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Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Purpose of Course  showclose

This course will introduce you to the major concepts of and debates surrounding industrial and organizational psychology. Industrial and organizational psychology is the application of psychological research and theory to human interaction (both with other humans and with human factors, or machines and computers) in the workplace. The phrase “industrial and organizational psychology” (sometimes referred to as “I/O”) may be somewhat misleading, as the field deals less with actual organizations and/or industries and more with the people in these areas.

As mentioned above, “I/O” is an applied psychological science, which means that it takes research findings and theories that may have originally been used to explain a general phenomenon of human behavior and applies them to human behavior in a specific setting (here, the workplace). Consider, for example, the fact that many jobs require applicants to take a personality test. Psychologists originally developed this test to detect and diagnose abnormal personalities; they are now frequently used to determine whether a given applicant will be a good “fit” for a position or the dynamic of a company’s staff. In this case, we are applying traditional psychology research to the workplace. Or consider the traditional job interview. Everything from the interaction between interviewer and interviewee to the nature of the Q&A can be examined from a psychological standpoint. While these quick examples pertain to only one area of human workplace interaction (the employee selection area), there are a number of additional areas that we will learn about in this course.

We will begin by taking a look at how we evaluate jobs and candidates for jobs (employees) before exploring how we evaluate and motivate employees, noting what encourages versus discourages employee job commitment. We will then study leadership and group influences in the workplace and conclude with units on working conditions and humans factors. In addition, performance management and work teams will be discussed. Leadership interaction and the leadership theories are also covered.

Note: Because this is an applied psychological science, you should have a strong background in theory and have taken an Introduction to Psychology course prior to taking this course.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to PSYCH304! Below, please find general information on the course and its requirements.

Course Designer: Dr. Boyd

Primary ResourcesThis course is composed of a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following materials:

Requirements for CompletionIn order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Pay special attention to Units 1 and 2, as these lay the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units. You will also need to complete:

  • Unit 1 Quiz
  • Unit 2 Quiz
  • Unit 3 Quiz
  • Unit 4 Quizzes
  • Unit 5 Quiz
  • Unit 6 Quiz
  • Unit 7 Quizzes
  • Unit 8 Quiz
  • Problem Sets for Each Unit
  • The Final Exam

Note that you will only receive an official grade on your final exam. However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through the quizzes listed above.

In order to “pass” this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the Final Exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time CommitmentThis course should take you a total of 100 hours to complete. Each unit includes a “time advisory” that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories and to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then to set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you 10 hours. Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete subunits 1.1 (a total of 2 hours) on Monday night; subunit 1.2 (a total of 3 hours) on Tuesday night; etc.

Tips/SuggestionsAs you are going through the units, it is helpful to make notes for each unit whether it was a reading or presentation. Later, you can make note cards to study from your notes. In addition, reading your notes into a recorder and then playing them back will also enhance learning. We know in psychology that in order to have material learned it must be read, spoken, written, and/or heard seven to nine times. The problem sets provided will give you “hands on” experience with developing and creating many usable work products and documents from each unit. Good luck! 



Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
  • perform a thorough and systematic competency model (job analysis);
  • develop and validate a job specific selection design;
  • design, develop, and evaluate a job specific training program;
  • define a performance appraisal process and form;
  • identify research methods for conducting experiments;
  • explain organizational recruitment, selection, and retainment;
  • evaluate the work performance of employees;
  • describe the motivating factors of employees;
  • identify teamwork problems and issues;
  • compare and contrast models of motivation and leadership;
  • explain organizational issues including: teams, attitudes, and occupational health; and
  • define work-life balance and its impact on organizations and employees.

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    have access to a computer;

√    have continuous broadband internet access;

√    have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g. Adobe Reader or Flash);

√    have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√    have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√    be competent in the English language;

√    have read the Saylor Student Handbook; and

√    have completed all courses listed in the Core Program of the Psychology Major (PSYCH101 through PSYCH206).

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: An Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology  

    Industrial and Organizational Psychology studies the psychology of people in the workplace. As you will learn in this unit, psychology can teach us how our workplace functions and why it functions as it does. It is important to note, however, that I/O psychology is not simply the psychology of business. While the two areas certainly overlap, I/O deals with the “human” aspect of the working environment (i.e. the interactions and factors that affect people), not the broader aspects of running a business or organization. In this unit, we will introduce different areas of I/O psychology and discuss ways in which psychology can teach us about our workplace. Though we will only briefly touch upon several different subjects in this unit, we will expand upon them later in this course. 

