Abnormal Behavior

Purpose of Course  showclose

Abnormal psychology is one of the most recognizable and intriguing subfields of study in psychology. Part of what makes this field so intriguing is that it challenges us to define what is normal and abnormal. Most experts in the field have settled on several criteria to define abnormal behavior; however, this definition and even the very existence of certain disorders still remain a source of debate. This course will help us to define abnormal and normal behaviors and to group these abnormal phenomena into disorders. These disorders are used to capture a particular type of abnormal psychological phenomena and to help us diagnose or make an educated decision regarding what disorder a patient/client may have. In order to distinguish between different disorders, clinicians often use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which identifies the specific criteria used when diagnosing patients/clients. This manual represents the industry standard for psychologists and psychiatrists, who often work together to diagnose and treat psychological disorders. The current version of this manual is the text revision of the 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR), but a 5th edition is planned for release in May of 2013.

Another intriguing component of the field of abnormal psychology is the question of what causes the development of particular disorders. In hard sciences, researchers can easily manipulate conditions and isolate variables. The results from these studies are often fairly convincing and provide scientists and laypersons alike with a relatively unambiguous explanation for the questions posed within each respective field. However, in abnormal psychology, the unit of analysis is human behavior, which is complex and often prohibits our ability to manipulate variables of interest in empirical studies. This means that the conclusions we draw are often up for debate, and hard and fast answers are often hard to come by. With that said, our current understanding of the factors which contribute to the development and maintenance of symptoms associated with these disorders is far more advanced than it was even 20 years ago.

The first section of this course will begin by defining normal versus abnormal behavior and reviewing the historical context in which abnormal psychology emerged. It is important to note that historical context will be woven throughout the course, as it helps to anchor our current understanding of the field and the disorders it characterizes. We will then discuss the major theories or paradigms associated with abnormal psychology, the classification system used to differentiate and define disorders, and the research methods often used in the study of abnormal psychology. After we have learned the basic terminology and parameters which define abnormal psychology, we will move on to the second section of this course, which addresses individual disorders, their treatments, and common explanations concerning their origins. This section represents the majority of the content of this course and will cover anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating and sleeping disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, and personality disorders.

This course will cover the basic concepts surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal psychological phenomena. While you may have a basic understanding of the disorders addressed, we will cover each disorder in great detail. At the close of this course, you will have a much clearer picture of the characteristics of individual disorders, the epidemiology and prevalence of these disorders, the controversy surrounding these disorders, and the popular groups of both medication and psychosocial interventions used to treat these disorders.

Course Information  showclose

Welcome to PSYCH401: Abnormal Behavior. General information about this course and its requirements can be found below.  

Course Designer: Helena (Mimi) Martin

Primary Resources: This course comprises a range of different free, online materials. However, the course makes primary use of the following materials: Requirements for Completion: In order to complete this course, you will need to work through each unit and all of its assigned materials. Pay special attention to Units 1–3, as these lay the groundwork for understanding the more advanced, exploratory material presented in the latter units. You will also need to complete:
  • Subunit 4.3.2 Assessment
  • Unit 7 Assessment
  • Unit 8 Assessment
  • The Final Exam
Note that you will only receive an official grade on your final exam. However, in order to adequately prepare for this exam, you will need to work through all of the course materials, including the assessments listed above. 
In order to pass this course, you will need to earn a 70% or higher on the final exam. Your score on the exam will be tabulated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam, you may take it again.

Time Commitment: This course should take you a total of 95.5 hours to complete. Each unit includes a time advisory that lists the amount of time you are expected to spend on each subunit. These should help you plan your time accordingly. It may be useful to take a look at these time advisories, to determine how much time you have over the next few weeks to complete each unit, and then set goals for yourself. For example, Unit 1 should take you 4 hours to complete, and Unit 2 should take approximately 8.25 hours to complete. Perhaps you can sit down with your calendar and decide to complete Unit 1 (a total of 4 hours) on Monday night; the introduction to Unit 2 (a total of 2.5 hours) on Tuesday night; subunit 2.1 (a total of 3.75 hours) on Wednesday night; and so forth.

Tips/Suggestions: As clinical psychology and psychotherapy address abnormal behavior, there are several units within the clinical psychology and psychotherapy courses which overlap with the content of this course. If you have already taken these courses, it may be helpful to review some of the applicable material, particularly if you think you would benefit from additional clarity on a topic addressed in this course. If you have not taken these courses, please note that although there is crossover in the content addressed, each course is developed to reflect different vantage points within the field of psychology. This particular course aims to give you an understanding of the basis of human behavior, what defines behavior gone awry, what happens when behavior is defined as abnormal, and the multiple perspectives on the causes and treatment of various disorders. 

We suggest that you take notes during lectures and while reading. Note-taking is accounted for in the time estimates and will help you study for your exam. In addition, research has shown that note-taking helps students recognize, recall, and retain information over longer periods of time.  

Learning Outcomes  showclose

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to:
  • describe the historical context from which the current conceptualization of abnormal psychology has evolved;
  • identify and describe the main theoretical perspectives/paradigms which have influenced the field of abnormal psychology;
  • identify and differentiate the classification of psychological disorders;
  • evaluate treatment approaches; and
  • explain the major research findings for each group of disorders and how they add to our knowledge of the causes and treatment of psychological disorders.    

Course Requirements  showclose

In order to take this course, you must:

√    have access to a computer;

√    have continuous broadband Internet access;

√    have the ability/permission to install plug-ins or software (e.g., Adobe Reader or Flash);

√    have the ability to download and save files and documents to a computer;

√    have the ability to open Microsoft files and documents (.doc, .ppt, .xls, etc.);

√    be competent in the English language;

√    have read the Saylor Student Handbook; and

√    have completed all courses listed in the Core Program of the psychology discipline: PSYCH 101: Introduction to PsychologyPSYCH 201: Introduction to StatisticsPSYCH 202A: Research Methods, PSYCH 202B: Research Methods Lab, PSYCH 203: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology, PSYCH 204: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, PSYCH 205: Clinical Psychology, and PSYCH 206: Cognitive Psychology.

