that everyone feels welcome to contribute. Lastly, we will explore the modern topic of a caring classroom community—a concept of the classroom as a place where everyone is welcome, supported, and cared for. It also includes the notion that the classroom’s physical as well as emotional environment is worth protecting and enhancing.
      
    The concepts of caring and community might seem to be a topic mostly for elementary grades, but consider the social and emotional lives of teenagers. Even if they meet only in one-hour classes, there can still be a sense of community that can be nurtured—a temporary caring environment that will bring out the best in everyone.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Management to Prevent Misbehavior  
  • 5.1.1 Overview  
  • 5.2 Types of Communication  
  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 5 Assessment”  
  • Unit 6: Encouraging Complex Thinking  

    Back in Unit 1, you were introduced to Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive skills. Now it is time to re-visit this idea, because this new unit is all about getting students to go beyond memorizing or comprehending material. What is beyond? The taxonomy answers that question. Beyond involves complex cognitive processes—that is, mental explorations and manipulations. For instance:
    • Analysis, which can be as simple as finding contrasts between two things or ideas, or as complex as describing the inner structure or workings of a poem, a novel, or a machine
    • Judgment, which involves setting up criteria and holding something up to scrutiny to see how it measures against the criteria, whether it is judging the value of a piece of literature, the elegance of a math formula, or the practicality of an architectural design
    • Creation, which involves finding new uses for objects, or recombining elements to come up with a new design or invention or plan
    (You might say that I have just used terms and a sequence that don’t quite match the taxonomy, but I have! Do a web search for the updated taxonomy, as described by Bloom’s disciples Anderson and Krathwohl.)
      
    When it comes to classroom practices that encourage these kinds of thought behaviors, teachers have many resources at their disposal. But first, they must make some important distinctions—and so must you. Do you want students to engage in creative or critical thinking? (And, what’s the difference?) Do you want to give them well-defined or ill-defined problems to solve? (And, what is the advantage of each?) Do you want them to solve problems by well-established steps or through trial-and-error? Do you want them to be led mostly by the teacher and a syllabus or curriculum, or do you want them to define their own learning path? Do you want them to work independently or in teams? How much guidance is necessary for student success? (And, what are those skills?)
      
    Think about these questions as you delve into Unit 6.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Critical Thinking  
  • 6.1.1 Overview of Complex Thinking  
  • 6.1.2 Metacognition  
  • 6.2 Creative and Divergent Thinking  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Defining Creativity”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Defining Creativity” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Creative, critical, and divergent thinking are not synonymous terms. But they all involve complex thinking—i.e., higher order taxonomy skills. These videos give an overview of what is involved in getting learners’ creative juices flowing.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Creative Thinking”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Creative Thinking”
       
      Instructions: Creative, critical, and divergent thinking are not synonymous terms. But they all involve complex thinking—i.e., higher order taxonomy skills. These videos give an overview of what is involved in getting learners’ creative juices flowing.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Creative Dispositions”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Creative Dispositions”
       
      Instructions: Creative, critical, and divergent thinking are not synonymous terms. But they all involve complex thinking—i.e., higher order taxonomy skills. These videos give an overview of what is involved in getting learners’ creative juices flowing.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “The Creative Process”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “The Creative Process”
       
      Instructions: Creative, critical, and divergent thinking are not synonymous terms. But they all involve complex thinking—i.e., higher order taxonomy skills. These videos give an overview of what is involved in getting learners’ creative juices flowing.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.3 Problem Solving  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 1: Introduction”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 1: Introduction” 

      Instructions: This video, along with the others in this subunit, explains how learning episodes can be centered on solving a problem, puzzle, or mystery. This requires careful planning and execution—very different from teaching by lecture, demonstration, or drill-and-practice.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 2: Strategies”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 2: Strategies”
       