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 The Major Fields of I/O Psychology  
  • 1.1.1 Personnel and Job Analysis  
  • 1.1.2 Organizational and Workplace Functioning  
  • 1.1.3 Training and Development  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.1.2.

  • 1.1.4 Organizational Culture  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.1.2.

  • 1.1.5 Human Factors and Ergonomics  
  • 1.1.6 Extra: The Employment of I/O Psychologists  
  • 1.2 A Brief History of I/O Psychology  
  • 1.2.1 Pioneers in I/O Psychology  
  • 1.2.2 WWI and Army Selection Tests  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.2.2.

  • 1.2.3 The Civil Rights Movement and Changing Worker Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.2.2.

  • 1.2.4 The Hawthorne Studies  
  • 1.3 Research in I/O Psychology  
  • 1.3.1 The Basic Components of Research  
  • 1.3.2 Theoretical Research vs. Applied Research  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.3.1.

  • 1.3.3 Literature Reviews  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.3.1.

  • 1.3.4 Survey Methods, Interviews and Questionnaires  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.3.1.

  • 1.3.5 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Methods  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 1.3.1.

  • 1.3.6 Ethics in I-O Psychological Research  
  • Unit 2: Job Analysis and Evaluation  

    An individual analyzes a job or career (i.e. performs “job analysis”) by identifying the components and requirements of that job and determining whether he will be able to fulfill his own desires and exercise his unique abilities in that position. Employers, on the other hand, use job analysis in order to accurately describe job responsibilities and outline the attributes and skills best suited to their performance. If employers are incompetent with job analysis, they will likely face problems with personnel recruitment, having implemented standards that are either too low or too high. This unit will discuss these matters in greater detail.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 2.1 Job Analysis  
  • 2.1.1 Purpose of a Job Analysis  
  • 2.1.2 Aspects of Job Analyzed  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.1.1.

  • 2.1.3 Structured Interviews  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.1.1.

  • 2.1.4 Interview Outcomes  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.1.1.

  • 2.2 Person/Worker Oriented Analysis  
  • 2.2.1 Focus on the Attributes of the Person Rather Than the Job Requirements  
    • Lecture: Eastern Illinois University: Professor S.J. Scher’s “Job Analysis Outline”

      Link: Eastern Illinois University: Professor S.J. Scher’s “Job Analysis Outline” (Microsoft Word)
       
      Instructions: Click on the “JobAnalysis.outline.doc” hyperlink to open up the Word document. Read the 17 page presentation in its entirety. This presentation will familiarize you with the difference between person/worker/function analysis and how to define knowledge, skills, and abilities in terms of competencies. This reading will cover subunits 2.2.1-2.2.7
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 2.2.2 Knowledge  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.2.3 Skill  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.2.4 Abilities  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.2.5 The Importance and Definition of Competencies  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.2.6 Transferring Knowledge, Skill and Abilities From Job to Job  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.2.7 The Combination of Person/Worker Oriented Analyses and Job-Oriented Analyses: Not Always Separate  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.2.1.

  • 2.3 Functions of Job Analysis  
  • 2.3.1 Identifying Essential Job Functions  
  • 2.3.2 Describe the Physical and Mental Performing Elements  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.3.1.

  • 2.3.3 Job Worksheet  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.3.1.

  • 2.4 Writing a Job Description  
  • 2.4.1 Titling the Job Accurately  
    • Reading: Human Resource Guide: “Job Analysis: Job Classification Systems”

      Link: Human Resource Guide: “Job Analysis: Job Classification Systems” (HTML)
                 
      Instructions: Read the entire article on job descriptions. This material will provide many major world resources for locating jobs, job titles, and job descriptions. These resources allow HR departments to pull from certain standards in job descriptions versus rewriting the same descriptions repeatedly. This reading will cover subunits 2.4.1-2.4.6.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 2.4.2 Dictionary of Occupational Titles  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.4.1. 

  • 2.4.3 Australian Standard Classifications of Occupations  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.4.1. 

  • 2.4.4 O*Net: Occupational Information Network  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.4.1. 