Unit Outline show close


Expand All Resources Collapse All Resources
  • Unit 1: Introduction to Abnormal Psychology  

    What is abnormal behavior? Why does it exist? How have our conceptions of abnormal behavior changed and progressed over the years? This unit will address these basic questions about the field of abnormal psychology. We will first seek to define the line between abnormal and normal behavior. Next, we will take a look at the historical context that has influenced the major paradigms/theories of abnormal psychology. Lastly, we will address two paradigms which have influenced, albeit in a more peripheral way, the field of abnormal psychology: the phenomenological paradigm and the statistical, or trait, paradigm. At the close of this unit, you will have a framework for defining and understanding the concepts behind this fascinating subfield of psychology.  

    Unit 1 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 1 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 1.1 Defining Abnormal Behavior  
    • Lecture: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 2 – Historical Approaches”

      Link: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 2 – Historical Approaches” (iTunes)
       
      Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Episode 2 – Historical Approaches,” select the “View in iTunes” link, and listen to the lecture to learn about historical approaches to abnormal psychology. These audio podcasts are enhanced with lecture slides that can be viewed in the artwork window of iTunes. To view the slides, single click on the album artwork image (black square with the podcast icon, left of the podcast title at the top) to enlarge it as a separate window, which will allow you to view lecture slides that accompany the podcast. You can jump to different sections of the lecture by clicking on the “Chapters” drop-down menu in iTunes. This lecture also covers the topics outlined in subunits 1.1.1–1.1.3.

      Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.1.1 Deviance from Statistical and Social Norms  

    Note: The lecture assigned beneath subunit 1.1 covers this topic. Focus on the discussion of the three Ds, which begins at minute 17:51 and runs until 28:04. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material for subunits 1.1.1 through 1.1.3.

  • 1.1.2 Personal Distress  

    Note: The lecture assigned beneath subunit 1.1 covers this topic. Focus on the discussion of the three Ds, which begins at minute 17:51 and runs until 28:04. 

  • 1.1.3 Maladaptiveness of Behavior: Level of Dysfunction  

    Note: The lecture assigned beneath subunit 1.1 covers this topic. Focus on the discussion of the three Ds, which begins at minute 17:51 and runs until 28:04. 

  • 1.2 Historical/Conceptual Background of Abnormal Psychology  
  • 1.2.1 History of Abnormal Psychology  
  • 1.2.2 The Intersection of Worldview and the Development of Theories  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 1.2.1 covers this topic. Focus on the text below the subheading “Advances in Psychological Understanding of Mental Disorders.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 1.3 Paradigms Defined  
    • Reading: Paradigms Defined

       

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.4 Statistical or Trait Paradigm  
    • Reading: Statistical or Trait Paradigm

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.5 Measurement of Personality  
  • 1.6 Introduction to Psychiatry  
  • 1.6.1 Symptoms, Signs, and Syndromes  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 1.6 covers this topic. Pay particular attention to the text under the heading titled “Symptoms and Signs” on pages 2 and 3. To cover the topics outlined in subunits 1.6.1 through 1.6.4, take approximately 15 minutes to study your notes and/or to review pages 2–10 of the reading. 

  • 1.6.2 Mental versus Physical Disorders  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 1.6 covers this topic. Pay particular attention to the text below the heading “Mental versus Physical Disorders” on pages 4 and 5.

  • 1.6.3 The Mind and the Brain  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 1.6 covers this topic. Pay particular attention to the text on pages 5 and 6 that follows the statement: “It is also important to recognize that our mind changes the structure of our brain.”

  • 1.6.4 Overview of the Causes and Treatment of Mental Disorders from Psychiatric View  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 1.6 covers this topic. Pay particular attention to the text below the headings “Causes of Mental Disorders,” “Treatment of Mental Disorders,” and “Psychiatrists and Mental Health Teams” on pages 7–10.

  • Unit 2: Influential Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology  

    Since the dawn of time, the origins of abnormal behavior have been shrouded in mystery. The debate as to whether abnormal behavior is caused by genetic and/or biological mechanisms versus environmental ones has greatly shaped the field and our understanding of psychopathology. This nature versus nurture debate is captured through the major defining paradigms of the field, which seek to explain the causes of abnormal psychology. In this unit, we will learn about the concepts and assumptions of the major paradigms that have had the strongest influences on the field of abnormal psychology. We will also learn about a new, more inclusive explanation of abnormal behavior that emerged as the debate subsided—that of the diathesis-stress model. This model stresses both the genetic and environmental contributions to the development of psychological disorders.   

    Unit 2 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 2 Learning Outcomes   show close
    • Lecture: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 3 – Historical and Contemporary Approaches”

      Link: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 3 – Historical and Contemporary Approaches” (iTunes)
       
      Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Episode 3 – Historical and Contemporary Approaches,” select the “View in iTunes” link, and listen to the lecture to learn about past and current approaches to abnormal psychology. These audio podcasts are enhanced with lecture slides that can be viewed in the artwork window of iTunes. To view the slides, click on the album artwork image (black square with the podcast icon) to enlarge it as a separate window, which will allow you to view lecture slides that accompany the podcast. You can jump to different sections of the lecture by clicking on the “Chapters” drop-down menu in iTunes. This lecture covers the topics outlined in subunits 2.1 and 2.2 as well as any inclusive subunits.

      Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please repect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1 Biological Paradigm  
  • 2.1.1 Biology as the Unit of Analysis  

    Note: The biological paradigm seeks to understand abnormal behavior as a function of biological processes within the body. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Review the portion of the lecture beginning at 41:05 and running until 41:34. Take approximately 5 minutes to review this material. 

  • 2.1.2 Research on Genetic Contributions of Disorders  

    Note: Many psychological disorders have genetic contributions. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Review the portion of the lecture beginning at 1:07:37 and running until 1:20:01. Take approximately 10 minutes to review this material to cover the topics in subunits 2.1.2 and 2.1.2.1.

  • 2.1.2.1 Twin Studies  

    Note: The study of twins provides a unique way to examine biological factors influencing behavior. These natural experiments help to show the degree to which abnormal behaviors are due to genetic factors. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Focus on the portion of the lecture beginning at 1:07:37 and running until 1:20:01. 