      Instructions: This video, along with the others in this subunit, explains how learning episodes can be centered on solving a problem, puzzle, or mystery. This requires careful planning and execution—very different from teaching by lecture, demonstration, or drill-and-practice.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 3: Pedagogy”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Problem-Based Learning Part 3: Pedagogy” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video, along with the others in this subunit, explain how learning episodes can be centered on solving a problem, puzzle, or mystery. This requires careful planning and execution—very different from teaching by lecture, demonstration, or drill-and-practice.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.4 Instructing for Complex Thinking  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 3: Tips for Teaching”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 3: Tips for Teaching”  

      Instructions: This video clip is one in a series of graphic lectures on teaching concepts. Concept teaching involves getting learners to learn a new concept and getting them to understand what is and is not representative of the concept. The idea is make sure that learners do not walk away with mis-concept-ions!
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.4.1 General Strategies  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 1: Concept of a Concept”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 1: Concept of a Concept”
       
      Instructions: This video clip is one in a series of graphic lectures on teaching concepts. Concept teaching involves getting learners to learn a new concept and getting them to understand what is and is not representative of the concept. The idea is make sure that learners do not walk away with mis-concept-ions!
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 2: Teaching Concepts”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 2: Teaching Concepts”
       
      Instructions: This video clip is one in a series of graphic lectures on teaching concepts. Concept teaching involves getting learners to learn a new concept and getting them to understand what is and is not representative of the concept. The idea is make sure that learners do not walk away with mis-concept-ions!
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.4.2 Strategies for Teacher-Directed Learning  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 5: Teacher-Directed Lesson”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 5: Teacher-Directed Lesson” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video is part of the previous series. It is placed here to highlight the teacher’s role in concept formation lessons, if a direct teaching method is preferred.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.4.3 Strategies for Student-Directed Learning  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 6: Discovery Learning”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Concepts 6: Discovery Learning”
       
      Instructions: This video demonstrates the significance of student-directed learning and strategies for implementing this strategy of learning.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 6.4.4 Collaborative (Cooperative) Learning  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Cooperative Learning Part 1: Introduction”

      Link: YouTube Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Cooperative Learning Part 1: Introduction”
       
      Instructions: This video introduces the instructional method known as cooperative learning. This usually entails groups of learners working as a team, although the team can comprise as few as two people. Some teachers think this method will take care of all student needs, from diversity of learning styles to special learning needs. It is erroneous (and lazy) to think this way, because learners cannot always accommodate each other or automatically bring out the best in each other. Only a teacher can do all these things and hopefully train learners to try to do them with each other. Think about aspects of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and their relevance to effective cooperative learning.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Cooperative Learning Part 2: Tips”

      Link: YouTube Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Cooperative Learning Part 2: Tips”
       
      Instructions: This video introduces the instructional method known as cooperative learning. This usually entails groups of learners working as a team, although the team can be comprised of as few as two people. Some teachers think this method will take care of all student needs, from diversity of learning styles to special learning needs. It is erroneous (and lazy) to think this way, because learners cannot always accommodate each other or automatically bring out the best in each other. Only a teacher can do all these things and hopefully train learners to try to do them with each other. Think about aspects of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and their relevance to effective cooperative learning.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 6 Assessment”  
  • Unit 7: Planning  

    This unit will explore the ways educators plan for instruction and learning. And once again we need to review Bloom’s Taxonomy. But first….
      
    Let’s talk about backward design. This is a concept that sets a tone and a sequence for planning. Here’s how it works:
        
    We start at the end, asking the question, “What do we want the students to know or be able to do at the end of this learning sequence that they did not know or could not do previously?” That will help us establish goals for learning.
      
    Next, we take our general goals and turn them into specific objectives. This is where the taxonomy will come in handy, and you will see why later. Objectives are particular behaviors that can be observed and/or measured, and we spell out one or more objectives for every goal.
      
    Then we start planning. At this point, some teachers plan lessons and activities that match each objective. (There might be two or more objectives covered in a single activity, or it might take more than one activity to cover a single objective.) Teachers then plan assessment activities so students can prove they have met the objectives—on a test, a written composition, a project, etc.
      