  • 2.4.5 US Standard Occupation Classifications System  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.4.1. 

  • 2.4.6 Major Occupational Groups  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.4.1. 

  • 2.5 Compensation and Job Evaluation  
  • 2.5.1 Wage and Salary  
  • 2.5.2 How to Determine Pay Equity  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.5.1.  

  • 2.5.3 Experience vs. Education vs. Demands  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.5.1.  

  • 2.5.4 Determining the Correct and Applicable Market Factors  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.5.1.  

  • 2.5.5 Legal and Regulatory Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 2.5.1.  

  • Unit 3: Recruitment, Selection, and Retainment  

    In this unit, we will review different ways of screening and selecting employees. This evaluation process generally takes the form of an interview or a resume, but there are other ways of conducting the process. The focus of this unit will be the understanding the use of personnel assessments in the hiring process. 

    It should be noted that many of the evaluation techniques that companies use when evaluating employees stem from psychological research methodology or statistical theory. If you are unfamiliar with either of these topics, some of these concepts may seem daunting or discouragingly complex. For this reason, it may be helpful to review or refer to supplemental materials on these topics as you progress through this unit. We will begin by discussing the purpose of personnel assessments and the legal issues around using them. 

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Personnel Assessment  
  • 3.1.1 Purpose of Personnel Assessments  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.1.  

  • 3.1.2 Measurement  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.1.  

  • 3.1.3 Prediction  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.1.  

  • 3.1.4 Types of Assessments  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.1.  

  • 3.1.5 Level of Standardization, Objectivity, and Quantifiability  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.1.  

  • 3.2 Laws and Regulations with Implications for Assessments  
  • 3.2.1 Title VII and Civil Rights Act  
  • 3.2.2 Age Discrimination Employment Act (1967)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.3 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1972)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.4 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.5 Title I of the Civil Rights Act (1991)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.6 Americans with Disability Act (1990)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.7 Record Keeping of Adverse Impact and Job-Relatedness Tests  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.8 The Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing (1985)  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.2.9 Relationship between Federal, State, and Local Employment Laws  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.2.1.

  • 3.3 Understanding Test Quality-Concepts of Reliability and Validity  
  • 3.3.1 What Makes a Good Test?  
  • 3.3.2 Test Reliability  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.3.1.

  • 3.3.3 Interpretation Of Reliability Information from Test Manuals and Reviews  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.3.1.

  • 3.3.4 Types of Reliability Estimates  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.3.1.

  • 3.3.5 Standard Error of Measurement  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.3.1.

  • 3.3.6 Test Validity  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.3.1.

  • 3.4 How to Select Tests-Standards for Evaluating Tests  
  • 3.4.1 Sources of Information about Tests  
  • 3.4.2 Adverse Impacts, Problems, and Cost Issues  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.4.1.  

  • 3.4.3 Standards For Evaluating a Test-Information to Consider to Determine Suitability of a Test for Your Use  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.4.1.  

  • 3.4.4 Checklist for Evaluating a Test  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.4.1.  

  • 3.5 Administering Assessment Instruments  
  • 3.5.1 Training and Qualifications of Administrative Staff  
  • 3.5.2 Following Instructions and Guidelines Stated in the Test Manual  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.3 Ensuring Suitable and Uniform Assessment Conditions  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.4 How Much Help to Offer Test Takers and Test Anxiety  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.5 Alternative Assessment Methods for Special Cases  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.6 Providing Reasonable Accommodation in the Assessment Process to People with Disabilities  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.7 Administering Computer-Based Tests  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • 3.5.8 Obtaining Informed Consent of Test Takers and a Waiver of Liability Claims  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 3.5.1. 

  • Unit 4: Evaluating Work Performance  

    In the previous unit, we discussed various methods of evaluating work performance. This may seem like a straightforward task, but as this unit will demonstrate, there are a number of factors that must be considered, including what to do with the information that employee evaluations collect. How to deliver the information, as well as the succession planning and pay structure will be covered. These considerations can become even more complicated when you imagine that you are evaluating not just one employee but dozens or even hundreds of employees. This unit will present strategies for these situations.

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 Job Evaluation Development and Implementation  
  • 4.1.1 What Is Job Evaluation?  
  • 4.1.2 Factors in Job Evaluation  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.1.1.  