  • 2.1.2.2 Adoption Studies  
    • Reading: Adoption Studies

        

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.1.3 Basics of Neurobiology  
  • 2.1.3.1 Anatomy of a Neuron  

    Note: Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. The reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1 covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “Neurons” on page 6–8. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.1.3.2 Neurotransmitter Approach  

    Note: Neurotransmitters allow neurons to communicate with each other. The reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1 and the lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction cover this topic. Review the material under “Synapse” on pages 9 and 10 for the reading. For the lecture, review the portion beginning at 58:48 and running until 1:04:37. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.1.3.3 Relevant Brain Functions/Structures  

    Note: A variety of brain structures are important for the understanding of mental disorders. The reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.1 and the lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction cover this topic. For the reading, review the material below the heading “Further Details of Particular Structures” on page 13 up until the References section on page 28. For the lecture, review the portion of the podcast beginning at 41:34 and running until 55:56. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.1.4 Nature vs. Nurture  
    • Reading: Nature vs. Nurture

        

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.1.5 Basis for Psychopathology  

    Note: The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Review the portion of the lecture beginning at 55:56 and running until 58:48. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.2 Psychodynamic Paradigm  
    • Reading: Psychodynamic Paradigm

         

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.2.1 The Preconscious, Conscious, and Subconscious  
  • 2.2.2 The Id, Ego, and Superego  
    • Reading: The Id, Ego, and Superego

         

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.2.3 Psychosexual Stages of Development  

    Note: Freud believed that psychological development was critically associated with discrete stages in childhood. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Review the portion of the lecture beginning at 1:20:05 and running until 1:27:54. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.3 Behavioral Paradigm  
  • 2.3.1 Classical Conditioning  

    Note: Certain forms of learning are automatic and involuntary. Much of this learning falls into the category of classical conditioning. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. To cover the topics outlined in subunits 2.3.1 through 2.3.3 as well as 2.4.3, review the portion of the lecture beginning at 1:27:54 and running until 1:33:40. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 2.3.2 Operant Conditioning  

    Note: In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning consists of learning in which learners operate against the environment and earn consequences for their actions. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Focus on the part of the lecture that begins at 1:27:54 and runs until 1:33:40. 

    • Web Media: YouTube: “Operant Conditioning”

      Link: YouTube: “Operant Conditioning” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch the brief video to learn about Skinner’s experiment with operant conditioning.
       
      Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.3 Token Economy  

    Note: The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Focus on the part of the lecture that begins at 1:27:54 and runs until 1:33:40.

  • 2.4 Cognitive Paradigm  
    • Reading: Cognitive Paradigm

        

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.4.1 Assumptions of Cognitive Paradigm  
  • 2.4.2 Cognitive Processes and Emotion  
  • 2.4.3 Beck’s Cognitive Therapy  
    • Reading: Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

      Note: Aaron Beck is a psychiatrist who helped to establish cognitive therapy, which has been widely used for the treatment of mental disorders. The lecture assigned below the Unit 2 introduction covers this topic. Focus on the part of the lecture that begins at 1:27:54 and runs until 1:33:40. 

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Web Media: YouTube: “Judith Beck PhD Talks about Cognitive Therapy”

      Link: YouTube: “Judith Beck PhD Talks about Cognitive Therapy” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Watch this brief video to learn about cognitive therapy.

      Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5 Diathesis Stress-Model  
  • Unit 3: Classification Systems and Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology  

    What are the major categories of psychological disorders and the defining characteristics of these diagnostic labels? This unit will provide us with information to address this question and others like it. First, we will learn about the historical context out of which the current classification system was developed. Next, we will learn the terms and concepts you need to fully understand the current classification system—the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and the soon to be published 5th edition, DSM-5. Finally, we will learn about research methods used in the service of providing information about disorders to clinicians, family members, patients, and the general public.   

    Unit 3 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 3 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 3.1 Overview of the Classification System  

    Note: Mental disorders are organized into different categories according to their similarities and differences. The reading and lecture assigned below the Unit 3 introduction cover this topic. For the reading, review pages 1 and 2. Review the portion of the lecture that begins at 30:19 and runs through 32:49. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 3.2 History of Classification Systems in Psychopathology  

    Note: Classification systems of mental disorders have changed considerably over the years. The reading and lecture assigned beneath the Unit 3 introduction cover this topic. For the reading, review the material under the heading “Classification of Mental Disorders” on pages 2 and 3. For the lecture, review the portion that begins at 32:49 and runs through 54:02. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material. 

  • 3.3 Issues of Reliability  

    Note: The lecture assigned below the Unit 3 introduction covers this topic. Review the part of the lecture that begins at 30:19 and runs through 32:49. Take less than 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 3.4 Current Classification System: DSM-IV-TR  

    Note: In 2000, a text revision of the fourth edition of the DSM was published. The DSM-5 is set to be released in May 2013. The reading and lecture assigned below the Unit 3 introduction as well as the readings in subunit 3.2 cover this topic. For the “Chapter 3” reading assigned below the Unit 3 introduction, review the text below the “DSM-IV and 5” heading on page 12. For the lecture, review the section that begins at 54:02 and runs through 54:50. For the reading assigned below subunit 3.2, review the information about the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 3.5 Terms and Major Categories in the DSM  
  • 3.6 Research Methods  
  • 3.6.1 Correlational  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 3.6 covers this topic.

  • 3.6.2 Experimental  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 3.6 covers this topic.

  • 3.6.3 Case Studies  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 3.6 covers this topic.

  • 3.6.4 Single Subject Designs  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 3.6 covers this topic.

  • Unit 4: Anxiety Disorders  

    The first three units have provided an introduction to the field of abnormal psychology, highlighting the history, theoretical paradigms, and methodological considerations that shape the field. In the remaining units, we will use that framework to learn about some common disorders, their specifications, and their treatments. We will start by learning more about anxiety disorders. First, we will take a closer look at anxiety itself and learn of its potential adaptive nature and evolutionary function. Next, we will focus on anxiety gone awry, when anxiety reactions take more extreme forms and cause distress, disruption, and dysfunction. In this section of the unit, we will learn how to differentiate between the major subtypes of anxiety disorders including the different types of phobias, obsessive-compulsive, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders. We will learn more about the potential causes which lead to the development of anxiety disorders, as seen through the vantage point of a variety of paradigms in the field of abnormal psychology. We will also learn more about the research which helps us to understand these disorders more fully and to treat people with these disorders in more effective ways. Through hearing various case examples, we will come to appreciate how clinicians treat this disorder and the prognosis or probability of recovery from these disorders.  