    Other teachers start planning by setting up their assessments first. Each assessment will cover one or more of the objectives. Then they plan activities that get students ready for the assessments. You can’t get more backward than that!
      
    So are we done? No, because now we have to look over the objectives and activities and assessments and decide how to accommodate all the diversity represented in the classroom. Remember diversity? Remember how there are diverse cultures and subcultures, diverse learning styles and preferences, diverse abilities and disabilities? All these things must be considered, so that every student can be appropriately challenged.
      
    Done yet? No; now we have to look for resources. Will some or all students need access to the Internet to fulfill the objectives? Will there be a need for reading material? What range of difficulty must be present in the reading material? Will it help to bring in community experts, or to send students out into the community? Is there a field trip that might help? Is there some special equipment that could be borrowed, rented, or constructed? Will students need a special space or clothing for some activities? Will this list ever end? Not until you’ve considered every possible need.
      
    And, we are still not done, according to some teachers, because there is a critical step that should be included in the plan: How will students connect this learning sequence, this new knowledge, with what they already know? What can be put into the plan to help learners make connections with previous knowledge? And, for that matter, how do we determine what students already know? Can we assume they only know what we have taught them in the past? Or, is it possible they arrive with some incomplete knowledge about this new topic, and we should strive to help them fill in gaps and misunderstandings? So, we add this element, too.
      
    There! Now we have a plan.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Learning Objectives  
  • 7.1.1 Formulating Specific Objectives  
  • 7.1.2 Using State and Local Guidelines and Standards  
  • 7.1.3 Shaping Goals and Objectives to Accommodate Student Needs  
    • Web Media: Sophia: “What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?”

      Link: Sophia: “What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?”
       
      Instructions: You previously viewed a portion of this video in a previous section of this course examining what RTI is and its influence on classroom practices in identifying students with need. You will finish the video in this subtopic to examine the importance in creating effective goals and objectives to provide appropriate instructional interventions. Early intervention means more chances for success and less need for special education services.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 7.2 Materials and Methods  
  • 7.2.1 Resources for Teaching and Learning: Media, Technology, Community  
    • Web Media: Sophia: “What is the Flipped Classroom?”

      Link: Sophia: “What is the Flipped Classroom?”
       
      Instructions: This video lecture highlights one of the common trends in using technology to aid planning and execution of learning: the flipped classroom. Pay special attention to the ease in using this method of instruction but also consider the difficulties one may have in implementing this method, at least in the early stages of teaching.
       
      Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 7 Assessment”  
  • Unit 8: Assessment  

    This unit will explore the ways educators assess students to determine if and how much learning has taken place. In some ways, this unit is just a continuation of Unit 7, because after the planning and the execution of the plan, there must be some way for the teacher to determine students’ success in meeting the plan goals and objectives.
      
    We will start with teacher-made assessments—all the ways teachers can measure progress and understanding. There are all sorts of complications in this. For instance, if you design a multiple-choice test, should you give students three or four choices per question? Why would it matter? What about true-false questions? How much guessing might take place, since there is always a 50% chance of getting a right answer? How do you assess or grade an essay? What makes one essay better than another? Should spelling and grammar count on a social studies essay? Should neatness count on a math test of algebra proofs? As you can see, if you don’t start with a clear idea of what you want to assess—your criteria—you can fall into all sorts of traps and biases. Then consider that a student might do well on one kind of test, but poorly on another. That student’s neighbor might have just the opposite tendencies! What is and is not fair?
      
    We will also consider how teachers can analyze the results of their assessments to improve future instruction. This gives you to an introduction to action research—analyzing your own performance and your students’ successes and failures. This is done with the intent of improving your planning and instruction in the future.
      
    Lastly, we will look at standardized testing. There are many forms, such as those that measure students’ intelligence, or their mastery of state-mandated goals and objectives.  Some tests assign students to an academic track, while others determine if students are academically fit to move to the next grade level or to graduate.
      