  • 4.1.3 Implementing Job Evaluation  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.1.1.  

  • 4.1.4 Steps in Job Evaluation  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.1.1.  

  • 4.1.5 Job Evaluation Methods  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.1.1.  

  • 4.1.6 Value of Job Evaluations  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.1.1.  

  • 4.2 Job Design, Matching, Pay Structures  
  • 4.2.1 Job Design and Analysis  
  • 4.2.2 Critical Incident Reporting  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.2.1.  

  • 4.2.3 Succession Planning and Development  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.2.1.  

  • 4.2.4 Major Concepts of Job Design  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.2.1.  

  • 4.3 Performance Management (PM)  
  • 4.3.1 Evaluation of Work Performance  
    • Lecture: Psychology Video Lecture: Lynda Villaneuva’s “Performance Management”

      Link: Psychology Video Lecture: Lynda Villaneuva’s “Performance Management” (Adobe Flash)
       
      Instructions: Click on the arrow to start the video, and watch it in its entirety. A discussion on performance management, including the differences between a performance appraisal and a 360-degree method, ratings scales, common rating errors, and factors influencing fairness are targeted. This material will cover subunits 4.3.1-4.3.6.

      Watching this video should take approximately 30 minutes. 
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

    • Assessment: ProProfs: “Performance Management Quiz”

      Link: ProProfs: “Performance Management” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: To access the quiz, you must insert your first name in the box, and then click on “Take Quiz.” Answer all ten questions in the quiz.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • 4.3.2 Difference between Performance Appraisal and 360 Degree  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.3.1.  

  • 4.3.3 Relative and Absolute Rating Scales  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.3.1.  

  • 4.3.4 Common Rater Errors  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.3.1.  

  • 4.3.5 Factors Influencing Fairness  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.3.1.  

  • 4.3.6 Factors Enhancing Defensibility of PM System  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.3.1.  

  • 4.4 The Focus and Implementation of the Appraisal Method  
  • 4.4.1 How to Set Up Appraisal  
  • 4.4.2 Benefits of Appraisal  
  • 4.4.3 Reward Issues  
  • 4.4.4 Intrapersonal Skills  
  • 4.5 The Methods of Job Appraisal  
  • 4.5.1 Employee Comparisons  
  • 4.5.2 Rank Ordered  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.3 Paired Comparisons  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.4 Forced Distributions  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.5 Objective Measures: Quality of Work  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.6 Safety  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.7 Ratings: Checklists and Scales  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.5.8 Comparing Workers and Expectations  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.5.1.

  • 4.6 Evaluating Performance  
  • 4.6.1 Obtaining and Reviewing Data  
  • 4.6.2 Reading Incident Logs  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • 4.6.3 Completing the Rating Forms: Errors and the Halo Effect  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • 4.6.4 Response Biases  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • 4.6.5 Proximity Errors and Contrast Effects  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • 4.6.6 Low Reliability Across Raters  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • 4.6.7 Behavior Samples  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 4.6.1.

  • Unit 5: Employee Motivation, Satisfaction, and Commitment  

    In previous units, we have gone over material that is primarily applicable to the workplace setting. While this unit will continue to look at issues related to the workplace, the information we will cover and the conclusions we will draw will be more readily generalizable to people in a number of different settings.

    This unit will discuss the concepts of motivation, satisfaction, and commitment. You will find that although these concepts are (as earlier noted) widely applicable to a variety of circumstances, they have some interesting nuances when studied in the workplace. We will address these nuances, exploring the general research trends that they contradict. We will also consider motivation, satisfaction, and commitment from both employee and employer perspectives.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Factors Driving Employee Motivation, Engagement, and Commitment  
  • 5.1.1 Employee Motivation  
  • 5.1.2 Employee Engagement and Commitment  
    • Reading: Society for Human Resource Management: Robert J. Vance’s “Employee Engagement & Commitment”

      Link: Society for Human Resource Management: Robert J. Vance’s “Employee Engagement & Commitment” (PDF)
       
      Instructions: Scroll down until you reach the hyperlink titled “1006 Employee Engagement Online Program,” and click on this link to open the PDF file. Read pages 1-18 only. This working paper will provide the key ingredients for employee engagement and how companies measure engagement. The link between job performance and employee commitment are addressed as well. This reading will cover subunits 5.1.2-5.1.5.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.1.3 Power of Job Enrichment  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.1.2.  