    Unit 4 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 4 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 4.1 An Introduction to Anxiety  
  • 4.1.1 Anxiety Defined  

    Note: The lecture and reading assigned below subunit 4.1 cover this topic. For the reading, focus on the definitions of anxiety, types of anxiety, and fear on page 1. Review the portion of the lecture that begins at 3:58 and runs until 5:25. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 4.1.2 Physiological, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Emotional Components of Anxiety  
  • 4.1.3 Yerkes-Dodson Law  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 4.1 covers this topic. Review the material on the Yerkes-Dodson Law on page 2. Take less than 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 4.2 Anxiety Disorders  
    • Lecture: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 7 – Anxiety Disorders”

      Link: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 7 – Anxiety Disorders” (iTunes)
       
      Instructions: Locate “Episode 7 – Anxiety Disorders,” click on the “View in iTunes” link, and listen to this lecture. These audio podcasts are enhanced with lecture slides that can be viewed in the artwork window of iTunes. To view the slides, click on the album artwork image (black square with the podcast icon) to enlarge it as a separate window, which will allow you to view lecture slides that accompany the podcast. You can jump to different sections of the lecture by clicking on the “Chapters” drop-down menu in iTunes. This lecture also covers the topics outlined in subunits 4.2.2.1 through 4.2.2.5.
       
      Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: National Institute of Mental Health’s “Anxiety Disorders”

      Link: National Institute of Mental Health’s “Anxiety Disorders” (HTML)
       
      Instructions: Click on the PDF link to download the text. Read this booklet for information on the symptoms and treatments of anxiety orders such as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorders. This reading also covers the topic outlined in subunit 4.2.2.

      Studying this reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 4.2.1 Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives on Anxiety Disorders  
  • 4.2.2 Major Types of Anxiety Disorders: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 4.2.2.1 Specific Phobia  

    Note: Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 4.1, Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.2, as well as Dr. Lack’s reading assigned in subunit 4.2.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the text below the heading “Specific Phobia” on pages 12 and 13. For the lecture, review the section that begins at 35:28 and runs until 51:13. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 3 titled “Specific Phobia.” Take approximately 30 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.2.2.2 Panic and Agoraphobia  

    Note: Dr. Ellen Haller’s reading assigned below subunit 4.1, Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.2, as well as Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 4.2.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture, review the section that begins at 22:44 and runs until 26:16. For Dr. Leighton’s lecture, review the section that begins at 20:36 and runs until 33:17. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 7 titled “Panic and Agoraphobia.” Take approximately 30 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.2.2.3 Social Phobias  

    Note: Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 4.1, Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.2, as well as Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 4.4.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture, focus on the section that begins at 22:44 and runs until 26:16. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the text below the heading “Social Phobias” on pages 10 and 11. For Dr. Leighton’s lecture, review the section that begins at 40:57 and runs until 51:13. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 6 titled “Social Phobias.” Take approximately 30 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.2.2.4 Generalized Anxiety  

    Note: Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 4.1, Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.2, as well as Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 4.2.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture, focus on the section that begins at 22:44 and runs until 26:16. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the section titled “Generalized Anxiety” on pages 2–5. For Dr. Leighton’s lecture, focus on the section that begins at 12:45 and runs until 20:36. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 2, titled “General Anxiety Disorder.” Take approximately 30 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.2.2.5 Obsessive-Compulsive  

    Note: Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.1, Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.2, and Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 4.2.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture, focus on the part that begins at 19:40 and runs until 22:44. For Dr. Leighton’s lecture, focus on the part that begins at 51:13 and runs until 1:24:01. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 4, titled “Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).” Take approximately 30 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.2.2.6 Post-Traumatic Stress  

    Note: Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture assigned below subunit 4.1 as well as Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 4.2.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Ellen Haller’s lecture, focus on the part that begins at 30:55 and runs until 35:40. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 5, titled “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 4.3 Treatment of Anxiety Disorders  
  • 4.3.1 Forms of Treatment  
  • 4.3.2 Prognosis in Treatment of Disorders  
  • Unit 5: Somatoform Disorders  

    From Plato to Aristotle to Descartes, philosophers have long debated the nature of the mind-body connection. This question has intrigued many for centuries and continues to be a topic of debate and discussion in the field of psychology. Somatoform disorders exemplify a situation in which psychological distress manifests itself in physical ways and highlights the mind-body connection. In this unit, we will explore the nature of somatization and learn about how the major paradigms in abnormal psychology explain the origins of these disorders. We will also learn more about the controversy over whether or not society’s tendency to medicalize psychological or physical distress contributes to the prevalence of this disorder. Lastly, we will learn more about the specific types of somatoform disorders, the diagnostic criteria which define them, and the treatments which seek to cure them.

    Unit 5 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 5 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 5.1 Introduction to Somatization  
    • Reading: Introduction to Somatization

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 5.1.1 Somatization Defined  
    • Reading: Somatization Defined

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 5.1.2 Related Disorders  
  • 5.2 Somatoform Disorders  
    • Lecture: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 8 – PTSD, Dissociative, & Somatoform Disorders”

      Link: iTunes: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 8 – PTSD, Dissociative, & Somatoform Disorders” (iTunes)
       
      Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Episode 8 – PTSD, Dissociative, & Somatoform Disorders,” and then click on the “View in iTunes” link. Watch this lecture, beginning at 54:13 to the end, to learn about somatoform disorders. These audio podcasts are enhanced with lecture slides that can be viewed in the artwork window of iTunes. To view the slides, click on the album artwork image (black square with the podcast icon) to enlarge it as a separate window, which will allow you to view lecture slides that accompany the podcast. You can jump to different sections of the lecture by clicking on the “Chapters” drop-down menu in iTunes. This lecture also covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.3.1 through 5.2.3.5.

      Listening to this portion of the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: The Practical Psychosomaticist: Dr. Jim Amos’s “The Geezer’s Dirty Dozen on Somatoform Disorders”

      Link: The Practical Psychosomaticist: Dr. Jim Amos’s “The Geezer’s Dirty Dozen on Somatoform Disorders” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Watch the video for information on somatoform disorders. Notice that there are slides on the webpage that accompany the lecture. Click on the individual slides on the bottom of the screen to enlarge them. This lecture also covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.3.1 through 5.2.3.5.

      Viewing this lecture, pausing to take notes, and following along with the lecture slides should take approximately 30 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 5.2.1 Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives on Somatization  
  • 5.2.2 Potential Influence of Medicalization  
  • 5.2.3 Major Types of Somatoform Disorders: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 5.2.3.1 Somatoform Pain Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture and Dr. Jim Amos’s lecture assigned below subunit 5.2 as well as the readings assigned below subunit 5.2.3 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 9 titled “Pain Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the section titled “Pain Disorder” on pages 6 and 7. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 5.2.3.2 Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture and Dr. Jim Amos’s lecture assigned below subunit 5.2 as well as the readings assigned below subunit 5.2.3 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 2, titled “Body Dysmorphic Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the brief text on page 7. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources. 