    There are two main areas to address on this topic:
    How to read and interpret individual and group statistics of test results, and then use the results to improve planning and instruction; and, awareness of shortcomings and controversies surrounding the various types of standardized tests.

    Unit 8 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 8 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Assessment Overview  
  • 8.2 Teacher-made Assessments: Overview and Issues  
  • 8.3 Assessment Methods  
  • 8.3.1 Creating and Using Rubrics  
  • 8.3.2 Authentic (Performance) Assessments  
    • Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Authentic Assessment Part 1”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Authentic Assessment Part 1”
       
      Instructions: This video gives an overview of what is involved when you commit yourself to the practice of authentic assessment. As you will see, it must be a serious commitment, as this method requires time, thought, and energy on your part.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

    • Web Media: YouTube: “Authentic Assessment Part 2”

      Link: YouTube: Dr. Andrew Johnson’s “Authentic Assessment Part 2” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: This video gives you an overview of what is involved when you commit yourself to the practice of authentic assessment. As you will see, it must be a serious commitment, as this method requires time, thought, and energy on your part.
       
      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been re-posted with the kind permission of Dr. Andrew Johnson, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • 8.4 Action Research  
  • 8.5 Published Assessments  
  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 8 Assessment”  
  • Unit 9: The Psychology of the Teacher  

    In this final unit, we will explore how teachers cope with their roles and responsibilities. Consider the routine, the stress, the school climate. Then consider how each teacher enters the profession at a certain age and life stage, with certain ideals, and how aging, personal matters, career longevity, and experience can change one’s perspective and outlook. Finally, consider that in the midst of all the fore mentioned, every teacher is supposed to be committed to career growth—whatever that means. So what does it mean?
      
    For the beginning teacher, career growth is probably just a matter of survival—learning what does and doesn’t work, learning how to get along with peers, superiors, students, and parents. Not much else will matter during the first years. Experts know that, and there are well-known, well-researched interventions to help beginning teachers make it through and find their comfort zone.
      
    For the more experienced teacher, career growth will probably involve learning and trying new techniques. It might also involve branching out by taking college courses or switching to teach a different course or age group.
      
    For the mature teacher, career growth can mean just hanging on until retirement, or it can mean becoming a well-respected member of the staff—perhaps mentoring others, or publishing in his/her specialized field. What makes the difference between these two scenarios?
      
    (I’m sure every teacher who became weary, grouchy, or resistant to change entered the profession vowing never to be like those weary, grouchy, uncaring teachers they once had!)
        
    Every teacher is a unique person and works within unique circumstances. However, we can learn some general principles based on research dealing with teacher stress and longevity.

    Unit 9 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 9 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 Teachers’ Emotions, Stress and Burnout  
  • 9.2 School Climate and Collegiality  
  • 9.3 Stages of Career Growth  
  • The Saylor Foundation's “PSYCH303: Unit 9 Assessment”  
  • The Saylor Foundation’s “PSYCH303 Discussion Board”: “Unit 9 Discussion Forum”  
    • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “PSYCH303 Discussion Board”: “Unit 9 Discussion Forum”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “PSYCH303 Discussion Board”: “Unit 9 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: After reviewing the unit materials and completing the assessments, please post and respond to the following topics on the course discussion board. Feel free to start your own related posts and respond to other students’ postings as well. If you haven’t done so already, you will need to create a free account at the link above to participate in the discussions.
       
      1.    Discuss the benefits of “honest emotions” in the classroom.
      2.    Should teachers ever demonstrate frustration to students?
      3.    What aspects of emotion regulation (up regulating, down regulating) are you most comfortable demonstrating with students?
      4.    Which aspects of emotion regulation will you struggle with the most and why in the classroom?
      5.    Do you worry about burnout? Why? Explain coping mechanisms you may use to avoid this aspect of teacher stress.

  • PSYCH303 Final Exam  

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