  • 5.1.4 Recruiting for Engagement and Commitment  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.1.2.  

  • 5.1.5 Strategic Compensation for Engagement and Commitment  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.1.2.  

  • 5.2 Employee Value and Expectations  
  • 5.2.1 Needs and Values: Maslow’s Motivation  
  • 5.2.2 Maslow Motivation and a Hierarchy of Needs  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.2.1.

  • 5.2.3 The Two Factor Theory of Herzberg  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.2.1.

  • 5.2.4 Need for Achievement: David McClelland  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.2.1.

  • 5.2.5 Expectancy Theory: Victor Vroom  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.2.1.

  • 5.3 Goal Setting  
  • 5.3.1 The Effects of Goal Setting  
  • 5.3.2 Planning and Goal Setting  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.3.1.  

  • 5.3.3 Measuring Goal Setting  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.3.1.  

  • 5.3.4 Feedback on Goal Process  
  • 5.3.5 Identify and Explain Goal Behaviors  

    Note: This topic is also covered above in subunit 5.3.4.

  • 5.4 Rewards  
  • 5.4.1 Employee Rewards for Reaching Goals  
  • 5.4.2 Effectiveness of Incentive Depends on: Timing, Contingency and Type of Incentive  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.4.1.

  • 5.4.3 Types of Rewards  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.4.1.

  • 5.4.4 Employee Acceptance  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 5.4.1.

  • 5.4.5 Operant Conditioning Effect/Reinforcement Schedules  
  • Unit 6: Leadership  

    Leadership is an important trait in the workplace, as partly evidenced by the myriad books and seminars available to individuals interested in honing and developing their leadership skills. Leadership, however, is a complicated trait. Even those with great leadership abilities may not demonstrate their skills in every situation under the sun – they often demonstrate their leadership talents in unanticipated interactions with others. In this unit, we will not only review why and how leadership is important, but identify the characteristics associated with individuals who tend to be leaders. Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence will also be explained. Emotional Intelligence has become far more important than just productivity.

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Personal Characteristics Associated with Leadership  
  • 6.1.1 Intelligence  
  • 6.1.2 Kurt Lewin’s Three Leadership Styles  
  • 6.1.3 Leadership Competencies  
  • 6.1.4 Global Executive Competencies  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.1.3.  

  • 6.1.5 Business Trends Affecting Leadership Competencies  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.1.3.  

  • 6.2 Task vs. Person Orientation of Leadership  
  • 6.2.1 Task-Oriented Leaders  
  • 6.2.2 Person-Oriented Leaders  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.2.1.

  • 6.2.3 Managerial Grid Theory  
  • 6.2.4 Team Leaders vs. Impoverished Leaders  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.2.3.

  • 6.2.5 Theory X and Theory Y  
  • 6.3 Leader and Situation Interaction  
  • 6.3.1 Situation Favorability  
  • 6.3.2 Path-Goal Theory  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.3.1.

  • 6.3.3 Situational Theory  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.3.1.

  • 6.3.4 Contingency Model  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.3.1.

  • 6.3.5 IMPACT Six Leadership Styles  
  • 6.4 Emotional Intelligence for Leaders  
  • 6.4.1 Intrapersonal vs. Interpersonal Skills  
  • 6.4.2 Business Skills  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.4.1.  

  • 6.4.3 Leadership Skills  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.4.1.  

  • 6.4.4 Decision Making vs. Power: Exertion of Will or Agreed upon Path  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 6.4.1.  

  • 6.4.5 Charismatic Leaders  
  • Unit 7: Group Behavior and Conflict/Work Teams  

    Since the workplace typically requires employees to work and interact with people in group settings, it is important to examine how individuals behave when in groups and how a group behaves as a whole. Much of this research has grown out of Social Psychology, a subfield of psychology that explores how societies and groups affect individuals and vice versa. As with the previous unit, however, you will notice that certain observations that may hold true in other settings are not applicable to workplace settings. For example, psychologists tend to view groups as individuals who hold similar beliefs, share similar ideas, and voluntarily choose to get together to form a group. In the workplace, this is not necessarily the case. Frequently, the only thing that employees have in common with one another is their employer. We will take this observation into consideration as we study the ways in which groups interact with each other and individuals interact in groups within the workplace. We will also take a look at how conflicts within groups can cause problems in a workplace setting.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 Defining a Group  
  • 7.1.1 The Amount of People or an Interaction  
  • 7.1.2 Criteria of a Group  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.1.1.  