  • 5.2.3.3 Conversion Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture and Dr. Jim Amos’s lecture assigned below subunit 5.2 as well as the readings assigned below subunit 5.2.3 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 3, titled “Conversion Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the brief text on conversion disorder on page 13. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 5.2.3.4 Hypochondriasis  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture and Dr. Jim Amos’s lecture assigned below subunit 5.2 as well as the readings assigned below subunit 5.2.3 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 4, titled “Hypochondriasis.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the section titled “Hypochondriasis” on pages 5 and 6. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 5.2.3.5 Somatization Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture and Dr. Jim Amos’s lecture assigned below subunit 5.2 as well as the readings assigned below subunit 5.2.3 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on Section 5, titled “Somatization Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the text below the heading, “Somatization Disorder,” on page 3. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 5.3 Treatment of Somatoform Disorder  
  • Unit 6: Eating and Sleeping Disorders  

    Like somatoform disorders, eating and sleeping disorders can often be conceptualized as manifestations of psychological issues in physical forms. Unlike somatoform disorders, eating and sleeping disorders are relatively common psychological disorders which impact millions of people every year. In this unit, we will first turn our attention to eating disorders which have potentially grave physical consequences. These disorders particularly impact women, a fact which sheds light on the sociocultural contributors to this disorder. In this first part of unit, we will learn more about the potential sociocultural, genetic, and familial contributors to the development of eating disorders. We will also learn about the major types of eating disorders and how clinicians treat these disorders. We will then turn our attention towards sleeping disorders. We will first discuss normal sleep patterns. Next, we will studythe nature of disrupted sleep and the assessments and treatments associated with various types of sleep disorders.  

    Unit 6 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 6 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 6.1 Eating Disorders  
  • 6.1.1 Potential Factors That Contribute to the Development of Eating Disorders  
  • 6.1.1.1 Sociocultural  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic.

  • 6.1.1.2 Genetics  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. You can read about the genetic association with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 4 and 12, respectively, of Dr. Pridmore’s reading. To cover the topics outlined in 6.1.1.2 and 6.1.1.3, take approximately 15 minutes to review the information on “Genetic Studies” through “Socio-economic Status” on pages 4–6, “Outcome” on page 8, as well as “Aetiology” through “Outcome” on pages 11 and 12. 

  • 6.1.1.3 Personality Traits  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. You can read about personality traits associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on page 5 and 12, respectively, of Dr. Pridmore’s reading. 

  • 6.1.2 Physical Consequences of Eating Disorders  

    Note: Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 6.1 covers this topic. Focus on the “Outcome” sections for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 8 and 12, respectively. 

  • 6.1.3 Major Types of Eating Disorders: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 6.1.3.1 Anorexia Nervosa  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 3, titled “Anorexia Nervosa.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 3–10. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review pages 4 and 5 for information on anorexia nervosa. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources. 

  • 6.1.3.2 Bulimia Nervosa  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 4, titled “Bulimia Nervosa.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 10–13. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review page 5 for information on bulimia nervosa. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources

  • 6.1.3.3 Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified  

    Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 5, titled “Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified,” Section 6, titled “Binge-Eating Disorder,” and Section 7, titled “Rumination Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the brief info on binge-eating on page 13. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the information on binge-eating on page 6. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 6.2 Treatment of Eating Disorders  
  • 6.2.1 Forms of Treatment  

    Note: The lecture andthe readings assigned beneath subunit 6.1 cover this topic. This information is found in the “empirically supported treatment” section for the Dr. Lack reading. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the treatment information for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 9 and 10 as well as 13, respectively. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, this information is found on pages 6–9. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 6.2.2 Prognosis in Treatment of Disorders  
  • 6.2.3 Comorbidities of Eating Disorders  
  • 6.3 Sleep Disorders  
  • 6.3.1 Insomnia  
    • Web Media: University of Maryland Medical Center: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Steven Scharf on “Sleep and Insomnia: Part I and Part II”

      Link: University of Maryland Medical Center: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Steven Scharf on “Sleep and Insomnia: Part I and Part II” (YouTube)
       
      Instructions: Select the videos titled “Sleep and Insomnia” from the playlist, and watch Part I and Part II. In these videos, Ellen Beth Levitt interviews Dr. Steven Scharf and discusses the sleep disorder of insomnia. These videos will cover the topics outlined in subunits 6.3.1.1–6.3.1.3, 6.3.2.1, 6.4.1–6.4.3, as well as any inclusive subunits.

      Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 6.3.1.1 Circadian Rhythms  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. For information on circadian rhythms focus on the first “Sleep and Insomnia” interview (14:37 minutes). In this video, Dr. Scharf also gives strategies of how to get acclimated to your circadian rhythm, especially if you have a schedule (i.e., working a night shift or having a job that lends itself to sleep deprivation) that is in opposition to your natural circadian rhythm. To cover the topics outlined in subunits 6.3.1.1 through 6.3.1.3, review the first 15 minutes of the first interview. 

  • 6.3.1.2 Stages of Sleep  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. Focus on Part I of the lecture for a discussion on stages of sleep. 

  • 6.3.1.3 REM Sleep  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. Focus on Part I of the lecture for a discussion on REM sleep. 

  • 6.3.2 Dyssomnias: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 6.3.2.1 Primary Insomnia  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. For a definition of and discussion on insomnia, make sure to focus on Part II of the interview, titled “Sleep and Insomnia” (12 minutes). Dr. Scharf also discusses treatments of insomnia, which is covered further in subunit 6.4. Take approximately 15 minutes to review Part II of the interview. 

  • 6.3.2.2 Primary Hypersomnia  
    • Reading: Primary Hypersomnia

         

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.2.3 Narcolepsy  
    • Reading: Narcolepsy

           

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.2.4 Breathing-Related Disorder  
    • Reading: Breathing-Related Disorder

           

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.2.5 Circadian Rhythm Disorder  
    • Reading: Circadian Rhythm Disorder

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.3 Parasomnias: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 6.3.3.1 Nightmare Disorder  
    • Reading: Nightmare Disorder

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.3.2 Sleep Terror Disorder  
    • Reading: Sleep Terror Disorder

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.3.3.3 Sleepwalking Disorder  
    • Reading: Sleepwalking Disorder

           

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 6.4 Treatment  
  • 6.4.1 Cognitive/Behavioral Recommendations  
  • 6.4.2 Relaxation Exercises  
    • Web Media: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Relaxation Techniques”

      Link: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Relaxation Techniques” (HTML and WMA Audio)
       
      Instructions: Read about various relaxation techniques, and click on the hyperlinks to listen to one of the audio tapes associated with the listed relaxation techniques. This will help you understand the nature and practice of using relaxation techniques, a common recommendation for dealing with sleep issues.

      Studying this reading and exploring the audio of one relaxation technique should take approximately 15 minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • 6.4.3 Drug Treatment  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. In particular, focus on the end of Part II of the interview, titled “Sleep and Insomnia,” in which Dr. Scharf discusses various treatments for insomnia including drug therapy. 

  • Unit 7: Mood Disorders  

    Depression has been described as the common cold of psychological disorders. Although this metaphor accurately captures the fact that depression is the most cited reason for clinical treatment, it downplays the very real and far-reaching detrimental impact that depression has on those diagnosed, family and friends of those diagnosed, and society as a whole. Mood disorders are one of the leading causes of suicide in the United States—a phenomena which has a large negative impact on society and its members. In this unit, we will study the major types of mood disorders including depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and cyclothymia. We will learn which characteristics are common to all mood disorders and then more about the specific symptoms and treatments associated with each type of mood disorder. Finally, we will learn about the phenomenon of suicide. In this section, we will learn more about the factors associated with an increased risk of suicide and what research findings say about predicting and preventing suicide. Finally, we will be provided with recommendations for how to help a friend, colleague, or family member when he/she has expressed suicidal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.

    Unit 7 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 7 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 7.1 An Introduction to Mood Disorders  
  • 7.1.1 Depressive Episodes  
  • 7.1.2 Manic Episodes  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 covers this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 3: Manic Episode.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 7.1.3 Hypomanic Episodes  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 5: Hypomanic Episodes.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the text below the heading “Hypomanic Episode” on page 5. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.2 Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology  
  • 7.2.1 Major Depressive Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 6: Major Depressive Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 6–10 of Chapter 8. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.2.2 Dysthymia  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 7: Dysthymic Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 11 and 12 of Chapter 8. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.2.3 Bipolar I and II Mood Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 and Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 9: Bipolar I Disorder” and “Section 10: Bipolar II Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 6–10 of Chapter 9. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.2.4 Cyclothymia  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 and Dr. Pridmore’s reading (Chapter 8, pages 10 and 11) assigned below subunit 7.1.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 11: Cyclothymic Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 10 and 11 of Chapter 8. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.3 Patterns and Descriptors by Course  
  • 7.3.1 Recurrent  
    • Reading: Recurrent

           

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 7.3.2 Seasonal  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 7.1 covers this topic. In particular, focus on the part of the lecture that begins at 15:34 and runs through 22:21. To cover the topics in subunits 7.3.2 and 7.3.3, take approximately 15 minutes to review this part of the lecture.

  • 7.3.3 Postpartum  

    Note: Dr. Dana Leighton’s lecture assigned below subunit 7.1 covers this topic. In particular, focus on the part of the lecture that begins at 15:34 and runs through 22:21.

  • 7.3.4 Rapid Cycling  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1 as well as Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 7.1.2 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, rapid cycling is addressed for several disorders; rapid cycling is under review in consideration of eliminating or modifying it. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, see page 6 of Chapter 9. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 7.4 Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives on Treatment for Mood Disorders  
  • 7.4.1 Psychodynamic  
    • Reading: Psychodynamic

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 7.4.2 Cognitive and Behavioral  
    • Reading: Cognitive and Behavioral

          

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 7.4.3 Biological and Genetic Contributors  
  • 7.4.4 Seligman’s Theory of Learned Helplessness  
  • 7.4.5 Social Psychology: Theory on Attribution Styles  
  • 7.5 Suicide  
  • 7.5.1 Suicide Statistics  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. For statistics and data on suicide, focus on the section titled “Prevailing Psychiatric View,” starting on page 2 of Chapter 31. There is further information on the rates of suicide on pages 12 and 13. To address subunits 7.5.1 through 7.5.6, take approximately 15 minutes to review pages 2–13.

  • 7.5.2 History of Suicide  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Chapter 31 covers a brief overview of the history of suicide in the section titled “From Possession to Psychiatry” on pages 3 and 4.

  • 7.5.3 Acute and Chronic Risk  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “Acute and Chronic Risk” on pages 4 and 5 of Chapter 31. 

  • 7.5.4 Factors Contributing to Increased Risk of Suicide  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. The beginning of this chapter includes a caution up for debate about whether or not mental disorders are related to suicide. Information on how genetics contribute to suicide risk may be found on page 3 of Chapter 31. 

  • 7.5.4.1 Distress  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “Distress” on pages 5–9 of Chapter 31. 

  • 7.5.4.2 Sociological Model  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Information on the sociological model appears on page 7 of Chapter 31. 

  • 7.5.5 Prediction and Prevention  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “Prediction and Prevention” on pages 9–13.

  • 7.5.6 Recommendations for Helping Suicidal Persons  

    Note: The reading assigned beneath subunit 7.5 covers this topic. There is information on the benefits of hospitalization on pages 10 and 11 of Chapter 31. 

  • Unit 7 Assessment  
  • Unit 8: Schizophrenia  

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and debilitating mental disease. It can lead to sustained hallucinations and delusions, among other symptoms, ultimately causing an individual to lose touch with reality. Although the stigma and ignorance surrounding schizophrenia has lessened over the years, many misconceptions still exist. In this unit, we will learn about how schizophrenia has been treated and conceptualized throughout history. We will also study hard facts about the prevalence, diagnostic and prognostic picture, and treatment of various forms of schizophrenia. Lastly, we will examine the most up-to-date research on schizophrenia and the advancements being made in psychotropic and psychosocial treatment of this disorder.  

    Unit 8 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 8 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 8.1 Introduction to Schizophrenia: Statistics, Prevalence, and Demographics  

    Note: The readings assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. In particular, for the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the first page for some introductory information and statistics about schizophrenia. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on “Section 1: Introduction to the Psychotic Disorders.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 8.2 Overview of Diagnostic Criteria  
  • 8.2.1 Definitional Issues  

    Note: The National Institute for Mental Health reading and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on the section titled “What Is Schizophrenia?” on page 1. For subunits 8.2.1 through 8.2.5, take approximately 1 hour to review pages 1–4 of the National Institute for Mental Health reading as well as Sections 1–4 and 16.