  • 7.1.3 Group Dynamics  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.1.1.  

  • 7.1.4 Model of Group Development  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.1.1.  

  • 7.1.5 Methods of Studying Groups  
  • 7.2 Accelerating Development of Groups  
  • 7.2.1 Theories of Small Group Development  
  • 7.2.2 Four Stages  
  • 7.2.3 Group Skills  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.2.2.  

  • 7.2.4 Group Facilitators  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.2.2.  

  • 7.2.5 Individual Roles in a Group  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.2.2.  

  • 7.3 Ethics of Team Work  
  • 7.3.1 Group Cohesiveness  
  • 7.3.2 Value Profiles for Professional Ethics  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.5.

  • 7.3.3 Obstacles to Group Work  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.5.

  • 7.3.4 Best Practices  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.5.

  • 7.3.5 Debriefing Group Projects/Processes  
    • Reading: Ensight: Jeremy Wright’s “10 Tips for Running a Rawking Project Debrief”

      Link: Ensight: Jeremy Wright’s “10 Tips for Running a Rawking Project Debrief”
       
      Instructions: Read the entire article for a discussion on a values profile, obstacles, and best practices. This reading also touches on the topics outlined in subunits 7.3.1-7.3.4.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • 7.4 Group Decision Making  
  • 7.4.1 Authoritarian Style  
  • 7.4.2 Brainstorming  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.4.1.  

  • 7.4.3 Voting Based Methods  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.4.1.  

  • 7.4.4 Advantages and Disadvantages  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.4.1.  

  • 7.5 Group Conflict  
  • 7.5.1 Identifying Conflict  
  • 7.5.2 Styles of Conflict Management  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 7.5.1.  

  • 7.5.3 Personal and Group Skills  
  • 7.5.4 Process for Finding Solutions  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunits 7.5.3 and 7.5.5.  

  • 7.5.5 Roles of a Facilitator  

    Note: This topic is also covered in the reading under subunit 7.5.3.

  • Unit 8: Work-Family Balance  

    The final unit on the course will examine how workers and employers are both managing work-family balance in an effort to keep health costs down and productivity up. The current statistics show that there is more of a focus on work-family balance than there ever has been in the workplace. Work schedules are changing and becoming more and more flexible. Part of finding the balance for employees is taking a look at human factors and ergonomics and how these affect satisfaction, commitment, and the bottom line.

    Unit 8 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 8 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Work-Life Balance in USA  
  • 8.1.1 Current Statistics  
  • 8.1.2 Weeks per Year Working in US vs. Other Countries  
  • 8.1.3 Nominal Hours  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.1.2.

  • 8.1.4 Rest Breaks and Manual Labor  
  • 8.1.5 Compressed Work Weeks: Common Schedules  
  • 8.1.6 The Effect of Compressed Weeks on Workers vs. The Effect of Compressed Weeks on Employers  

    Note: This topic is also covered in the reading for subunit 8.1.5.

  • 8.1.7 Flexible Work Hours and Shift Work  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunits 8.1.5 and 8.1.6. 

  • 8.1.8 Job Sharing and Work at Home  
  • 8.2 Work Environment  
  • 8.2.1 Environmental Psychology  
  • 8.2.2 Environmental Stressors  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.2.1.

  • 8.2.3 Environmental Risks  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.2.1.

  • 8.2.4 Environmental Design  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.2.1.

  • 8.2.5 Herzberg’s Hygienic Factors  
  • 8.3 Human Factors  
  • 8.3.1 Cognitive Design Engineering  
  • 8.3.2 The Effect of Computer Use on Workers  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.3.1.  

  • 8.3.3 Product Design  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.3.1.  

  • 8.3.4 Role of People vs. Role of Machines  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.3.1.  

  • 8.3.5 Goals of Ergonomics  
  • 8.3.6 History and Etymology  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.3.5.  

  • 8.3.7 Applications of Ergonomics in the Workplace  

    Note: This topic is covered in the reading under subunit 8.3.5.

  • Final Exam  

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