  • 8.2.2 Positive versus Negative Symptoms  

    Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on positive symptoms and negative symptoms on pages 2 and 3. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the brief definitions of positive and negative symptoms under “Section 1: Introduction to the Psychotic Disorders.”

  • 8.2.3 Impact on Functioning  

    Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on “Cognitive Symptoms” on page 4. Also, for Dr. Lack’s reading, review the “Associated Features” section of each disorder.

  • 8.2.4 Subtypes of Schizophrenia  
  • 8.2.4.1 Paranoid Schizophrenia  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 2: Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type.”

  • 8.2.4.2 Catatonic Schizophrenia  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 4: Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type.”

  • 8.2.4.3 Disorganized Schizophrenia  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 3: Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type.”

  • 8.2.4.4 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia  

    Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 16: Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type.”

  • 8.2.5 Other Psychotic Disorders  
  • 8.2.5.1 Schizophreniform  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 9: Schizophreniform Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section. 

  • 8.2.5.2 Schizoaffective  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 5: Schizoaffective Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 8.2.5.3 Delusional Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 7: Delusional Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 8.2.5.4 Shared Psychotic Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 8: Shared Psychotic Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 8.3 Delusions: Definition, Subtypes, and Processes  
  • 8.3.1 Delusions Defined: Categories of Delusions  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the text below the heading “Aim and Definition” on pages 1 and 2. Take approximately 15 minutes to review pages 1 and 2 of the reading to cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.3.1 through 8.3.2.1.

  • 8.3.1.1 Persecutory  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of persecutory delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.1.2 Grandiose  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of grandiose delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.1.3 Erotomanic  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of erotic delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.1.4 Jealous  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of delusions of jealousy in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.1.5 Somatic  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of somatic delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.2 Process of Delusions  
  • 8.3.2.1 Ideas of Reference  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of delusions of reference in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

  • 8.3.2.2 Thought Broadcasting, Thought Insertion, and Thought Withdrawal  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the section on “Delusions” on page 2. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 8.4 Hallucination: Definition and Subtypes  
  • 8.4.1 Hallucinations Defined  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.4 cover this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the “Hallucinations” section on page 2. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the introductory information on page 1. Take less than 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 8.4.2 Types of Hallucinations  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Review the “Hallucinations in Mental Disorders” section on pages 3–6. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 8.4.2.1 Auditory  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Auditory” section on pages 3–5.

  • 8.4.2.2 Visual  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Visual” section on page 5.

  • 8.4.2.3 Olfactory  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Gustatory/Olfactory” section on page 6.

  • 8.4.2.4 Gustatory  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Gustatory/Olfactory” section on page 6.

  • 8.4.2.5 Tactile  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Tactile” section on page 5.

  • 8.5 Formal Thought Disorder  
  • 8.5.1 Formal Thought Disorder Defined  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.5 cover this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the “Thought Disorder” section on page 3. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the introduction on pages 1–4. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

  • 8.5.2 Neologisms and Word Salad  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.5 cover this topic. The National Institute of Mental Health reading addresses neologisms in the “Thought Disorder” section on page 3. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the sections titled “Incoherence” and “Neologism” on pages 10–12. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 8.6 Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia  
  • 8.6.1 Alogia  
    • Reading: Alogia

          

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  • 8.6.2 Affective Flattening  
    • Reading: Affective Flattening

           

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  • 8.6.3 Avolition  
    • Reading: Avolition

          

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  • 8.6.4 Anhedonia  
    • Reading: Anhedonia

          

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  • 8.6.5 Attention Impairment  
    • Reading: Attention Impairment

          

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  • 8.7 Treatment of Schizophrenia  
  • 8.7.1 Medication Treatments  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review “How Is Schizophrenia Treated” on pages 8–11 and “How Can I Help a Person with Schizophrenia?” on page 14. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material.

  • 8.7.1.1 Classes of Drugs  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the heading “Antipsychotic Medications” on pages 8 and 9.

  • 8.7.1.2 Common Side Effects  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the subheading “What Are the Side Effects?” through “How Do Antipsychotics Interact with Other Medications” on pages 9–11.

  • 8.7.1.3 Compliance Issues  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “How Can You Help a Person with Schizophrenia?”

  • 8.7.2 Psychological and Behavioral Interventions  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the discussions of psychosocial treatments in the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the “Psychosocial Treatments” section on pages 11–13. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

  • 8.7.2.1 Types of Interventions  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Note the various types of treatment, including illness management skills, rehabilitation, family education, cognitive behavioral therapy, and self-help groups.

  • 8.7.2.2 Importance of Medication and Psychological Treatments  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Focus on the introduction to the “Psychosocial Treatment” section; note that often psychosocial treatment comes after a patient has been stabilized on antipsychotic medication.

  • 8.7.3 Differential Prognosis  
    • Reading: Differential Prognosis

         

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  • 8.7.4 Predictors of Relapse  
    • Reading: Predictors of Relapse

          

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  • 8.8 Contributing Factors to the Development of Schizophrenia: Research Findings and Conclusions  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For this reading, review the “What Causes Schizophrenia?” section on pages 6–8. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material.

  • 8.8.1 Biological and Genetic Contributors  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the subheading “Genes and Environment” on pages 6 and 7.

  • 8.8.2 Environmental Influences  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. Focus on the text below the subheading “Genes and Environment” on pages 6 and 7.

  • 8.8.3 Brain Chemistry and Structure  

    Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. Focus on the text below the subheading “Different Brain Chemistry and Structure” on pages 7 and 8.

  • Unit 8 Assessment  
  • Unit 9: Dissociative Disorders  

    The name dissociative disorders is fitting for this group of diagnoses, which is characterized by a dissociation from a person’s identity. One of the most dramatic examples of the manifestation of this disconnect occurs in the case of individuals with dissociative identity disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder. With this disorder, a person can assume as many as 25 distinct personalities which may vary across multiple dimensions, including gender, reported occupation, accent, level of extraversion, aggression, and so forth. Although research has not revealed any one theory which fully explains the nature of the disorder, it is likely that these dissociations serve a protective function for the individual with the disorder. In this unit, we will first define dissociative disorders and identify the common characteristics among these disorders. Next, we will learn more about the specific subtypes of the disorder—their prevalence, gender differences in diagnosis, correlates of the disorder, and theories surrounding the etiology of the disorder.  

    Unit 9 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 9 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 9.1 Common Characteristics of Dissociative Disorders  
  • 9.2 Types of Dissociative Disorders  
  • 9.2.1 Dissociative Amnesia Disorder  

    Note: The readings and lecture assigned below subunit 9.1 cover this topic. For the Malhotra et al. reading, focus on the “Introduction.” For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 2: Dissociative Amnesia.” To cover subunits 9.2.1 through 9.2.4, take approximately 30 minutes to review the introduction and Sections 2–5.

  • 9.2.1.1 Continuous  
    • Reading: Continuous

          

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  • 9.2.1.2 Localized  
    • Reading: Localized

           

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  • 9.2.1.3 Selective  
    • Reading: Selective

           

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  • 9.2.1.4 Generalized  
    • Reading: Generalized

           

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  • 9.2.2 Dissociative Fugue Disorder  

    Note: The readings and lecture assigned below subunit 9.1 cover this topic. For the Malhotra et al. reading, focus on the “Introduction.” For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 4: Dissociative Fugue Disorder.”

  • 9.2.3 Dissociative Identity Disorder  

    Note: The readings and lecture assigned below subunit 9.1 cover this topic. For the Malhotra et al. reading, focus on the “Introduction.” For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 5: Dissociative Identity Disorder.”

  • 9.2.3.1 Increase in Prevalence  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 9.1 covers this topic. Focus on the introduction information to “Section 5: Dissociative Identity Disorder.”

  • 9.2.3.2 Gender Differences in Manifestation of Disorder  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 9.1 covers this topic. Focus on the subsection titled “Gender and Cultural Differences in Presentation” under Section 5.

  • 9.2.3.3 Correlates of Disorder  
    • Reading: Correlates of Disorder

           

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  • 9.2.3.4 Reen’s Interpersonal Theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder  
  • 9.2.3.5 Cultural Manifestations of Dissociative States  

    Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below subunit 9.1 covers this topic. Focus on the subsection titled “Gender and Cultural Differences in Presentation” under Section 5.

  • 9.2.4 Depersonalization Disorder  

    Note: The readings and lecture assigned below subunit 9.1 cover this topic. For the Malhotra et al. reading, focus on the “Introduction.” For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 3: Depersonalization Disorder.”

  • Unit 10: Personality Disorders  

    The disorders we have learned about thus far are treatable through both psychotropic medication and psychosocial interventions. These disorders have a distinct course and often involve precipitants that cause symptoms to intensify. They are characterized as “Axis I Disorders,” or major mental disorders known as clinical disorders. In this unit, we will switch gears and discuss a different set of psychological disorders—that of personality disorders—which fall into the “Axis II Disorders” category in the DSM-IV-TR. Although there is some controversy surrounding the distinctions between these disorders and the existence of these disorders, most clinicians agree that there are groups of people who come to treatment with similar profiles or traits. Whether or not these clients present with odd or eccentric behavior; dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; or anxious or fearful behavior, they all seem to share a difficulty with creating and maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. In this unit, we will first learn how to define personality and what is normal versus abnormalin the realm of traits. Next, we will learn about the problematic and controversial aspects of diagnosing individuals with personality disorders. We will also learn about the different ways of being and behaving that characterize a variety of personality disorders. Finally, we will turn our attention to the research on personality disorders and the treatment recommendations and prognosis of such disorders.  

    Unit 10 Time Advisory   show close
    Unit 10 Learning Outcomes   show close
  • 10.1 Personality Defined  

    Note: The reading assigned below the Unit 10 introduction covers this topic. In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Personality” on page 2. To cover subunits 10.1.1 through 10.1.3, take approximately 15 minutes to review pages 2–5.

  • 10.1.1 Normal versus Abnormal  

    Note: The reading assigned below the Unit 10 introduction covers this topic. In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Normal versus Abnormal” on page 2. 

  • 10.1.2 Dimensional Model and Assessment Method  

    Note: The reading assigned below the Unit 10 introduction covers this topic. In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Dimensional Model and Assessment Method” on pages 4 and 5.

  • 10.1.3 Categorical Model and Assessment Method  

    Note: The reading assigned below the Unit 10 introduction covers this topic. In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Categorical Model and Assessment Method” on page 5.

  • 10.2 Introduction to Personality Disorders  
  • 10.2.1 Common Characteristics  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. In particular, review the first section titled “Basic Concept of a Personality Disorder” through “DSM-V Changes.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

  • 10.2.2 Controversial and Problematic Areas of Diagnosis  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the section titled “Diagnostic Dilemmas in Classifying Personality Disorders.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section. 

  • 10.3 Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Disorders (a.k.a Schizophrenia Spectrum)  
  • 10.3.1 Paranoid  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the sections titled “Cluster A” and “Paranoid Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections.

  • 10.3.2 Schizoid  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the sections titled “Cluster A” and Schizoid Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections.

  • 10.3.3 Schizotypal  

    Note: The readings assigned below subunit 10.2 cover this topic. Review the sections titled “Cluster A” and “Schizotypal Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections.

  • 10.3.4 Goals of Treatment  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal disorders. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections.

  • 10.4 Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Disorders  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the section titled “Cluster B.”

  • 10.4.1 Antisocial  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the sections titled “Cluster B” and “Antisocial Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections. 

  • 10.4.2 Borderline  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the section titled “Borderline Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 10.4.3 Histrionic  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the section titled “Histrionic Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 10.4.4 Narcissistic  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. Review the section titled “Narcissistic Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 10.5 Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Disorders  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. In particular, focus on the text below the section “Cluster C” toward the beginning of the reading. 

  • 10.5.1 Avoidant  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. In particular, review the sections titled “Cluster C” and “Avoidant Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these sections. 

  • 10.5.2 Dependent  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. In particular, review the section titled “Dependent Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 10.5.3 Obsessive-Compulsive  

    Note: The reading assigned below subunit 10.2 covers this topic. In particular, review the section titled “Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

  • 10.6 Treatment of Personality Disorders  
  • 10.6.1 Recommendations for Treatment of Personality Disorders  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 10.6 covers this topic.

  • 10.6.2 Prognosis of Treatment for Personality Disorders  

    Note: The web media assigned below subunit 10.6 covers this topic. 

  • Final Exam